# Study sets matching "psych chapter 9 experimental"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Order effect

Counterbalancing

History

within-subjects experimental design

any change in performance caused by participation in a previou…

procedure to minimize threats from order and time by changing…

event that influences participants' scores in one treatment di…

strategy in which the same group participates in all of the di…

Order effect

any change in performance caused by participation in a previou…

Counterbalancing

procedure to minimize threats from order and time by changing…

What three things must casual claims ha…

What is the best way to test causal cla…

Why might researchers not conduct a tru…

What are three ways to use correlationa…

1. Covariation... 2. Temporal precedence... 3. Rule out third variab…

Conduct a true experiment research with manipulated IVs and ra…

Could be unethical, impractical, timely, etc.

1. Longitudinal designs... 2. Multiple regression... 3. Parsimony an…

What three things must casual claims ha…

1. Covariation... 2. Temporal precedence... 3. Rule out third variab…

What is the best way to test causal cla…

Conduct a true experiment research with manipulated IVs and ra…

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

a design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks c…

condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the IV

subjects in a control condition

Between-subjects design

a design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

Block randomization

process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks c…

positive correlation

negative correlation

Pearson's r

scatterplot

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

Measure of the size of a correlation between two variables; ra…

A graph depicting the relationship shown by a correlation.

positive correlation

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

negative correlation

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

Chi-square Test of Independence

Confound

Empty Control Group

Exploratory Analysis

A statistical test used when all variables are categorical. Th…

A variable that varies along with the independent variable.

A group of participants who complete the dependent measure wit…

Any statistical test that is not planned before the experiment…

Chi-square Test of Independence

A statistical test used when all variables are categorical. Th…

Confound

A variable that varies along with the independent variable.

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

a design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks c…

condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the IV

subjects in a control condition

Between-subjects design

a design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

Block randomization

process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks c…

Between-subjects designs

Carryover effects

Concurrent-measures design

Conditions

an experimental design in which different groups of participan…

a threat to internal validity that occurs when being exposed t…

an experiment using a within-groups design in which participan…

one of the levels of the independent variable in an experiment…

Between-subjects designs

an experimental design in which different groups of participan…

Carryover effects

a threat to internal validity that occurs when being exposed t…

chi square test of independence

confound

empty control group

exploratory analysis

a statistical test used when all variables are categorical. de…

a variable that varies along with the independent variable

a group of participants who complete the dependent measure wit…

a statistical test that is not planned before the experiment b…

chi square test of independence

a statistical test used when all variables are categorical. de…

confound

a variable that varies along with the independent variable

Internal Validity

Extraneous Variables

MRS SMITH

Maturation

establishing that the manipulation of the IV caused the change…

any other variable than IV

Maturation... Regression to the Mean... Selection of Subjects... select…

natural biological pr developmental changes that occur inside…

Internal Validity

establishing that the manipulation of the IV caused the change…

Extraneous Variables

any other variable than IV

Behavioral Measure

Ceiling effect

Confederate

Demand characteristics

Direct observations of behavior

Failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too…

A person posing as a participant in an experimental who is act…

Cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to beha…

Behavioral Measure

Direct observations of behavior

Ceiling effect

Failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too…

Behavioral measure

Ceiling effect

Confederate

Demand characteristics

direct observations of behaviors. ex: whether an individual re…

the independent variable appears to have no effect on the depe…

a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actua…

any feature of an experiment that might inform participants of…

Behavioral measure

direct observations of behaviors. ex: whether an individual re…

Ceiling effect

the independent variable appears to have no effect on the depe…

Behavioral measure

ceiling effect

confederate

demand characteristics

direct observations of behaviors

failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too…

a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actua…

cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to beha…

Behavioral measure

direct observations of behaviors

ceiling effect

failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too…

beta weights

Chi Square (X^2) Statistic

Coefficient of Determination (r^2)

Common-causal variables

see regression coefficients: Statistics that indicate the rela…

A statistic used to assess the relationship between two nomina…

The proportion of variance accounted for by the correlation co…

In a correlational research design, variables that are not par…

beta weights

see regression coefficients: Statistics that indicate the rela…

Chi Square (X^2) Statistic

A statistic used to assess the relationship between two nomina…

increased validity

power analysis

straight forward manipulations

staged manipulation

increased sample size =

formal approach to selecting a sample size

more popular manipulative variables with instructions and stim…

less popular manipulation that is staged to localize the IV. a…

increased validity

increased sample size =

power analysis

formal approach to selecting a sample size

What are the four types of scales?

What are the 3 measures of central tend…

What are the five types of graphs?

What's the variance and how is the stan…

-nominal: name/label... -ordinal: rank order... -interval: rank…

-mode: most frequent score; only measure valid for nominal sca…

-pie chart: pie shaped graph whose "slices" (percentages) sum…

- The variance (s²) is the average squared deviation from the…

What are the four types of scales?

-nominal: name/label... -ordinal: rank order... -interval: rank…

What are the 3 measures of central tend…

-mode: most frequent score; only measure valid for nominal sca…

Behavioral Measure

Ceiling Effect

Confederate

Demand Characteristics

Direct observations of behaviors.

Failure of a measure used to detect a difference because it wa…

A person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actua…

Cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to beha…

Behavioral Measure

Direct observations of behaviors.

Ceiling Effect

Failure of a measure used to detect a difference because it wa…

Randomization

Representative

Random selection

Random assignment

a control technique that equates groups of participants by ens…

When the sample participants have the same characteristics as…

selection of people at random from a defined population

Randomly assigning a sample of individuals to a specific numbe…

Randomization

a control technique that equates groups of participants by ens…

Representative

When the sample participants have the same characteristics as…

between-subjects design

block randomization

control group

control condition

A design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

A process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

The subjects in a control condition.

A condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the inde…

between-subjects design

A design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

block randomization

A process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

Survey research

Descriptive research question

Predictive research question

Causal research question

a research study that uses the survey observational technique…

a research question that asks about the presence of behavior,…

a research question that asks if one behavior can be predicted…

a research question that asks what causes specific behaviors t…

Survey research

a research study that uses the survey observational technique…

Descriptive research question

a research question that asks about the presence of behavior,…

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

A design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

A process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

A condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the inde…

The subjects in a control condition.

Between-subjects design

A design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

Block randomization

A process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

between-subjects design

block randomization

control condition

control group

a design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

a process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

a condition where subjects receive a zero value of the indepen…

the subjects in a control condition

between-subjects design

a design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

block randomization

a process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

one way design

2 group design

one way, multiple groups design

factorial design

1) experiment with one independent variable, simplest experime…

1 IV, variable has 2 levels eg 1 experimental group and 1 cont…

still only 1 IV but multiple groups/levels

contains 2 or more IV that are crossed ie (punnet square)

one way design

1) experiment with one independent variable, simplest experime…

2 group design

1 IV, variable has 2 levels eg 1 experimental group and 1 cont…

.c. statistics

a. Descriptive; inferential

c. a measure of central tendency.

d. measurement.

241. The branch of mathematics that involves the collection, a…

242. ___________ statistics summarize numbers and ____________…

243. Ethan wants to determine the representative score in his…

244. The assignment of symbols to events according to a set of…

.c. statistics

241. The branch of mathematics that involves the collection, a…

a. Descriptive; inferential

242. ___________ statistics summarize numbers and ____________…

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

Design in which different subjects take part in each condition…

Creates blocks of people, then divides each block into differe…

Condition in which the subjects receive a zero value of the IV

Subjects in control condition

Between-subjects design

Design in which different subjects take part in each condition…

Block randomization

Creates blocks of people, then divides each block into differe…

Direct observations of behaviors

Recordings of responses of the body

Failure of a measure to detect a differ…

A person posing as a participant in an…

Behavioral measure

Physiological responses

Ceiling effect

Confederate

Direct observations of behaviors

Behavioral measure

Recordings of responses of the body

Physiological responses