Study sets matching "protein metabolism"

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Study sets matching "protein metabolism"

Metabolism - Protein
4 steps to control protein metabolism
Reaction catalyzed by GLUTAMATE DEHYDR…
Reaction catalyzed by TRANSAMINASE
Reaction catalyzed by GLUTAMINE SYNTHE…
1. TRANSAMINASE directionality - substrate depenendet - regul…
Glutamate → α-KG + NH4
α-KG + AA → Glutamate + α-ketoacid... A CONTROL POINT REACTION…
Glutamate + NH4 --> Glutamine ... A CONTROL POINT REACTION OF P…
4 steps to control protein metabolism
1. TRANSAMINASE directionality - substrate depenendet - regul…
Reaction catalyzed by GLUTAMATE DEHYDR…
Glutamate → α-KG + NH4
22 terms
Protein Metabolism
digestion/absorption of AAs
fed state AAs
fast state AAs
Alanine
AA produced through proteolytic enzymes in the stomach and in…
come from gut and excess converted to glucose or TG for fast…
muscle protein cleaved to amino acids
key gluconeogenic amino acid and allows skeletal muscle to el…
digestion/absorption of AAs
AA produced through proteolytic enzymes in the stomach and in…
fed state AAs
come from gut and excess converted to glucose or TG for fast…
74 terms
Protein metabolism
Amino acids are the building blocks of
Amino acid roles
N2
Nitrogen fixation
proteins
- protein monomeric units ... - energy metabolites... - precursors…
- major form of nitrogen in the atmosphere... - extreme stable t…
- process of concerting nitrogen to metabolically useful 'fix…
Amino acids are the building blocks of
proteins
Amino acid roles
- protein monomeric units ... - energy metabolites... - precursors…
47 terms
Protein metabolism
what are the essential AA?
what are the non-essential AA?
what does conditionally essential mean
where does pepsin cleave?
his isometric leg lyfts met failure three tries valiant
alanine, asparagine, aspartate, glutamate, serine
AA that your body doesn't produce efficiently or at all in ce…
Tyr, Trp and Phe
what are the essential AA?
his isometric leg lyfts met failure three tries valiant
what are the non-essential AA?
alanine, asparagine, aspartate, glutamate, serine
15 terms
protein metabolism
Protein Metabolism
once a protein is is broken down it ca…
what happens to excess amino acids?
Fate of proteins
-proteins broken down into amino acids... -proteins are NOT ware…
-Amino acids are either oxidized to produce ATP, or used to s…
-are not excreted in the urine or feces; instead are converte…
-active transport of amino acids stimulated by insulinlike gr…
Protein Metabolism
-proteins broken down into amino acids... -proteins are NOT ware…
once a protein is is broken down it ca…
-Amino acids are either oxidized to produce ATP, or used to s…
140 terms
Protein Metabolism
Intro to Protein Metabolism
amino acid
amino acid derivatives
Essential AA
...
protein: structure, body tissue, transporter, membrane protei…
AA derivatives: purine/pyrimidine, creatine, porphyrins/heme,…
P phenylalanine... V valine... T tryptophan... T threonine... I isoleuci…
Intro to Protein Metabolism
...
amino acid
protein: structure, body tissue, transporter, membrane protei…
48 terms
Protein Metabolism
hydrolyzed... absorbed
1. Intact dietary protein... 2. Amino aci…
Intact dietary protein
Amino acids in intestinal lumen
Individual amino acids which are basic units required in meta…
The conversion of dietary protein into tissue protein or prod…
hydrolyzed in the GI tract (catabolism)
absorption from the GI tract
hydrolyzed... absorbed
Individual amino acids which are basic units required in meta…
1. Intact dietary protein... 2. Amino aci…
The conversion of dietary protein into tissue protein or prod…
33 terms
Protein metabolism
3 types of proteins amino acids can be…
catabolism of amino acids leads to
possible fates of carbon skeleton (a-k…
Amino acid
structural, regulatory, transport
carbon skeleton and ammonia
non-essential amino acids, pyruvate, acetyl coa, CO2, H2O, en…
amine and carboxylic acid functional groups
3 types of proteins amino acids can be…
structural, regulatory, transport
catabolism of amino acids leads to
carbon skeleton and ammonia
18 terms
Protein metabolism
Ubiquitin activating enzyme
Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme
Ubiquitin ligase
20S catalytic core
Enzyme that uses ATP to adenylate Ubiquitin and transfers the…
Enzyme that takes activated ubiquitin and transfers it to one…
Enzyme that transfers the active ubiquitin to a lysine residu…
... is the catalytic middle of the Proteasome
Ubiquitin activating enzyme
Enzyme that uses ATP to adenylate Ubiquitin and transfers the…
Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme
Enzyme that takes activated ubiquitin and transfers it to one…
27 terms
Protein Metabolism
Amino Acid
Amino Acid structure at low pH
Amino Acid structure at Physiologic pH
Amino Acid structure at high pH
amino group (H2N) and carboxy group attached at the same alph…
Positively charged, amino and carboxy group have all of their…
COOH donates its proton first and becomes negative... amino aci…
Eventually H3N+ donates its proton and becomes neutral, carbo…
Amino Acid
amino group (H2N) and carboxy group attached at the same alph…
Amino Acid structure at low pH
Positively charged, amino and carboxy group have all of their…
Protein metabolism
Protein
Deamination
Essential amino acids
Complete protein
Chain of amino acids.
Removal of an amino group (NH2) from am amino acid. Forms amm…
Amino acids that are required by the body but not made by the…
Protein that has an adequate amount of all 9 essential amino…
Protein
Chain of amino acids.
Deamination
Removal of an amino group (NH2) from am amino acid. Forms amm…
76 terms
Protein metabolism
What are intracellular proteins degrad…
What are amino acids degraded into?
What are carbon skeletons degraded into?
What is NH4 degraded into?
Amino Acids
NH4 and carbon skeletons
A-keto acids
Carbamoyl phosphate.
What are intracellular proteins degrad…
Amino Acids
What are amino acids degraded into?
NH4 and carbon skeletons
61 terms
Protein Metabolism
NH3(ammonia) + H+ (<9.3pka>) NH4+ (amm…
What has more nitrogen available?
Is widespread among plants and microor…
Limits growth for most organisms?
...
N2... However far fewer organisms can synthesize NH3(ammonia) f…
NO3- poor.
Nitrogen Availability
NH3(ammonia) + H+ (<9.3pka>) NH4+ (amm…
...
What has more nitrogen available?
N2... However far fewer organisms can synthesize NH3(ammonia) f…
57 terms
Protein Metabolism
Bacteria can hydrolyze many types of
Why does bacteria hydrolyze protein?
Amino acids resulting from polypeptide…
The ability of some bacteria to digest…
Protein
amino acids which can be used as a carbon source when carbohy…
anabolic reactions
Gelatin
Bacteria can hydrolyze many types of
Protein
Why does bacteria hydrolyze protein?
amino acids which can be used as a carbon source when carbohy…
18 terms
Protein metabolism
Sources of amino acids
Essential amino acids
once in the body...
Ubiquitin
- Degredation of cellular proteins... - Dietary protein
must be ingested- can't be made in the body
- denatured in the stomach... - broken down into single aas, Di…
A 78 amino acid protein which marks proteins for destruction
Sources of amino acids
- Degredation of cellular proteins... - Dietary protein
Essential amino acids
must be ingested- can't be made in the body
41 terms
Protein Metabolism
amino acids
proteins
oxidize to produce ATP
synthesize new proteins (for growth an…
during digestion, proteins are broken down into these
unlike carbs and lipids, are not stored for future use
amino acids during digestion ... (1/2)
amino acids during digestion are ... (2/2)
amino acids
during digestion, proteins are broken down into these
proteins
unlike carbs and lipids, are not stored for future use
13 terms
Protein Metabolism
Urea Cycle Steps
Protein Enzymes
How are Ammonium ions formed in liver.
What is the process of protein Digestion
1. Carbomyl Phosphate Transfer to Ornithine... 2. Citrulline rea…
Trypsin... Chymotrypsin... Carboxypeptidase... Aminopeptidase
Oxidative deamination of glutamate plus NAD plus H20 produce…
1. Protein enters the mouth and then the stomach where HCL de…
Urea Cycle Steps
1. Carbomyl Phosphate Transfer to Ornithine... 2. Citrulline rea…
Protein Enzymes
Trypsin... Chymotrypsin... Carboxypeptidase... Aminopeptidase
15 terms
Protein Metabolism
Where does the amino acid pool come fr…
What are the general fates of the carb…
What are the general fates of the amin…
What are the two reactions required to…
everywhere'... -ingesting and digesting protein... -dead and ding c…
ketogenic (converted into acetyl ScoA and acetoacetyl- SCoA,…
TRANSAMINATION (take off amino group put in to ,are L-Glutama…
Transamination and oxidative deamination
Where does the amino acid pool come fr…
everywhere'... -ingesting and digesting protein... -dead and ding c…
What are the general fates of the carb…
ketogenic (converted into acetyl ScoA and acetoacetyl- SCoA,…
PROTEIN METABOLISM
how many amino acids are used in the b…
what are essential amino acids?
what are the 2 reactions involved in a…
what are the enzymes called that carry…
20
amino acids not synthesised by the body that are required in…
1. transamination - transfer of an amino group from an amino…
transaminases
how many amino acids are used in the b…
20
what are essential amino acids?
amino acids not synthesised by the body that are required in…
11 terms
protein metabolism
essential amino acids (4 major)
glutamate role in AA metabolism
where does leucine enter TCA cycle?
where does glutamine enter TCA cycle?
leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine
provides intermediates. pyruvate + glutamate --> alanine + al…
via conversion to acetylcoA (during exercise)
conversion to glutamate and then alpha ketoglutarate
essential amino acids (4 major)
leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine
glutamate role in AA metabolism
provides intermediates. pyruvate + glutamate --> alanine + al…
75 terms
Dietary Proteins - Protein Metabolism
*Amino Acid (AA) pool
Input sources to AA pool
Output pathways of AA pool
Nitrogen (N) balance
Free AA inside the body - about 90-100 g (AAs are NOT stored…
-AA from dietary protein (particularly essential AA) 100 g/da…
-Synthesis of body protein... -Synthesis essential N-containing…
-Determined by the difference between amount of protein (ie N…
*Amino Acid (AA) pool
Free AA inside the body - about 90-100 g (AAs are NOT stored…
Input sources to AA pool
-AA from dietary protein (particularly essential AA) 100 g/da…
Protein Metabolism
About proteins
Proteins are made up of:
Classification of Amino Acids
1. Structure
-Proteins are unbranched chains of amino acids... -Each kind of…
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen... -Nitrogen is what dist…
1. Structure... 2. Essentiality... 3. Net charge... 4. Polarity... 5. Fat…
Central carbon... 1 amino group... 1 carboxyl group... Side chain (R g…
About proteins
-Proteins are unbranched chains of amino acids... -Each kind of…
Proteins are made up of:
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen... -Nitrogen is what dist…
88 terms
Protein Metabolism
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases... adapter
cytosolic
non-overlapping
5' ->3'... reading frame
Amino acids are activated for synthesis by attachment to tRNA…
Most ribosomes are attached to the ____ face of endoplasmic r…
A four-letter code (AUGC) in groups of three IS sufficient (6…
the code is written in the ___ -> ___ direction ... The first co…
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases... adapter
Amino acids are activated for synthesis by attachment to tRNA…
cytosolic
Most ribosomes are attached to the ____ face of endoplasmic r…
29 terms
protein metabolism
Protein digestion (denaturation and hy…
Small Intestine
intestinal lining
amino acid utilization:... Amino Acid Pool
Stomach:... Gastrin Hormone: Released due to dietary protein in…
Large polypeptide chains pass from stomach into small intesti…
Free Amino Acids... transported into blood stream via active tra…
the total supply of free amino acids available for use in the…
Protein digestion (denaturation and hy…
Stomach:... Gastrin Hormone: Released due to dietary protein in…
Small Intestine
Large polypeptide chains pass from stomach into small intesti…
Protein metabolism
16%
Amphoteric
Cysteine and taurine in premature babi…
10-35% kcal
What percent of protein is from nitrogen?
Has both a positive and negative charge
What are examples of normally nonessential AA that become ess…
AMDR for protein
16%
What percent of protein is from nitrogen?
Amphoteric
Has both a positive and negative charge
112 terms
Protein Metabolism
protein
soybean meal
proteins
composition of proteins
the most expensive nutrient in livestock production
44 (more fiber and less protein) and 49 (less fiber and more…
made up of CHONS, all animals require N, higher requirements…
52% carbon, 23% oxygen, 16% nitrogen, 7% hydrogen, 2% sulfur
protein
the most expensive nutrient in livestock production
soybean meal
44 (more fiber and less protein) and 49 (less fiber and more…
11 terms
Protein Metabolism
Describe pathways involved in protein…
Describe transanimation, enzymes and c…
Explain differences between glucogenic…
Explain process of gluconeogenesis fro…
Alanine -> alpha keto gluteratae - transanimase -> pyruvate +…
Transaminase... NADH's
- Glucogenic AA- one whose carbon skeleton is degraded to pyr…
AA-> catabolised -> carbon skeleton -> pyruvate -> acetyl coA…
Describe pathways involved in protein…
Alanine -> alpha keto gluteratae - transanimase -> pyruvate +…
Describe transanimation, enzymes and c…
Transaminase... NADH's
Protein Metabolism
Glutamate dehydrogenase
Glutamate synthase
Glutaminase
Transaminase
Removal of ammonia from circulation or provides ammonia... Ammon…
Detoxify chemicals which can be toxic to the CNS... Glutamate +…
Used to eliminate excess amino acids to create urea for excre…
Breakdown specific AAs, produces a ketoacid and AA (with diff…
Glutamate dehydrogenase
Removal of ammonia from circulation or provides ammonia... Ammon…
Glutamate synthase
Detoxify chemicals which can be toxic to the CNS... Glutamate +…
Protein Metabolism
translation
reading frame
codon
initiation codon
轉譯
讀序框(第一個
密碼子
起始密碼子(AUG,Met
translation
轉譯
reading frame
讀序框(第一個
51 terms
Protein Metabolism
Normal recycling of cellular proteins…
Enteropeptidase
Carboxypeptidase
Aminopeptidase
Oxidative degradation under 3 different situation for Amino A…
Produced by duodenum... Trypsinogen into trypsin
cleaves the carbon -AA
Cleave the amino terminal of peptide
Normal recycling of cellular proteins…
Oxidative degradation under 3 different situation for Amino A…
Enteropeptidase
Produced by duodenum... Trypsinogen into trypsin
Protein Metabolism
protein metabolism
conversion of dietary protein into tis…
digestion
endopeptidase
individual amino acids which are basic units required in meta…
1. intact dietary protein - hydrolyzed in the GI tract (catab…
hydrolysis of dietary proteins is accomplished through proteo…
cleaves the peptide bond WITHIN the chain
protein metabolism
individual amino acids which are basic units required in meta…
conversion of dietary protein into tis…
1. intact dietary protein - hydrolyzed in the GI tract (catab…
Protein Metabolism
know which aa are essential, which are…
conditionally essential aa
basic structure aa
The fates of proteins
...
for certain periods of time, they are conditional aa
amine group, carbon, side chain (can ave aromatic groups, car…
1) used as the bullding blocks of intracellular proteins... 2) u…
know which aa are essential, which are…
...
conditionally essential aa
for certain periods of time, they are conditional aa
10 terms
Protein metabolism
Fate of amino acid pool
What are amino acid pool broken down to?
Carbon Skeleton products (3)
Transamination
form new proteins or broken down
-amino group is incorporated into urea and excreted or used t…
Fats via FA biosynthesis ... Ketone bodies via ketogenesis ... Gluc…
the purpose is to get the amino group from an amino acid to g…
Fate of amino acid pool
form new proteins or broken down
What are amino acid pool broken down to?
-amino group is incorporated into urea and excreted or used t…
Protein Metabolism
forms of dietary proteins
complete proteins
incomplete proteins
Amino acid pools fed by
complete and incomplete proteins
contains ALL OF THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID, ANIMAL PRODUCTS AND…
lacking ONE OR MORE OF THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS, PLANT PROTE…
the proteins you eat (ingested proteins), breakdown of body p…
forms of dietary proteins
complete and incomplete proteins
complete proteins
contains ALL OF THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID, ANIMAL PRODUCTS AND…
Protein Metabolism
Positive N Balance
Negative N Balance
Metabolic Acidosis
albumin
Less N in Urine than consumed
More N in Urine than consumed
Ketone bodies accumulate during starvation results in increas…
-Primary component used to maintain oncotic pressure.... -transp…
Positive N Balance
Less N in Urine than consumed
Negative N Balance
More N in Urine than consumed
42 terms
Protein metabolism
Pools of amino acids
protein loss
Skeletal muscle
Excess AA
Rebuild protein stores in body... Constantly being turned over... -…
Oxidized as fuel... Thru sweat... Thru urine & elimination
Biggest pool of protein storage
Converted to glucose, TG, excreted in urine... -no AA reserve in…
Pools of amino acids
Rebuild protein stores in body... Constantly being turned over... -…
protein loss
Oxidized as fuel... Thru sweat... Thru urine & elimination
26 terms
Protein metabolism
Proteases
Peptidase
Peptides
Mouth
Enzymes that hydrolyze proteins
A digestive enzymes that hydrolyses peptides bonds
Chemical linkage between the amino group of one amino acid an…
The mechanical breaking up of protein foods only occurs by ch…
Proteases
Enzymes that hydrolyze proteins
Peptidase
A digestive enzymes that hydrolyses peptides bonds
33 terms
protein metabolism
stomach
HCL... hydrochloric acid
pepsin
small intestine
Gastrin Hormone: Released due to dietary protein in stomach... -…
in stomach has 3 functions:... -denatures protein exposing pept…
hydrolyzes about 10% peptide bonds
Large polypeptide chains pass from stomach into small intesti…
stomach
Gastrin Hormone: Released due to dietary protein in stomach... -…
HCL... hydrochloric acid
in stomach has 3 functions:... -denatures protein exposing pept…
10 terms
Protein Metabolism
Amino Acid Pool
Amino Group
Carbon Atoms
transamination
Free amino acids from ingestion and old proteins
incorporated into urea and excreted or used to form new nitro…
Converted to compounds that can enter the citric acid cycle
takes off the amine group, converts Amino Acid to L-Glutamate
Amino Acid Pool
Free amino acids from ingestion and old proteins
Amino Group
incorporated into urea and excreted or used to form new nitro…
Protein Metabolism
Protein metabolism
materials in the stomach assisting in…
gastrin hormone
what does gastrin promote?
stomach->small intestine->intestinal lining
gastrin hormone, HCl, pepsin
released due to dietary protein in stomach
secretion of pepsinogen and HCl
Protein metabolism
stomach->small intestine->intestinal lining
materials in the stomach assisting in…
gastrin hormone, HCl, pepsin
29 terms
Protein Metabolism
Why are essential amino acids essential?
Essential amino acids ... (PVT Tim Hall)
Conditionally essential amino acids
What are ketogenic amino acids
• Essential amino acids cannot be synthesised in the body and…
Phenylalanine... Valine ... Tryptophan... Threonine... Isoleucine... Methion…
Glutamine... Histidine... Glycine... Arginine
Ketogenic amino acids can be degraded directly into acetyl CoA
Why are essential amino acids essential?
• Essential amino acids cannot be synthesised in the body and…
Essential amino acids ... (PVT Tim Hall)
Phenylalanine... Valine ... Tryptophan... Threonine... Isoleucine... Methion…
103 terms
Protein Metabolism
Each tRNA is charged with one of 20 co…
What is a large macromolecular assembl…
Protein synthesis requires a dozen or…
What does the genetic code for protein…
aminoacyl tRNA synthetases
ribosome
initiation, elongation, & termination of translation.
triplets of nucleotides
Each tRNA is charged with one of 20 co…
aminoacyl tRNA synthetases
What is a large macromolecular assembl…
ribosome
7 terms
Protein metabolism
Mouth
stomach
Lumen
brush border
none
gastric pepsin breaks down protein chains into amino acids, a…
enzymes from the pancreas are secreted here and break peptide…
partially digest peptides further digested by peptidases in m…
Mouth
none
stomach
gastric pepsin breaks down protein chains into amino acids, a…
21 terms
Protein Metabolism
Molecular Structure of an Amino Acid
Peptide Bond
Protein Oxidation - 3 Situations
Deamination and Transaminiation
Carboxyl Group and Amino Group attached at the Alpha-Carbon.
A link between one AA's Carboxyl Group and another AA's Amino…
1.) Starvation... 2.) Prolonged Exercise... 3.) Untreated Diabetes
Removal of Amine Group from an AA.... Deamination happens in th…
Molecular Structure of an Amino Acid
Carboxyl Group and Amino Group attached at the Alpha-Carbon.
Peptide Bond
A link between one AA's Carboxyl Group and another AA's Amino…
6 terms
Protein Metabolism
protein anabolism
protein catabolism
protein storage
protein breakdown process
-aka formation... -occurs primarily during fed state... -associated…
-aka breakdown... -occurs primarily during fasting state... -associ…
-proteins are constantly being synthesized and degraded... -asid…
-begins w/ hydrolysis of aa chains in the small intestine... -tr…
protein anabolism
-aka formation... -occurs primarily during fed state... -associated…
protein catabolism
-aka breakdown... -occurs primarily during fasting state... -associ…
9 terms
Protein Metabolism
Proteins through ingestion and old pro…
Ketogenic, glucogenic
Either incorporated into urea and excr…
Transamination, oxidative deamination
Where does the amino acid pool come from?
General fates of the carbon atom from amino acid catabolism
General fates of the amino group from amino acid catabolism
Two reactions required to extract the amino group from an ami…
Proteins through ingestion and old pro…
Where does the amino acid pool come from?
Ketogenic, glucogenic
General fates of the carbon atom from amino acid catabolism
Protein Metabolism
What is a codon?
What is a reading frame?
What defines amino acid sequence of th…
What alters the sequence of triplets?
Triplet of nucleotides the codes for a specific amino acid
Specified by first codon in sequence
Linear sequence of contiguous triplets
Inserting or deleting nucleotides
What is a codon?
Triplet of nucleotides the codes for a specific amino acid
What is a reading frame?
Specified by first codon in sequence
Protein Metabolism
Amino Acid Metabolism and Energy Balan…
Amino Acid Catabolism
Fate of Nitrogen and carbon
Intestinal Cell Amino Acid Use
1.AA used for:... •Bioenergetics... •Protein synthesis... •N-containin…
1. Deamination (lyases, dehydratases, and dehydrogenases)... • A…
1. Carbon skeleton (a-keto acid)... •Krebs cycle... •Gluconeogenesi…
1. Most dietary AAs--> portal blood unchanged... 2.Exceptions... •…
Amino Acid Metabolism and Energy Balan…
1.AA used for:... •Bioenergetics... •Protein synthesis... •N-containin…
Amino Acid Catabolism
1. Deamination (lyases, dehydratases, and dehydrogenases)... • A…
23 terms
Protein Metabolism
Essential Amino Acids
Amino Acids are transported from the _…
The 3 stages of nitrogen catabolism are:
Transfer of an amino group to a keto a…
Phenylalanine Valine Tryptophan Threonine Isoleucine Methioni…
small intestine, liver, body
transamination, deamination, urea formation
Transamination
Essential Amino Acids
Phenylalanine Valine Tryptophan Threonine Isoleucine Methioni…
Amino Acids are transported from the _…
small intestine, liver, body
20 terms
Protein metabolism
9 essential amino acids
Define an essential amino acid
Describe hydrolysis of dietary proteins
7 carbon skeletons formed from the deg…
His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Val
Amino acid consumed in diet
Proteins hydrolysed in stomach to amino acids and oligopeptid…
Pyruvate, acetyl-CoA. Made by the TCA cycle: acetoacetate, al…
9 essential amino acids
His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Val
Define an essential amino acid
Amino acid consumed in diet
1 of 10