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Study sets matching "psych chapter 9"

49 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Memory
Memory
Sensory Memory
George Sperling
iconic memory
Any indication that learning has persisted over time
A split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information,…
Experimented with sensory memory, flashed images to participa…
A split-second perfect photograph of a scene, lasts a few ten…
Memory
Any indication that learning has persisted over time
Sensory Memory
A split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information,…
33 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Learning
Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Stimulus
Response
Making an association between two event by repeated exposure
Pavlov's method an association is made between a natural stim…
anything that elicits a response
A reaction to a stimulus
Conditioning
Making an association between two event by repeated exposure
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's method an association is made between a natural stim…
10 terms
Psychology -- Chapter 9 Sleep
sleep
REM - rapid eye movement
"paradoxical" sleep
Alpha waves
state of unconsciousness -- consists of 5 main stages
5-10 minutes but increases in length with each time (max 20-5…
The type of sleep encountered during REM when internally, the…
brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep
sleep
state of unconsciousness -- consists of 5 main stages
REM - rapid eye movement
5-10 minutes but increases in length with each time (max 20-5…
10 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Intelligence
Facility
Mental Age
Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.)
The abilities to learn from experience, to think rationally,…
one of Thurstone's primary mental abilities.
shows the intellectual level at which a child is functioning.
a number that reflects the relationship between a child's men…
Intelligence
The abilities to learn from experience, to think rationally,…
Facility
one of Thurstone's primary mental abilities.
35 terms
Cognitive psychology chapter 9
Sentences
Morphemes
Phonemes
Voicing
a sequence of words that conforms to the rules of syntax
the smallest language unit that carries meaning
the basic categories of sound used to convey language
one of the properties that distinguishes different categories…
Sentences
a sequence of words that conforms to the rules of syntax
Morphemes
the smallest language unit that carries meaning
26 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Intelligence
mental retardation
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
gifted
achievement
having an IQ score at or below 70
first modern intelligence test
possessing outstanding talent or the potential to achieve at…
knowledge and skills gained from experience
mental retardation
having an IQ score at or below 70
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
first modern intelligence test
18 terms
Psychology and You: Chapter 9
intelligence
Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale
mental age
intelligence quotient (IQ)
the ability to understand and adapt to the environment by usi…
intelligence test developed by Alfred Binet and later refined…
the level of intellectual functioning in years, which is comp…
a measure of intelligence originally obtained by comparing me…
intelligence
the ability to understand and adapt to the environment by usi…
Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale
intelligence test developed by Alfred Binet and later refined…
32 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Motivation
Instinct Approach
Drive-reduction theory
Homeostasis (DRT)
-process by which activities are started, directed, and conti…
-human behavior is governed by biologically determined, innat…
-physiological needs produce urges that motivates us to fulfi…
- our bodies try to maintain a state of equilibrium
Motivation
-process by which activities are started, directed, and conti…
Instinct Approach
-human behavior is governed by biologically determined, innat…
62 terms
psychology chapter 9
psychological test
3 principles subcategories of metal ab…
intelligence tests
aptitude tests
standardized measure of a sample of a person's behaviour
1. intelligence test ... 2. apitude tests... 3. achievment tests
measure general mental ability
assess specific types of mental abilities ... - numerical abilit…
psychological test
standardized measure of a sample of a person's behaviour
3 principles subcategories of metal ab…
1. intelligence test ... 2. apitude tests... 3. achievment tests
11 terms
Psychology Chapter 9: Intelligence
Achievement
Intelligence
Mental Age
Intelligence Quotient
Knowledge and skills gained from experience and education
The capacity to learn from experience, solve problems, and ad…
The level of intellectual functioning, which is compared to c…
The ratio of mental age multiplied by 100; the average perfor…
Achievement
Knowledge and skills gained from experience and education
Intelligence
The capacity to learn from experience, solve problems, and ad…
45 terms
Chapter 9 - Developmental Psychology
temperament
Gender
X chromosome
Y chromosome
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by w…
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. females have…
The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X…
temperament
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Gender
the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by w…
77 terms
AP Psychology Chapter 9 Vocabulary
Developmental Psychology
Nature-Nurture
Interaction
Identical Twins
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and…
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions…
A relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as bio…
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in…
Developmental Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and…
Nature-Nurture
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions…
28 terms
Chapter 9 psychology
Thought
Creativity
Two thinking types:
Divergent
The language of the mind
To generate new ideas and form solutions. Its very flexible
*Convergent... *Divergent
Attempts to generate many solutions MORE CREATIVE
Thought
The language of the mind
Creativity
To generate new ideas and form solutions. Its very flexible
53 terms
Psychology: Chapter 9 Terms
cognition
concept
prototype
algorithm
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
26 terms
Psychology: Chapter 9
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment
Classical Conditioning
rewarding (adding something) consequences that follow a behav…
the removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase a behavior
an unpleasant consequence that decreases the behavior
Learning from the association of a neutral stimulus and an un…
Positive Reinforcement
rewarding (adding something) consequences that follow a behav…
Negative Reinforcement
the removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase a behavior
15 terms
psychology chapter 9
basal metabolic rate
Cannon-Bard theory
drive-reduction theory
emotion
the body's resting rate of energy output.
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously t…
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state (…
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) bodily arousa…
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy output.
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously t…
18 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement
Primary reinforcers
Secondary reinforcers
type of learning in which people learn to do certain things b…
process by which a stimulus increases chances that preceding…
reinforcers that function due to the biological makeup of the…
reinforcers that initially acquire their value through being…
Operant Conditioning
type of learning in which people learn to do certain things b…
Reinforcement
process by which a stimulus increases chances that preceding…
10 terms
Psychology -- Chapter 9 Sleep
sleep
REM - rapid eye movement
"paradoxical" sleep
Alpha waves
state of unconsciousness -- consists of 5 main stages
5-10 minutes but increases in length with each time (max 20-5…
The type of sleep encountered during REM when internally, the…
brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep
sleep
state of unconsciousness -- consists of 5 main stages
REM - rapid eye movement
5-10 minutes but increases in length with each time (max 20-5…
31 terms
Chapter 9 Psychology
Classical Conditioning
Neutral Stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus
Unconditioned Response
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally--n…
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring…
Classical Conditioning
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
Neutral Stimulus
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
84 terms
AP Psychology Chapter 9
encoding
storage
retrieval
types of encoding
putting information into your brain
keeping the information in your brain
getting the information out
visual encoding; acoustic encoding; semantic encoding
encoding
putting information into your brain
storage
keeping the information in your brain
25 terms
Invitation to Psychology Chapter 9 Learning
Behaviorism
conditioning
unconditioned response
unconditioned stimulus
the school of psychology that accounts for behavior in terms…
a kind of learning which involves associations between enviro…
the response that is automatically produced
event or thing that elicits a response automatically or refle…
Behaviorism
the school of psychology that accounts for behavior in terms…
conditioning
a kind of learning which involves associations between enviro…
29 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Epigenetics refers to
Elizabeth is in the fifteenth week of…
Although Baby Emma was only a few hour…
Teresa is a quiet child who has never…
the study of the mechanisms that control gene expression and…
fetal
a human face
slow-to-warm-up
Epigenetics refers to
the study of the mechanisms that control gene expression and…
Elizabeth is in the fifteenth week of…
fetal
30 terms
Psychology Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Incentive Approaches
Primary Drives
Instincts
the rate are which the body burns energy when the organism is…
theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a re…
those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger an…
those biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior…
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
the rate are which the body burns energy when the organism is…
Incentive Approaches
theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a re…
31 terms
Psychology - Chapter 9 Learning
classical conditioning
neutral stimulus
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
unconditioned response (UCR)
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
an event that elicits a certain predictable response without…
an organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus
classical conditioning
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
33 terms
Chapter 9 intelligence psychology
Intelligence
Factor theory
Primary mental abilities
Multiple intelligence theory
The capacity to learn from experience, solve problems, and ad…
Found by Spearman... General intelligence (g factor) and particu…
Found by Thurstone... 7/8 separate factors that make up intellig…
Gardner's theory... Believed that each is in different parts of…
Intelligence
The capacity to learn from experience, solve problems, and ad…
Factor theory
Found by Spearman... General intelligence (g factor) and particu…
21 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 vocab
Cross Sectional Method
Longitudinal Method
Cognition
Puberty
study where people of different ages are compared to one anot…
research in which the same people are restudied and retested…
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remember…
period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes ca…
Cross Sectional Method
study where people of different ages are compared to one anot…
Longitudinal Method
research in which the same people are restudied and retested…
31 terms
Understanding Psychology Chapter 9
classical conditioning
neutral stimulus
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
unconditioned response (UCR)
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
an event that elicits a certain predictable response without…
an organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus
classical conditioning
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
43 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
cognition
concept
prototype
problem solving
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
_____________ strategies include... 1. trial and error... 2. algori…
cognition
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
concept
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
41 terms
RV Understanding Psychology - Chapter 9 Learning
neutral stimulus
generalization
discrimination
extinction
a factor that does not elicit any responses prior to conditio…
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the…
neutral stimulus
a factor that does not elicit any responses prior to conditio…
generalization
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
52 terms
AP psychology chapter 9
developmental psychology
nature-nurture issue
interaction
identical twins
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and…
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions…
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such…
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in…
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and…
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions…
49 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Memory
Memory
Sensory Memory
George Sperling
iconic memory
Any indication that learning has persisted over time
A split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information,…
Experimented with sensory memory, flashed images to participa…
A split-second perfect photograph of a scene, lasts a few ten…
Memory
Any indication that learning has persisted over time
Sensory Memory
A split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information,…
36 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 (vocabs)
Human language
Syntax
Grammar
Protolanguage
a communication system specific to Homo sapiens; it is open a…
the rules for arranging words and symbols to form sentences o…
the entire set of rules for combining symbols and sounds to s…
very rudimentary language used by earlier species of Homo; al…
Human language
a communication system specific to Homo sapiens; it is open a…
Syntax
the rules for arranging words and symbols to form sentences o…
74 terms
Chapter 9: Developmental psychology
Cross sectional
Longitudinal study
Reflexes
Rooting
Uses participants of different ages and compare them. Can pro…
Examines one group for a long period of time. Gather partisan…
Specific inborn and automatic responses to certain specific s…
Infants automatically turn their heads in the direction of th…
Cross sectional
Uses participants of different ages and compare them. Can pro…
Longitudinal study
Examines one group for a long period of time. Gather partisan…
16 terms
Chapter 9 psychology
Intelligence
Mental age
Intelligence quotient
Verbal scale
The ability to understand and adapt to the environment by usi…
The level of intellectual functioning in years, which is comp…
A measure of intelligence originally obtained by comparing me…
IQ test items that rely heavily on word comprehension and usa…
Intelligence
The ability to understand and adapt to the environment by usi…
Mental age
The level of intellectual functioning in years, which is comp…
10 terms
Intro to Psychology Chapter 9
intelligence
psychometric test
reliability
validity
an overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, an…
any scientific measurement of a person's mental functions
the ability of a test to yield the same score, or nearly the…
the ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure
intelligence
an overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, an…
psychometric test
any scientific measurement of a person's mental functions
61 terms
Psychology - Chapter 9 - Memory
encoding
storage
retrieval
automatic processing
processing of information into the memory system
retaining information over time
getting information out of storage
unconscious processing of information - does not require effo…
encoding
processing of information into the memory system
storage
retaining information over time
28 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Cognition
Concept
Prototype
Algorithm
All the metal activities associated with thinking, knowing, r…
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
Cognition
All the metal activities associated with thinking, knowing, r…
Concept
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
37 terms
General Psychology 210 - Chapter 9
Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation
need for achievement (n Ach)
Internally motivated, for it's own sake
Motivated by external reward - monetary or other - ex: good g…
Process of initiating, directing, and maintaining physical an…
Measurement of someones desire to attain a difficult goal
Intrinsic Motivation
Internally motivated, for it's own sake
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivated by external reward - monetary or other - ex: good g…
61 terms
Psychology - Chapter 9 - Memory
encoding
storage
retrieval
automatic processing
processing of information into the memory system
retaining information over time
getting information out of storage
unconscious processing of information - does not require effo…
encoding
processing of information into the memory system
storage
retaining information over time
32 terms
Psychology- Chapter 9 (Consciousness)
Consciousness
Monitoring
Control
Consciousness Analogy
The constant moving stream of thoughts, feelings, perceptions…
Watching automated processes take place
Initiate and terminate thought to achieve specific goals. Reg…
Consciousness is like an inspector/manager at a garment facto…
Consciousness
The constant moving stream of thoughts, feelings, perceptions…
Monitoring
Watching automated processes take place
56 terms
Psychology Chapter 9: Consciousness
Origins of Hypnosis
Mesmer
Hypnosis is Developed
Essence of Hypnosis
Mesmer used an unorthodox method of treatment to correct what…
came up with the idea that he could alter the flow of fluids…
Patients were lead to believe they were going to feel better…
heightened suggestibility; when there's a lot of social press…
Origins of Hypnosis
Mesmer used an unorthodox method of treatment to correct what…
Mesmer
came up with the idea that he could alter the flow of fluids…
56 terms
psychology- chapter 9
theory
personality
pyschoanalytic approach
life instincts (eros)
organized collection of testable ideas to explain a particula…
(abc )affects, behaviors, and cognitions that characterize a…
freud believed that drives could explain human behavior... -you'…
impulses for survival, motivate sex, hunger, and thirst
theory
organized collection of testable ideas to explain a particula…
personality
(abc )affects, behaviors, and cognitions that characterize a…
17 terms
Abnormal Psychology - Chapter 9
Antisocial personality disorder
Avoidant personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder
Dependent personality disorder
A Cluster B disorder; the key characteristic is a flagrant di…
A Cluster C disorder; people with avoidant personality disord…
A Cluster B disorder; people with borderline personality diso…
A Cluster C disorder; people with this disorder have a strong…
Antisocial personality disorder
A Cluster B disorder; the key characteristic is a flagrant di…
Avoidant personality disorder
A Cluster C disorder; people with avoidant personality disord…
66 terms
Peter Gray Psychology Chapter 9
memory
retroactive interference
proactive interference
modal model of the mind
-the change within an individual, brought on by learning, tha…
some new info blocks recall of old info
old info blocks new
-standard... -general framework for thinking and talking about t…
memory
-the change within an individual, brought on by learning, tha…
retroactive interference
some new info blocks recall of old info
75 terms
AP Psychology Chapter 9
Accommodation
Adolescence
Aggression
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndr…
process by which we modify ur schemas to fit new information
transition from childhood to adulthood
any behavior that is intended to hurt someone, either physica…
a disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened a…
Accommodation
process by which we modify ur schemas to fit new information
Adolescence
transition from childhood to adulthood
31 terms
Understanding Psychology Chapter 9
classical conditioning
neutral stimulus
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
unconditioned response (UCR)
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
an event that elicits a certain predictable response without…
an organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus
classical conditioning
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
71 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Terms
Motivation
extrinsic motivation
intrinsic motivation
drive-reduction theory
the process by which activities are started, directed, and co…
motivation in which a person performs an action because it le…
motivation in which a person performs an action because the a…
behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal…
Motivation
the process by which activities are started, directed, and co…
extrinsic motivation
motivation in which a person performs an action because it le…
20 terms
Chapter 9: Social Psychology
Conformity
Foot in the Door Technique
Door in the Face Technique
Low Ball Technique
tendency to change your behavior, belief, or both as a result…
compliance to a large request is gained by prefacing it with…
-reciprocity... -compliance is gained by starting with large u…
compliance to a costly request is achieved by first getting c…
Conformity
tendency to change your behavior, belief, or both as a result…
Foot in the Door Technique
compliance to a large request is gained by prefacing it with…
60 terms
Chapter 9: Social Psychology
Social psychology
social influence
Types of Social Influence
Conformity
the scientific study of how we influence one another's behavi…
when people do things they don't really want to, or persuaded…
Conform, Comply, Obey
tendency to change your behavior, belief, or both as a result…
Social psychology
the scientific study of how we influence one another's behavi…
social influence
when people do things they don't really want to, or persuaded…
60 terms
Chapter 9: Social Psychology
Social psychology
social influence
Types of Social Influence
Conformity
the scientific study of how we influence one another's behavi…
when people do things they don't really want to, or persuaded…
Conform, Comply, Obey
tendency to change your behavior, belief, or both as a result…
Social psychology
the scientific study of how we influence one another's behavi…
social influence
when people do things they don't really want to, or persuaded…
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