#### Study sets matching "psych chapter 9 experimental"

#### Study sets matching "psych chapter 9 experimental"

positive correlation

negative correlation

Pearson's r

scatterplot

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high sco…

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high sco…

Measure of the size of a correlation between two variables; r…

A graph depicting the relationship shown by a correlation.

positive correlation

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high sco…

negative correlation

A relationship between variables X and Y such that a high sco…

Chi-square Test of Independence

Confound

Empty Control Group

Exploratory Analysis

A statistical test used when all variables are categorical. T…

A variable that varies along with the independent variable.

A group of participants who complete the dependent measure wi…

Any statistical test that is not planned before the experimen…

Chi-square Test of Independence

A statistical test used when all variables are categorical. T…

Confound

A variable that varies along with the independent variable.

Between-subjects designs

Carryover effects

Concurrent-measures design

Conditions

an experimental design in which different groups of participa…

a threat to internal validity that occurs when being exposed…

an experiment using a within-groups design in which participa…

one of the levels of the independent variable in an experimen…

Between-subjects designs

an experimental design in which different groups of participa…

Carryover effects

a threat to internal validity that occurs when being exposed…

Behavioral measure

ceiling effect

confederate

demand characteristics

direct observations of behaviors

failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was to…

a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actu…

cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to beh…

Behavioral measure

direct observations of behaviors

ceiling effect

failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was to…

beta weights

Chi Square (X^2) Statistic

Coefficient of Determination (r^2)

Common-causal variables

see regression coefficients: Statistics that indicate the rel…

A statistic used to assess the relationship between two nomin…

The proportion of variance accounted for by the correlation c…

In a correlational research design, variables that are not pa…

beta weights

see regression coefficients: Statistics that indicate the rel…

Chi Square (X^2) Statistic

A statistic used to assess the relationship between two nomin…

Factor

Factorial Design

Higher -order interaction

Interaction

An independent variable in a factorial design

An experimental design in which more than one independent var…

An interaction effect involving more than two independent var…

The effect of one independent variable changes across the lev…

Factor

An independent variable in a factorial design

Factorial Design

An experimental design in which more than one independent var…

Attrition (p.199)

Between-groups variance (p.194)

Between-subjects or between-groups des…

Biased assignment (p.197)

The loss of participants during a study.

The proportion of the total variance in a set of scores that…

An experimental design in which each participant serves in on…

A threat to internal validity that occurs when participants a…

Attrition (p.199)

The loss of participants during a study.

Between-groups variance (p.194)

The proportion of the total variance in a set of scores that…

Scatterplot

Regression Line

Linear Relationship

Nonlinear Relationship

A graph showing the relationship between two quantitative var…

On a scatterplot, the line that minimizes the squared distanc…

A relationship between two quantitative variables that can be…

Relationships between two quantitative variables that cannot…

Scatterplot

A graph showing the relationship between two quantitative var…

Regression Line

On a scatterplot, the line that minimizes the squared distanc…

Explain how creating an experiment is…

Discuss Rosnow and Rosenthal's practic…

How many subjects are recommended per…

Explain how Cohen's effect size affect…

...

...

...

...

Explain how creating an experiment is…

...

Discuss Rosnow and Rosenthal's practic…

...

Survey research

Descriptive research question

Predictive research question

Causal research question

a research study that uses the survey observational technique…

a research question that asks about the presence of behavior,…

a research question that asks if one behavior can be predicte…

a research question that asks what causes specific behaviors…

Survey research

a research study that uses the survey observational technique…

Descriptive research question

a research question that asks about the presence of behavior,…

Between subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

A design in which different subjects to take part in each con…

A process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

A condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the ind…

The subjects in a control condition

Between subjects design

A design in which different subjects to take part in each con…

Block randomization

A process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

A design in which different subjects take part in each condit…

A process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

A condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the ind…

The subjects in a control condition.

Between-subjects design

A design in which different subjects take part in each condit…

Block randomization

A process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

operational definition

types of manipulations

straightforward manipulation

staged (event) manipulation

the specific procedures, methods, instructions, and definitio…

straightforward manipulation, staged (event) manipulation

manipulate variables with instructions and stimuli presented;…

induce some psychological state or recreate some event that o…

operational definition

the specific procedures, methods, instructions, and definitio…

types of manipulations

straightforward manipulation, staged (event) manipulation

Inductive Logic

Deductive Logic

Directional Research Hypothesizes

Nondirectional Research Hypothesis

reasoning that proceeds from specific cases to general conclu…

reasoning that proceeds from general theories to specific cases

prediction of the specific outcome of an experiment

a specific prediction concerning the outcome of an experiment…

Inductive Logic

reasoning that proceeds from specific cases to general conclu…

Deductive Logic

reasoning that proceeds from general theories to specific cases

Across-subjects counter balancing

Balanced Latin square

Block randomization

Carryover effect

A technique for controlling progressive error that pools all…

A partial counterbalancing technique for constructing a matri…

A process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

The persistence of the effect of a treatment condition after…

Across-subjects counter balancing

A technique for controlling progressive error that pools all…

Balanced Latin square

A partial counterbalancing technique for constructing a matri…

Between-subjects design

block randomization

Control condition

Control group

A design in which different subjects take part in each condit…

A process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

A condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the ind…

The subjects in a control condition

Between-subjects design

A design in which different subjects take part in each condit…

block randomization

A process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

Alternative Hypothesis

Critical Region

Descriptive statistics

Directional hypothesis

A statement that the data came from different populations; th…

Portion in the tail(s) of the distribution of a test statisti…

The standard procedures used to summarize and describe data q…

A statement that predicts the exact pattern of results that w…

Alternative Hypothesis

A statement that the data came from different populations; th…

Critical Region

Portion in the tail(s) of the distribution of a test statisti…

Balancing

Constancy of conditions

Context variable

Cover story

A technique used to control the impact of extraneous variable…

A control procedure used to avoid confounding: keeping all as…

Extraneous variable stemming from procedures created by the e…

A plausible but false explanation of the procedures in an exp…

Balancing

A technique used to control the impact of extraneous variable…

Constancy of conditions

A control procedure used to avoid confounding: keeping all as…

multivariate design

longitudinal design

cross-sectional correlation

autocorrelation

a study designed to test an association involving more than t…

a study in which the same variables are measured in the same…

in a longitudinal design, a correlation between two variables…

in a longitudinal design, the correlation of one variable wit…

multivariate design

a study designed to test an association involving more than t…

longitudinal design

a study in which the same variables are measured in the same…

baseline phase (A)

clinical replication

concurrent multiple-baseline design

cyclical

the period in a single-subject design during which the interv…

used to enhance generalizability of single-subject designs, t…

a series of A-B designs (although A-B-A OR A-B-A-B designs co…

a baseline phase pattern in a single-subject design reflectin…

baseline phase (A)

the period in a single-subject design during which the interv…

clinical replication

used to enhance generalizability of single-subject designs, t…

between-subjects design

block randomization

control condition

control group

a design in which different subjects take part in each condit…

a process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

a condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the ind…

the subjects in a control condition

between-subjects design

a design in which different subjects take part in each condit…

block randomization

a process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

Probability Sampling

Nonprobability Sampling

Determine the Sample Size: What is mor…

Setting the Stage

Totally random.

Convenience samples.... Ex. Psych students used for school exper…

Larger samples provide more accurate estimates of population…

Provide the atmosphere for the study.... Informed consent, instr…

Probability Sampling

Totally random.

Nonprobability Sampling

Convenience samples.... Ex. Psych students used for school exper…

between-subjects factorial design

factorial design

interaction (interaction effect)

main effect

a factorial design in which each subject engages in only one…

an experimental design that includes two or more independent…

in a factorial design, occurs when the way in which an indepe…

in a factorial design, occurs when an independent variable ha…

between-subjects factorial design

a factorial design in which each subject engages in only one…

factorial design

an experimental design that includes two or more independent…

gelantinization

pasting

gelation

retrogradation

swelling of starch granules and migration of some amylose int…

changes in gelatinized starch, including considerable loss of…

process of formation of a gel

gradual increase of crystalline aggregates in starch gels dur…

gelantinization

swelling of starch granules and migration of some amylose int…

pasting

changes in gelatinized starch, including considerable loss of…

Between-subjects Factorial Design

Factorial Design

Interaction (Interaction Effect)

Main Effect

Factorial design in which each subject engages in only one co…

2 or more independent variables and crosses (combines) every…

The way in which an independent variable influences behavior…

when an independent variable has an overall effect on a depen…

Between-subjects Factorial Design

Factorial design in which each subject engages in only one co…

Factorial Design

2 or more independent variables and crosses (combines) every…

QALMRI

Reliability

Validity

internal validity

a method for critically evaluating experiments, as well as co…

results are repeatable when the behaviors are remeasured

measures what it has been designed to measure

Free from measurement error, measure relates to psychological…

QALMRI

a method for critically evaluating experiments, as well as co…

Reliability

results are repeatable when the behaviors are remeasured

Variable

Level

Constant

Measure Variable

Is something that varies, so it must have at least two levels…

Also known as values.

Is something that could potentially vary but that has only on…

Is one whose levels are simply observed and recorded.

Variable

Is something that varies, so it must have at least two levels…

Level

Also known as values.

Factorial design

Factorial matrix

Main effect

Interaction

Any experimental design with more than one independent variab…

A row and column arrangement that characterizes a factorial d…

The presence or otherwise of statistically significant differ…

In a factorial design, occurs when the effect of one independ…

Factorial design

Any experimental design with more than one independent variab…

Factorial matrix

A row and column arrangement that characterizes a factorial d…

science

Data

Theory

Basic Research

a way of knowing about the world

the patterns in the observations that we make

the story that we tell to explain observations, and predict f…

describing, predicting, and explaining fundamental principles…

science

a way of knowing about the world

Data

the patterns in the observations that we make

Self-Report Measure

Observational Measure

Physiological Measure

Categorical Variable

Operationalizes a variable by recording people's answers to q…

Sometimes called a behavioral measure, operationalizes a vari…

Operationalizes a variable by recording biological data such…

Are categories.

Self-Report Measure

Operationalizes a variable by recording people's answers to q…

Observational Measure

Sometimes called a behavioral measure, operationalizes a vari…

Survey research

Is most survey research experimental o…

The use of survey research

Cognitive model of responding to surve…

Quantitative and qualitative method with two important charac…

Nonexperimental

used to describe single variables and assess statistical rela…

Question interpretation -> information retrieval -> judgement…

Survey research

Quantitative and qualitative method with two important charac…

Is most survey research experimental o…

Nonexperimental

Between-subjects design

Within-subjects design

Equivalent groups

Random assignment

An experimental design in which different groups of participa…

An experimental design in which the same participants serve i…

Groups of participants in a between-subjects design that are…

The most common procedure for creating equivalent groups in a…

Between-subjects design

An experimental design in which different groups of participa…

Within-subjects design

An experimental design in which the same participants serve i…

quasi-experimental design

archival research

nonequivalent control group design

interrupted time series design

Occurs when causal conclusions about the effect of an indepen…

A method in which existing records are examined to test a hyp…

Quasi-experimental design in which participants cannot be ran…

Quasi-experimental design in which a program or treatment is…

quasi-experimental design

Occurs when causal conclusions about the effect of an indepen…

archival research

A method in which existing records are examined to test a hyp…

Single-factor design

Independent groups design

Matched groups design

Repeated-measures design

An experimental design with a single independent variable.

A between-subjects design that uses a manipulated independent…

A between-subjects design that uses a manipulated independent…

Another name for a within-subjects design; participants are t…

Single-factor design

An experimental design with a single independent variable.

Independent groups design

A between-subjects design that uses a manipulated independent…

Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Measurement

A branch of math that focuses on collection and analysis of d…

Procedures used to summarize data

Procedures used to analyze whether the IV had an effect or not

The assignment of symbols to events according to a set of rules

Statistics

A branch of math that focuses on collection and analysis of d…

Descriptive Statistics

Procedures used to summarize data

Straightforward manipulation

Staged manipulation

Confederate

Self report

Manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentat…

It is necessary to stage events during the experiment in pres…

Another participant in an experiment but is actually part of…

Can be used to measure attitudes, liking for someone, judgeme…

Straightforward manipulation

Manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentat…

Staged manipulation

It is necessary to stage events during the experiment in pres…

Between-subjects design

Block randomization

Control condition

Control group

a design in which different subjects take part in each condit…

a process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

a condition in which subjects receive a zero value of the ind…

the subjects in a control condition

Between-subjects design

a design in which different subjects take part in each condit…

Block randomization

a process of randomization that first creates treatment block…

individual-subject validity

operant conditioning

rate of response

applied behavior analysis

The extent to which the general outcome of a research study c…

Form of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequ…

The favored dependent variable of researchers working in the…

Research using various methods to evaluate the effectiveness…

individual-subject validity

The extent to which the general outcome of a research study c…

operant conditioning

Form of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequ…

Rosenthal Effect

Single Blind Experiment

Demand Characteristics

Good Participant Effect

experimental concluded idea of appropriate responding influen…

an experiment in which the experimenter is unaware of the tre…

features of the experimenter that inadvertently lead particip…

tendency of participants to behave as they perceive the exper…

Rosenthal Effect

experimental concluded idea of appropriate responding influen…

Single Blind Experiment

an experiment in which the experimenter is unaware of the tre…

"Setting the stage" refers to

An educational psychologist wanted to…

Which type(s) of manipulation frequent…

What are 3 general types of a dependen…

none of these

straightforward

staged

1. self report... 2. behavioral... 3. physiological

"Setting the stage" refers to

none of these

An educational psychologist wanted to…

straightforward

3 requirements for causality

Control

active variables

observed variables

1. The IV must preceed the DV ... 2. the IV and DV must go toget…

the more you have of this, the more causality. ... 1. manipulate…

can manipulate

can't manipulate

3 requirements for causality

1. The IV must preceed the DV ... 2. the IV and DV must go toget…

Control

the more you have of this, the more causality. ... 1. manipulate…

random assignment

program group

treatment group

comparison group

the process of assigning your sample into two or more subgrou…

receives the program of interest and is usually contrasted wi…

receives program of interest and is contrasted with a no trea…

the control group

random assignment

the process of assigning your sample into two or more subgrou…

program group

receives the program of interest and is usually contrasted wi…

Event Related Design

Epoch (event related design context)

Jittering

Blocked Design

(1) Area of interest is evoked transiently by brief presentat…

A time segment extracted from a larger series of images, usua…

(1) Randomizing the intervals between successive stimulus eve…

(1) condition is presented continuously for an extended perio…

Event Related Design

(1) Area of interest is evoked transiently by brief presentat…

Epoch (event related design context)

A time segment extracted from a larger series of images, usua…

factorial design

between-subjects factorial design

within-subjects factorial design

mixed-factorial design

includes two or more independent variables and crosses every…

a factorial design in which each subject engages in only one…

a factorial design in which each subject engages in every con…

a factorial design that includes one between-subject variable…

factorial design

includes two or more independent variables and crosses every…

between-subjects factorial design

a factorial design in which each subject engages in only one…

open-ended item

restricted item

partially open-ended item

mail survey

Questionnaire item that allows allows the subject to fill in…

Questionnaire item that provides participants with response a…

Questionnaire item that provides participants with response c…

Method of administrating a survey that involves mailing quest…

open-ended item

Questionnaire item that allows allows the subject to fill in…

restricted item

Questionnaire item that provides participants with response a…

straightforward manipulation

staged manipulation

confederate

self-report

when the researcher manipulates an independent variable with…

when events during the experiment are staged in order manipul…

appears to be another participant in an experiment but is act…

used to measure attitudes, liking for someone, judgments, emo…

straightforward manipulation

when the researcher manipulates an independent variable with…

staged manipulation

when events during the experiment are staged in order manipul…

experimental design

between-subjects designs

two-group design

two-independent groups design

general structure of the experiment

different subjects take part in each condition of the experim…

when only 2 treatment conditions are needed

subjects are placed in each of 2 treatment conditions through…

experimental design

general structure of the experiment

between-subjects designs

different subjects take part in each condition of the experim…

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental De…

Cause-and-Effect Relationships

True Experimental Design

Randomization

Require that the researcher actively... intervenes to bring abou…

Three criteria are needed to infer causality:... -The causal (in…

Three properties:... -Randomization... -Control ... -Manipulation... A re…

Each subject in the study has an equal... chance of being assign…

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental De…

Require that the researcher actively... intervenes to bring abou…

Cause-and-Effect Relationships

Three criteria are needed to infer causality:... -The causal (in…

Type I Error

Type II Error

Solomon Four-Group Design

After-Only Experimental Design

When you reject the null hypothesis when it is true

When you accept the null hypothesis when it is false

Contains a control group, and intervention group, and two aft…

Contains two randomly assigned groups that are neither pretes…

Type I Error

When you reject the null hypothesis when it is true

Type II Error

When you accept the null hypothesis when it is false