# Study sets matching "psych chapter 9 experimental"

Study sets

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positive correlation

negative correlation

Pearson's r

scatterplot

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

Measure of the size of a correlation between two variables; ra…

A graph depicting the relationship shown by a correlation.

positive correlation

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

negative correlation

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

What three things must casual claims ha…

What is the best way to test causal cla…

Why might researchers not conduct a tru…

What are three ways to use correlationa…

1. Covariation... 2. Temporal precedence... 3. Rule out third variab…

Conduct a true experiment research with manipulated IVs and ra…

Could be unethical, impractical, timely, etc.

1. Longitudinal designs... 2. Multiple regression... 3. Parsimony an…

What three things must casual claims ha…

1. Covariation... 2. Temporal precedence... 3. Rule out third variab…

What is the best way to test causal cla…

Conduct a true experiment research with manipulated IVs and ra…

positive correlation

negative correlation

Pearson's r

scatterplot

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

Measure of the size of a correlation between two variables; ra…

A graph depicting the relationship shown by a correlation.

positive correlation

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

negative correlation

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high scor…

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Chi-square Test of Independence

Confound

Empty Control Group

Exploratory Analysis

A statistical test used when all variables are categorical. Th…

A variable that varies along with the independent variable.

A group of participants who complete the dependent measure wit…

Any statistical test that is not planned before the experiment…

Chi-square Test of Independence

A statistical test used when all variables are categorical. Th…

Confound

A variable that varies along with the independent variable.

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

a design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks c…

condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the IV

subjects in a control condition

Between-subjects design

a design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

Block randomization

process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks c…

Between-subjects designs

Carryover effects

Concurrent-measures design

Conditions

an experimental design in which different groups of participan…

a threat to internal validity that occurs when being exposed t…

an experiment using a within-groups design in which participan…

one of the levels of the independent variable in an experiment…

Between-subjects designs

an experimental design in which different groups of participan…

Carryover effects

a threat to internal validity that occurs when being exposed t…

chi square test of independence

confound

empty control group

exploratory analysis

a statistical test used when all variables are categorical. de…

a variable that varies along with the independent variable

a group of participants who complete the dependent measure wit…

a statistical test that is not planned before the experiment b…

chi square test of independence

a statistical test used when all variables are categorical. de…

confound

a variable that varies along with the independent variable

Internal Validity

Extraneous Variables

MRS SMITH

Maturation

establishing that the manipulation of the IV caused the change…

any other variable than IV

Maturation... Regression to the Mean... Selection of Subjects... select…

natural biological pr developmental changes that occur inside…

Internal Validity

establishing that the manipulation of the IV caused the change…

Extraneous Variables

any other variable than IV

Behavioral measure

Ceiling effect

Confederate

Demand characteristics

direct observations of behaviors. ex: whether an individual re…

the independent variable appears to have no effect on the depe…

a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actua…

any feature of an experiment that might inform participants of…

Behavioral measure

direct observations of behaviors. ex: whether an individual re…

Ceiling effect

the independent variable appears to have no effect on the depe…

Behavioral measure

ceiling effect

confederate

demand characteristics

direct observations of behaviors

failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too…

a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actua…

cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to beha…

Behavioral measure

direct observations of behaviors

ceiling effect

failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too…

beta weights

Chi Square (X^2) Statistic

Coefficient of Determination (r^2)

Common-causal variables

see regression coefficients: Statistics that indicate the rela…

A statistic used to assess the relationship between two nomina…

The proportion of variance accounted for by the correlation co…

In a correlational research design, variables that are not par…

beta weights

see regression coefficients: Statistics that indicate the rela…

Chi Square (X^2) Statistic

A statistic used to assess the relationship between two nomina…

where are participants drawn from?

types of probability sampling

simple random sampling

stratified random

population you choose

simple random, stratified random, cluster random

all =, random chance

like quota sample; subgroups then choose (randomly)

where are participants drawn from?

population you choose

types of probability sampling

simple random, stratified random, cluster random

What are the four types of scales?

What are the 3 measures of central tend…

What are the five types of graphs?

What's the variance and how is the stan…

-nominal: name/label... -ordinal: rank order... -interval: rank…

-mode: most frequent score; only measure valid for nominal sca…

-pie chart: pie shaped graph whose "slices" (percentages) sum…

- The variance (s²) is the average squared deviation from the…

What are the four types of scales?

-nominal: name/label... -ordinal: rank order... -interval: rank…

What are the 3 measures of central tend…

-mode: most frequent score; only measure valid for nominal sca…

Behavioral Measure

Ceiling Effect

Confederate

Demand Characteristics

Direct observations of behaviors.

Failure of a measure used to detect a difference because it wa…

A person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actua…

Cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to beha…

Behavioral Measure

Direct observations of behaviors.

Ceiling Effect

Failure of a measure used to detect a difference because it wa…

between-subjects design

block randomization

control group

control condition

A design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

A process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

The subjects in a control condition.

A condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the inde…

between-subjects design

A design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

block randomization

A process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

Survey research

Descriptive research question

Predictive research question

Causal research question

a research study that uses the survey observational technique…

a research question that asks about the presence of behavior,…

a research question that asks if one behavior can be predicted…

a research question that asks what causes specific behaviors t…

Survey research

a research study that uses the survey observational technique…

Descriptive research question

a research question that asks about the presence of behavior,…

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

A design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

A process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

A condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the inde…

The subjects in a control condition.

Between-subjects design

A design in which different subjects take part in each conditi…

Block randomization

A process of randomization that first creates treatment blocks…

one way design

2 group design

one way, multiple groups design

factorial design

1) experiment with one independent variable, simplest experime…

1 IV, variable has 2 levels eg 1 experimental group and 1 cont…

still only 1 IV but multiple groups/levels

contains 2 or more IV that are crossed ie (punnet square)

one way design

1) experiment with one independent variable, simplest experime…

2 group design

1 IV, variable has 2 levels eg 1 experimental group and 1 cont…

.c. statistics

a. Descriptive; inferential

c. a measure of central tendency.

d. measurement.

241. The branch of mathematics that involves the collection, a…

242. ___________ statistics summarize numbers and ____________…

243. Ethan wants to determine the representative score in his…

244. The assignment of symbols to events according to a set of…

.c. statistics

241. The branch of mathematics that involves the collection, a…

a. Descriptive; inferential

242. ___________ statistics summarize numbers and ____________…

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

Design in which different subjects take part in each condition…

Creates blocks of people, then divides each block into differe…

Condition in which the subjects receive a zero value of the IV

Subjects in control condition

Between-subjects design

Design in which different subjects take part in each condition…

Block randomization

Creates blocks of people, then divides each block into differe…

baseline phase (A)

clinical replication

concurrent multiple-baseline design

cyclical

the period in a single-subject design during which the interve…

used to enhance generalizability of single-subject designs, th…

a series of A-B designs (although A-B-A OR A-B-A-B designs cou…

a baseline phase pattern in a single-subject design reflecting…

baseline phase (A)

the period in a single-subject design during which the interve…

clinical replication

used to enhance generalizability of single-subject designs, th…

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Interview

Survey research

face-sheet information

Structured or closed-ended questions

Interviews (or oral questionnaires) ... Can take the form of the…

Examines the frequency and relationships between psychological…

information, or neutral information, about the respondent such…

closed-ended questions have a clear and apparent focus and cal…

Interview

Interviews (or oral questionnaires) ... Can take the form of the…

Survey research

Examines the frequency and relationships between psychological…

Open ended Questions

Closed-ended question

Mutually exclusive

Exhaustive

One that the respondents answer in their own words

One that limits the respondents to certain alternatives

Categories defined so that membership in one rules out members…

Categories defined so that all possible cases will fall into o…

Open ended Questions

One that the respondents answer in their own words

Closed-ended question

One that limits the respondents to certain alternatives

design

between-subjects design

increases an experiment's external vali…

Effect size

an experiment details an experimenter's plan for testing a hyp…

a subject participates in only one condition of the experiment.

Random sampling

is a statistical estimate of the size or magnitude of a treat…

design

an experiment details an experimenter's plan for testing a hyp…

between-subjects design

a subject participates in only one condition of the experiment.

how big a difference between Experiment…

-also known as statistical power... -uses…

subjects who receive the I.V. condition…

-provides a "baseline" measure for comp…

effect size

power calculation

experimental group design

control group design

how big a difference between Experiment…

effect size

-also known as statistical power... -uses…

power calculation