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Study sets matching "proteins chapter 4"

39 terms
HHB chapter 4: Proteins
Amino acids
Polypeptides
Peptide bonds
hydrogen bonds
Subunits used to make proteins
Chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Strong C-H links by which amino acids are joined together in…
Weak O-H links between certain amino which allow polypeptides…
Amino acids
Subunits used to make proteins
Polypeptides
Chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Proteins (Chapter 4)
kinesin
actin
tubulin
catalase enzyme
-motor molecule... -carries vesicles, walks along microtubule... -p…
-thin filament... -found in muscles, cytoskeleton... -make up micro…
-make up microtubule... -dimer (one alpha + one beta) forms cyli…
catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H202) to wa…
kinesin
-motor molecule... -carries vesicles, walks along microtubule... -p…
actin
-thin filament... -found in muscles, cytoskeleton... -make up micro…
24 terms
Chapter 4- Proteins
Proteins
amino acids
Chemical elements that make up protein
peptide bonds
are composed of amino acids
are building blocks and unique chains of specific proteins
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
joins each amino acid
Proteins
are composed of amino acids
amino acids
are building blocks and unique chains of specific proteins
67 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 4: Proteins
What type of conformation do protein m…
What is a native fold?
What does the native fold contain with…
What does the hydrophobic effect do as…
A three-dimensional conformation. This structure is able to f…
A structure that is able to fill a biological function due to…
A large number of favorable interactions within the protein.
Releases molecules of water from the structured salvation lay…
What type of conformation do protein m…
A three-dimensional conformation. This structure is able to f…
What is a native fold?
A structure that is able to fill a biological function due to…
37 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins
Protein structure and function
amino acids
Three noncovalent bonds
Hydrophobic force
Enzymes: catalyze covalent bond breakage and formation... -every…
-come in polar (hydrophilic)... (negative-acid, positive, basic)…
-aid in folding... -hydrogen bonding... -electrostatic bonding (ion…
-repellent force... -some proteins fold inwards to a hydrophobic…
Protein structure and function
Enzymes: catalyze covalent bond breakage and formation... -every…
amino acids
-come in polar (hydrophilic)... (negative-acid, positive, basic)…
43 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins
Amino group, central carbon, carboxyl…
Carboxyl group deprotonated and amino…
Proline
Cysteine
What makes up the general amino acid structure?
At pH of 3.5 what will the general amino acid structure look…
What amino acid group induces kinks in polypeptide sequence?
Which amino acid can form disulfide bonds and form cross-link…
Amino group, central carbon, carboxyl…
What makes up the general amino acid structure?
Carboxyl group deprotonated and amino…
At pH of 3.5 what will the general amino acid structure look…
12 terms
Chapter 4 proteins
Proteins
The function of amino acids
Types of amino acids
Indispensable amino acids
Basic building blocks , composed amino acids made of carbon h…
To breakdown and reassemble
Indispensable and dispensable
Body cannot make in sufficient quantities
Proteins
Basic building blocks , composed amino acids made of carbon h…
The function of amino acids
To breakdown and reassemble
52 terms
Chapter 4 Proteins
Proteins
Peptide Bonds
Amino Acid Sequence
Polypeptide Backbone
Main cellular building blocks, most of cell dry mass.
Covalent bonds hold together amino acids
Unique order of amino acid arrangement, distinct arrangements…
Repeating sequence of the core atoms (n-C-C) found in every a…
Proteins
Main cellular building blocks, most of cell dry mass.
Peptide Bonds
Covalent bonds hold together amino acids
39 terms
Proteins Chapter 4
Proteins
Structural Proteins
Transport Proteins
Workhorses of the cell
Provide mechanical support to cells and tissues
Carry small molecules or ions... eg. hemoglobin, transferrin, al…
Proteins
Workhorses of the cell
Structural Proteins
Provide mechanical support to cells and tissues
14 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins
Proteins
Sources of protein in our diet
Functions of proteins
Structural function of protein
Compunds that contain the elements C (Carbon), H (Hydrogen),…
Meat, fish, seafood, egg whites, peas, nuts soy, seeds, avoca…
Structural, transporters, receptors, pigments, enzymes, antib…
Proteins make up cells, tissues and organs
Proteins
Compunds that contain the elements C (Carbon), H (Hydrogen),…
Sources of protein in our diet
Meat, fish, seafood, egg whites, peas, nuts soy, seeds, avoca…
85 terms
Chapter 4 Proteins
Characteristics of Peptide Bonds
Structure of Proteins
What are 4 types of favorable interact…
Hydrophobic effect
-partial double bond (rigid but flexible)... -polar but not char…
-3D (fulfills are very specific biological function)... -"native…
Hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonds, london dispersion, electr…
release of water molecules from the structured solvation laye…
Characteristics of Peptide Bonds
-partial double bond (rigid but flexible)... -polar but not char…
Structure of Proteins
-3D (fulfills are very specific biological function)... -"native…
31 terms
Chapter 4 proteins
Essential Amino Acids
Conditionally and/or required essentia…
Nonessential amino acids
When you are sick, what happens to ami…
amino acid that the body cannot produce in sufficient amounts…
can become essential if needs are not met
amino acids regularly produced in the body in sufficient amou…
essential and nonessential amino acid needs will change
Essential Amino Acids
amino acid that the body cannot produce in sufficient amounts…
Conditionally and/or required essentia…
can become essential if needs are not met
52 terms
Cell Bio Chapter 4: Proteins
Enzyme
Structural protein
Transport protein
Motor protein
Protein that catalyzes covalent bond breakage or formation
Provides mechanical support to cells and tissues
Carries small molecules or ions
Generates movement in cells and tissues
Enzyme
Protein that catalyzes covalent bond breakage or formation
Structural protein
Provides mechanical support to cells and tissues
18 terms
Chapter 4- DNA, Proteins and proteomes
Amino acid
Anticodon
Antiparallel
Base pairing
Compound that is the building block of polypeptides. The key…
Three bases in a transfer RNA molecule (tRNA) that are comple…
In DNA, meaning that one strand runs 5' --> 3' and the other…
The direct pairing of A and T (purine bases), and G and C (py…
Amino acid
Compound that is the building block of polypeptides. The key…
Anticodon
Three bases in a transfer RNA molecule (tRNA) that are comple…
94 terms
Chapter 4-Proteins
Proteins are the building blocks of wh…
What two things do proteins do?
What is the most major protein found i…
What is albumin and what does it carry?
- the body's tissues and organs
- form muscle, bone, and skin... - do the cells work and are fou…
- albumin
- transport protein that carries nutrients or elements to cells
Proteins are the building blocks of wh…
- the body's tissues and organs
What two things do proteins do?
- form muscle, bone, and skin... - do the cells work and are fou…
31 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum or cytosol
the side chains-non covalent bonds det…
-alpha helices... -beta sheets
prions
Where are proteins made in a cell?
What determines how proteins fold?
2 common folding patterns of proteins
misfolded proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum or cytosol
Where are proteins made in a cell?
the side chains-non covalent bonds det…
What determines how proteins fold?
26 terms
Chapter 4 Proteins
What percentage of kcals should protei…
What is the fundamental structural mat…
Protein is composed of...
What nutrient is used to build WBC's o…
10-35%
Protein
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (makes it unique bc en…
Protein is used to build WBCs
What percentage of kcals should protei…
10-35%
What is the fundamental structural mat…
Protein
105 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins
Proteins are assembled from ___ differ…
A chain of proteins is called?
What bond is found between proteins an…
This can change function and character…
20
Polypeptide chain
peptide bonds
Side chains
Proteins are assembled from ___ differ…
20
A chain of proteins is called?
Polypeptide chain
48 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins
What are examples of transport proteins?
How do enzymes work?
What are molecular chaperones?
What does the primary structure of a p…
albumin, hemoglobin, transferin
Speed up reaction by lowering the activation energy
Proteins that help fold other proteins
The sequence of amino acids
What are examples of transport proteins?
albumin, hemoglobin, transferin
How do enzymes work?
Speed up reaction by lowering the activation energy
50 terms
Cell Bio Chapter 4: Proteins
Anabolism
Catabolism
Condensation
Hydrolysis
Creating macromolecules from monomers with condensation react…
The breakdown of macromolecules into monomers through hydroly…
Joining of two molecules by the emission of a water molecule
Breaking apart two monomers through the addition of a water m…
Anabolism
Creating macromolecules from monomers with condensation react…
Catabolism
The breakdown of macromolecules into monomers through hydroly…
21 terms
CHAPTER 4: DNA, proteins and proteomes
amino acids
anticodon
antiparallel
base pairing
compounds and the building blocks of polypeptides.
refers to three bases in a transfer RNA molecule (tRNA) that…
The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in…
Direct pairing of the bases A with T and G with C in a DNA mo…
amino acids
compounds and the building blocks of polypeptides.
anticodon
refers to three bases in a transfer RNA molecule (tRNA) that…
25 terms
Chapter 4- Proteins
What is a protein? How big are they? S…
What do proteins do?
What is a protein's configuration and…
What happens to a protein when it beco…
A protein is a major macromolecule constituent of cells. Each…
Proteins have many functions including enzymes, structural pr…
Proteins consist of a polypeptide backbone, from repeating se…
Proteins can become denatured by treatment with solvents that…
What is a protein? How big are they? S…
A protein is a major macromolecule constituent of cells. Each…
What do proteins do?
Proteins have many functions including enzymes, structural pr…
44 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins
In a folded protein, the nonpolar (hyd…
What provides the information necessar…
Which hydrogen bonds have been found t…
Why are /alpha helices and /beta sheet…
A
C
D
C... Both of these folding patterns result from hydrogen bonds t…
In a folded protein, the nonpolar (hyd…
A
What provides the information necessar…
C
14 terms
Chapter 4 Motor Proteins
head, hinge, tail
atp
flagella
cilia
the parts of a motor protein
motor proteins have ___ powered movement
longer, single or in pairs
shorter, cover a lot of the cell surface
head, hinge, tail
the parts of a motor protein
atp
motor proteins have ___ powered movement
10 terms
Nutrition Chapter 4 Proteins
Indispensable amino acids
Dispensable amino acids
Conditionally indispensable amino acids
Proenzyme
The nine amino acids that must be obtained from the diet beca…
The five amino acids that the body can synthesize from other…
The six amino acids that are normally considered dispensable…
An inactive precursor ( ie, a forerunner substance from which…
Indispensable amino acids
The nine amino acids that must be obtained from the diet beca…
Dispensable amino acids
The five amino acids that the body can synthesize from other…
31 terms
chapter 4 biochem: proteins
the amide (O=C-N) bond between two ami…
Formed by condensation of the alpha-__…
peptide bonds link amino acids in _____
Peptide bonds can connect multiple ami…
peptide bond
carboxyl (COOH), amino (NH2)
proteins
amino acid polymer
the amide (O=C-N) bond between two ami…
peptide bond
Formed by condensation of the alpha-__…
carboxyl (COOH), amino (NH2)
52 terms
Chapter 4 membrane associated proteins
3 types of membrane proteins
after removed from its anchor, the per…
after its leash is broken, a GPI-linke…
two ways electrons enter the electron…
integral proteins, peripheral protein, GPI-linked protein
a soluble protein
a soluble protein
from NADH to Complex I to CoQ or from succinate to Complex II…
3 types of membrane proteins
integral proteins, peripheral protein, GPI-linked protein
after removed from its anchor, the per…
a soluble protein
15 terms
chapter 4 proteins
A person consuming a chopped salad con…
If a person has difficulty purchasing…
The element that proteins contain and…
How much protein would a person receiv…
28
c. Macaroni and cheese casserole
c. Nitrogen
c. 14 grams
A person consuming a chopped salad con…
28
If a person has difficulty purchasing…
c. Macaroni and cheese casserole
60 terms
chapter 4 proteins 2
histones
DNA binding proteins
ribosomal proteins
cytokine proteins
positively charged proteins associate with negatively charged…
regulate transcription of DNA into RNA and effect cell growth…
production of new proteins from code carried on mRNA
transmit signals between immune system cells
histones
positively charged proteins associate with negatively charged…
DNA binding proteins
regulate transcription of DNA into RNA and effect cell growth…
24 terms
Chapter 4: Structure of Proteins
conformation
native protein
stability
hydrophobic interactions
the spatial arrangement of atoms in a protein. the possible c…
a protein in its functional, folded conformation
the tendency of a protein to maintain its native conformation…
occur when hydrophobic groups cluster together in an aqueous…
conformation
the spatial arrangement of atoms in a protein. the possible c…
native protein
a protein in its functional, folded conformation
31 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 4: Amino Acids & Proteins
pH of solution compared to pKa
Charges of Amino Acids
Find pI
Peptide Bond
pH solution < pKa = protonated... pH solution > pKa = deprotonated
Fully protonated (low pH) = +1... *Zwitterion* (at *isoelectric…
average the pKa of the 2 functional groups
Between carboxyl group of one amino acid and the α-amino grou…
pH of solution compared to pKa
pH solution < pKa = protonated... pH solution > pKa = deprotonated
Charges of Amino Acids
Fully protonated (low pH) = +1... *Zwitterion* (at *isoelectric…
31 terms
Chapter 4: Protein structures
native fold
3 favorable interactions within proteins
peptide bond resonance
polypeptide planes
the most thermodynamically stable protein conformation (lowes…
- hydrophobic effect: protein folds and releases water from t…
resonance causes peptide bonds to be less reactive, more rigi…
polypeptide made up of a series of planes linked at alpha car…
native fold
the most thermodynamically stable protein conformation (lowes…
3 favorable interactions within proteins
- hydrophobic effect: protein folds and releases water from t…
25 terms
Shape & Structure of Proteins (Ch.4)
Amino Acid
Protein
Enzyme
N-terminus
-has directionality... -made from 3 main chemical groups... --carbo…
-Building block from which cells are assembled... -Made up of am…
-macro molecule of protein... -Promote intracellular chemical re…
end carrying the amino group on peptide backbone
Amino Acid
-has directionality... -made from 3 main chemical groups... --carbo…
Protein
-Building block from which cells are assembled... -Made up of am…
15 terms
Chapter 4: Structure of Proteins
Unlike most organic polymers, protein…
This structure is able to fulfill a sp…
This strucuture is called the
the native fold has
three dimensional conformation
biological function
native fold
a large number of favorable interactions within the protein.
Unlike most organic polymers, protein…
three dimensional conformation
This structure is able to fulfill a sp…
biological function
39 terms
Chapter 4 The Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins
conformation
native conformation
hydrophobic interactions
solvation layer
A spatial arrangement of substituent groups that are free to…
The biologically active conformation of a macromolecule.
The association of nonpolar groups or compounds with each oth…
When water surrounds a hydrophobic molecule, the optimal arra…
conformation
A spatial arrangement of substituent groups that are free to…
native conformation
The biologically active conformation of a macromolecule.
37 terms
chapter 4 | Proteins: Structure, Function, Folding
resonance contributes to
the double bond character of the pepti…
resonance _____________ the polarity o…
peptide bond is essentially _________.
the partial double-bond character of the peptide bond
rigid, free rotation
increases, positive, negative
planar
resonance contributes to
the partial double-bond character of the peptide bond
the double bond character of the pepti…
rigid, free rotation
33 terms
Chapter 4: Protein Structure
Primary Structure
Peptide Bond
Polypeptide Chain
Disulfide Bonds
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence o…
The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of on…
A long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Covalently cross linked polypeptide chains. Formed by the oxi…
Primary Structure
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence o…
Peptide Bond
The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of on…
84 terms
Chapter 4: Protein Structure
protein
amino acid composition
amino acids that don't make up proteins
arginine
1. polymers of amino acids... 2. 20 unique amino acids that make…
Central carbon surrounded by... a. carboxyl group... b. amino group…
1. made from genetically coded amino acids... 2. occur post tran…
1. more complex amino acid... 2. highly positive amino acid... 3. i…
protein
1. polymers of amino acids... 2. 20 unique amino acids that make…
amino acid composition
Central carbon surrounded by... a. carboxyl group... b. amino group…
23 terms
Chapter 4 - Peptides and Proteins
The Peptide Bond
Peptides vs. proteins
Peptides have polarity
Symbolic Representations of a polypept…
Amino acids can polymerize through a dehydration reaction.... T…
When numerous amino acids polymerize into a single chain, the…
•The two ends of the polypeptide chain are not identical.... •O…
•Writing out every atom in the polypeptide is not practical.…
The Peptide Bond
Amino acids can polymerize through a dehydration reaction.... T…
Peptides vs. proteins
When numerous amino acids polymerize into a single chain, the…
11 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins - Structure, Function, Folding
Protein folding
Hydrogen bonding leads to...
Primary structure
Secondary Structure
The process by which a protein in its unfolded (denatured) st…
a-helices and B-sheets
amino acids in protein, listed from N-terminus to C-terminus
Local (+/- 5-10 amino acids)... Ex: a-helix, B-sheet
Protein folding
The process by which a protein in its unfolded (denatured) st…
Hydrogen bonding leads to...
a-helices and B-sheets
25 terms
Chapter 4 - Proteins - Vocabulary - Penrod
amino acids
dipeptide
polypeptide
three classes of amino acids
basic building blocks for protein, joined in unique chain seq…
two amino acids joined together
chains of up to 100 amino acids
indispensable, dispensable, conditionally indispensable
amino acids
basic building blocks for protein, joined in unique chain seq…
dipeptide
two amino acids joined together
33 terms
Chapter 4 Protein Structure
Why are proteins important?
Building blocks of proteins?
Peptide chain
Levels of structure in proteins
The do all the "work" in our bodies. They are responsible for…
Amino acids. Called amino acids because they have an amino gr…
A string of amino acids connected by peptide bonds
Primary (the sequence of amino acid residues), secondary (hyd…
Why are proteins important?
The do all the "work" in our bodies. They are responsible for…
Building blocks of proteins?
Amino acids. Called amino acids because they have an amino gr…
59 terms
chapter 4: protein structure
three categories for R groups
simplest amino acid
most protiens have at least one of thi…
beer's law
nonpolar... polar (charged v. uncharged)
glycine
trp
three categories for R groups
nonpolar... polar (charged v. uncharged)
simplest amino acid
glycine
26 terms
Chapter 4: Proteins (Basic Nutrition)
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
T
14-16%
Enzymes, hormones, antibodies, fluid b…
What compounds are proteins made of?
(T/F) Are proteins organic compounds?
What percentage of the body weight of a lean individual is pr…
What are the EIGHT functions of proteins?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
What compounds are proteins made of?
T
(T/F) Are proteins organic compounds?
8 terms
CH 4 - Motor Proteins
Myosin is
Myosin acts on
The most common use for myosin is
Myosin has two
a motor protein
structural protein and actin filaments
muscle contraction
heads and a tail
Myosin is
a motor protein
Myosin acts on
structural protein and actin filaments
14 terms
CH 4 - Motor Proteins
Kinesin
Dynein
Myosin
Myosin and Kinesin head
move on MT, also both directions. Typically dimer. Light chai…
move on MT, only toward - end
move on actin, different classes move different directions. T…
ATPase, filament binding component
Kinesin
move on MT, also both directions. Typically dimer. Light chai…
Dynein
move on MT, only toward - end
11 terms
CH 4 - Motor Proteins
motor proteins
myosin
each subunit in myosin
kinesins and dyneins
can display enzymatic activity, acting as ATPases that power…
- primary motor protein that interacts with actin... - thick fil…
- has a single head and neck... - movement at the neck is respon…
motor proteins associated with microtubules
motor proteins
can display enzymatic activity, acting as ATPases that power…
myosin
- primary motor protein that interacts with actin... - thick fil…
Chapter 4: protein synthesis
structure of DNA
chromosomes
chromatin
DNA
is a polymer made by joining together phosphates, sugars, and…
normally only seen during cell division
the the normal structure of DNA
normally wounds around histones to create nucleosomes then nu…
structure of DNA
is a polymer made by joining together phosphates, sugars, and…
chromosomes
normally only seen during cell division
20 terms
Bio 230W Chapter 4--Proteins
Enzyme
Structural Protein
Transport Protein
Motor Protein
Catalyzes covalent bond breakage or formation... ex) tryptophan…
Provides mechanical support to cells and tissues... ex) collagen…
Carries small molecules or ions... ex) hemoglobin- carries oxyge…
Generates movement in cells and tissues... ex) myosin- found in…
Enzyme
Catalyzes covalent bond breakage or formation... ex) tryptophan…
Structural Protein
Provides mechanical support to cells and tissues... ex) collagen…
9 terms
Anatomy and physiology chapter 4 proteins
Components of the cell membranes
Collagen
Keratin
Peptide hormones
Perform many function: determine pore size; allow hormones to…
Structural component of muscle and tendons
Part of skin and hair
Many hormones are proteins; have widespread effect on many or…
Components of the cell membranes
Perform many function: determine pore size; allow hormones to…
Collagen
Structural component of muscle and tendons
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