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Study sets matching "psych chapter 9"

68 terms
Introduction to Psychology Chapter 9
development
cross sectional studies (research meth…
longitudinal studies (research methods)
what are nature and nurture and how do…
pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that o…
assess a number of people at different ages at one point in t…
assess same participants over long period of time to find whe…
nature: someone's biological inheritance... nurture: someone's…
development
pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that o…
cross sectional studies (research meth…
assess a number of people at different ages at one point in t…
10 terms
Psychology: Chapter 9 Vocabulary
Achievement
Intelligence
Mental age
Intelligence quotient
Knowledge and skills gained from experience
Ability to learn from experience, think rationally, and deal…
Intellectual level at which a child is functioning
Number that reflects the relationship between a child's menta…
Achievement
Knowledge and skills gained from experience
Intelligence
Ability to learn from experience, think rationally, and deal…
48 terms
Psychology chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion
motivation
people to know from this chapter
approaches/theories
instinct approach
process by which activities are started, directed, and contin…
McClelland (3 psychological needs)... Maslow (hierarchy of needs…
motivation:... Instinct approach... drive reduction theory ... self-th…
human behavior is governed by biologically determined, innate…
motivation
process by which activities are started, directed, and contin…
people to know from this chapter
McClelland (3 psychological needs)... Maslow (hierarchy of needs…
43 terms
Myers Exploring Psychology Chapter 9
Cognition
Concept
Prototype
Algorithm
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a standard or typical example
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
Cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
Concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
30 terms
AP Psychology Chapter 9
cognition
concept
prototype
algorithm
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
25 terms
Psychology: Chapter 9
When your teacher announces that you a…
If you are an adolescent who has the a…
Studies of single and married individu…
What is a typical characteristic of fe…
Moral
Formal Operations
Husbands typically report higher marital satisfaction than wi…
Brain abnormalities
When your teacher announces that you a…
Moral
If you are an adolescent who has the a…
Formal Operations
47 terms
Peter Gray Psychology Chapter 9
Step 1 Processing Memory model
Step 2 Processing Memory model
Attention
Step 3 Processing Memory model
Sensory input
Sensory memory (unattended information is lost quickly) ... -eve…
If you attend to the information then it goes from sensory me…
Working memory (short-term memory) ... -unrehearsed information…
Step 1 Processing Memory model
Sensory input
Step 2 Processing Memory model
Sensory memory (unattended information is lost quickly) ... -eve…
68 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
When it comes to human development, na…
Genes
Gregor Mendel
Humans have _______ pairs of chromosom…
Genetics/Environment
Pieces of DNA which can be expressed or made inactive by envi…
The father of Psychology
23/46
When it comes to human development, na…
Genetics/Environment
Genes
Pieces of DNA which can be expressed or made inactive by envi…
13 terms
psychology - chapter 9-9.1
algorithm
availability heuristic
belief perseverance
cognition
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availabili…
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on whic…
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availabili…
71 terms
AP Psychology Chapter 9: Memory
Memory
flashbulb memory
encoding
storage
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and…
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
the processing of information into the memory system--for exa…
the retention of encoded information over time
Memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and…
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
31 terms
AP Psychology Chapter 9
cognition
concept
prototype
problem solving
mental activities and processes associated with thinking, kno…
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, states, ideas,…
mental images of the best example of a concept
the thinking we do in order to answer a complex question or t…
cognition
mental activities and processes associated with thinking, kno…
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, states, ideas,…
59 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
**Some page numbers are a little off**
Developmental Psychology.
Ted is a toddler; Janice is in middle…
Behavior Genetics.
...
What is the study of the physical, cognitive, and psychosocia…
Your neighbors have two children: Ted is 2 years old, and Jan…
What field combines psychology and biology to investigate the…
**Some page numbers are a little off**
...
Developmental Psychology.
What is the study of the physical, cognitive, and psychosocia…
19 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Module 23
Memory
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
An active system that receives information from the senses, p…
The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory i…
Holding onto information for some period of time.
Getting information that is in storage into a form that can b…
Memory
An active system that receives information from the senses, p…
Encoding
The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory i…
21 terms
Social Psychology: Chapter 9
Prejudice
Stereotype
Discrimination
Racism
A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individua…
A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people.…
Unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members.
(1) An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory…
Prejudice
A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individua…
Stereotype
A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people.…
42 terms
Psychology- Chapter 9
Motivation
Motives
Incentives
Intrinsic Motivation
Initiates, directs, sustains behaviour to satisfy physiologic…
Need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour toward a…
External stimulus that motivates behaviour
○ Activities motivated without external rewards... ○ Done for th…
Motivation
Initiates, directs, sustains behaviour to satisfy physiologic…
Motives
Need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour toward a…
22 terms
Child Psychology: Chapter 9
Language
Phonology
Semantics
Syntax
a system that relates sounds or gestures to meaning.
refers to the sound of language
denotes the study of words and their meaning
refers to rules that specify how words are combined to form s…
Language
a system that relates sounds or gestures to meaning.
Phonology
refers to the sound of language
63 terms
Chapter 9 Psychology Memory
The next-in-line effect
just before sleep
Spacing Effect
Ebbinghaus
when we are next in line we focus on our own performance and…
1.Information presented on the hour before sleep, as we will…
We also retain information better when our rehearsal is distr…
Those who learn quickly forget quickly. Space study beats cra…
The next-in-line effect
when we are next in line we focus on our own performance and…
just before sleep
1.Information presented on the hour before sleep, as we will…
31 terms
CP Psychology Chapter 9
classical conditioning
neutral stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus
learning by making associations between a natural stimulus an…
does not initially cause a response (bell)
causes a response without any previous training (food)
causes a response after being paired with the unconditioned s…
classical conditioning
learning by making associations between a natural stimulus an…
neutral stimulus
does not initially cause a response (bell)
58 terms
Essentials of psychology chapter 9
developmental psychology
maturation
ovulation
ovaries
the branch of psych that explores physical, emotional, cognit…
the biological unfolding of the organism according to the und…
the release of an egg cell (ovum) from the ovary
the female gonads, which secrete the female sex hormones estr…
developmental psychology
the branch of psych that explores physical, emotional, cognit…
maturation
the biological unfolding of the organism according to the und…
19 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 - Psychological Disorders
psychological disorders
culture-bound syndromes
anxiety
phobia
Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious pers…
Clusters of symptoms that define or describe an illness.
General state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response…
Derives from the Greek root phobos, which means "fear"
psychological disorders
Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious pers…
culture-bound syndromes
Clusters of symptoms that define or describe an illness.
44 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
What is thinking?
Concepts
Prototypes
How do prototypes fail us?
"Cognition," refers to mental activities and processes associ…
A mental grouping of similar or common objects, events, state…
Mental images of the best example of a concept
- When examples stretch our definitions (Is a stool a chair?)…
What is thinking?
"Cognition," refers to mental activities and processes associ…
Concepts
A mental grouping of similar or common objects, events, state…
21 terms
Developmental Psychology Chapter 9
preoperational intelligence
centration
egocentrism
focus on appearance
Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of a…
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young c…
Piaget's term for children's tendency to think about the worl…
a characteristic of preoperational though in which a young ch…
preoperational intelligence
Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of a…
centration
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young c…
27 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Intelligence test
abstract thinking
g (general intelligence)
s (specific abilities)
diagnostic tool design to measure overall thinking ability
capacity to understand hypothetical concepts
hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in…
particular ability level in a narrow domain
Intelligence test
diagnostic tool design to measure overall thinking ability
abstract thinking
capacity to understand hypothetical concepts
21 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Terms
Prototype
Algorithm
Heuristic
Insight
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgm…
A sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with…
Prototype
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
Algorithm
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
31 terms
Chapter 9 Psychology Terms
Cognition
Concept
Prototype
Alogrithm
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
Cognition
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
Concept
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
38 terms
Psychology chapter 9 vocab
Cognition
Concept
Prototype
Algorithm
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
Cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,…
Concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
19 terms
The World of Psychology Chapter 9
Lifespan Perspective
Psychosocial Stages
Identity Crisis
Adolescence
"The view that developemental changes happen throughout the h…
"Erikson's eight developmental stages through which individua…
"The emotional turmoil a teenager experiences when trying to…
"The developmental stage that begins at puberty and encompase…
Lifespan Perspective
"The view that developemental changes happen throughout the h…
Psychosocial Stages
"Erikson's eight developmental stages through which individua…
22 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Animism
Balanced Bilingual
Centration
Conservation
The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive.
A person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one ove…
A characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young c…
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same…
Animism
The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive.
Balanced Bilingual
A person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one ove…
41 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Definitions
mental representations
analogical representation
mental images
symbolic representation
Contents in the mind that stand for some object, event, or st…
An idea that shares some of the actual characteristics of the…
Mental representations that resemble the objects they represe…
A mental representation that stands for some content without…
mental representations
Contents in the mind that stand for some object, event, or st…
analogical representation
An idea that shares some of the actual characteristics of the…
19 terms
Psychology: Chapter 9
Cognition
Mental Representation
Visual Imagery
Mental Rotation
The mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, & sto…
A structure in the mind-such as an idea or image-that stands…
A visual representation created by the brain after the origin…
The process of imagining an object turning in three-dimension…
Cognition
The mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, & sto…
Mental Representation
A structure in the mind-such as an idea or image-that stands…
31 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
1. Instinct Approaches
Start of activity to meet physical or psychological need.... The…
Act itself is motivating or internally rewarding
Outcome is separate from person
Propose that some human actions may be motivated by instincts…
Motivation
Start of activity to meet physical or psychological need.... The…
Intrinsic Motivation
Act itself is motivating or internally rewarding
18 terms
Psychology (PSY 100) - Chapter 9
motivation
drive-reduction theory
physiological need
homeostasis
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state (…
A basic bodily requirement.
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state;…
motivation
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
drive-reduction theory
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state (…
14 terms
Social Psychology: Chapter 9
prosocial behavior
pure (true) altriusm
inclusive fitness
reciprocal aid
action intended to benefit another
action intended solely to benefit another
the survival of one's genes in one's own offspring and in any…
helping that occurs in return for prior help
prosocial behavior
action intended to benefit another
pure (true) altriusm
action intended solely to benefit another
AP Psychology Chapter 9 Developmental Psychology
Nature versus nurture
Cross-sectional research
Longitudinal research
Teratogens
a debate surrounding the relative importance of heredity (nat…
a research design that compares groups of people who differ i…
a research design in which the same individuals are followed…
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the emb…
Nature versus nurture
a debate surrounding the relative importance of heredity (nat…
Cross-sectional research
a research design that compares groups of people who differ i…
51 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
memory
sensory buffer
rehearsal
short term memory
the ability to store and retrieve information we have learned
a very brief type of memory for sensory information
the conscience repetition of information
a type of memory of limited capacity and duration of only sec…
memory
the ability to store and retrieve information we have learned
sensory buffer
a very brief type of memory for sensory information
91 terms
psychology chapter 9
motives
motivation 3 steps
motivation
extrinsic motivation
internal disposition to act certain ways, can be influenced b…
1.sensing need or desire... 2.activating and guiding organism by…
all processes involved in initiating, directing, and maintain…
desire to engage in activity to achieve an external consequen…
motives
internal disposition to act certain ways, can be influenced b…
motivation 3 steps
1.sensing need or desire... 2.activating and guiding organism by…
17 terms
Chapter 9 Discovering Psychology
memory
Information Processing
Encoding
Storage
The ability to retain knowlege
A continuum including attention, sensation, learning, memory,…
The transformation of information from one form to another
The retention of information
memory
The ability to retain knowlege
Information Processing
A continuum including attention, sensation, learning, memory,…
16 terms
chapter 9 psychology
intelligence
savants
congenital
acquired
the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and u…
individual with an incredible often unusual intellectual abil…
born with this intellectual ability
they are getting this intellectual ability after this experie…
intelligence
the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and u…
savants
individual with an incredible often unusual intellectual abil…
19 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Drive-Reduction Theory
Drive
Homeostasis
Arousal
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state (…
psychological state that directs the organism to meet the need
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
When one is physically energized, or tense.
Drive-Reduction Theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state (…
Drive
psychological state that directs the organism to meet the need
31 terms
Psychology Chapter 9 Key Terms
Classical Conditioning
Neutral Stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Unconditioned Response (UR)
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
a stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of an unco…
an event that elicits a certain predictable response typicall…
an organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus
Classical Conditioning
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a…
Neutral Stimulus
a stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of an unco…
42 terms
Psychology chapter 9
Memory
Encoding
Semantic coding
Acoustic encoding
System that encodes, stores, and retrieves info
Modification of information to fit preferred format for the m…
Words
Sounds
Memory
System that encodes, stores, and retrieves info
Encoding
Modification of information to fit preferred format for the m…
57 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Development
Nature-nurture issue
Germinal stage
Embryonic stage
Changes in behavior or abilities or both
The degree to which biology or the environment contributes to…
First stage of prenatal development, conception to 14 days. C…
Second stage of prenatal development, 3rd to 8th week. Most p…
Development
Changes in behavior or abilities or both
Nature-nurture issue
The degree to which biology or the environment contributes to…
264 terms
Chapter 9 Psychology Flashcards
1.Dr. Schmidt studies the factors that…
2.Declan, a PhD candidate, tells his d…
3.Motivation theorists say that a(n) _…
4.When behavior is motivated by reinfo…
D
C
D
D
1.Dr. Schmidt studies the factors that…
D
2.Declan, a PhD candidate, tells his d…
C
37 terms
AP Psychology Chapter 9
Consciousness
Conscious Level
Non-conscious Level
Pre-conscious Level
Awareness of external stimuli and one's own mental activity.
The level at which mental activities that people are normally…
A level of mental activity that is inaccessible to conscious…
A level of mental activity that is not currently conscious bu…
Consciousness
Awareness of external stimuli and one's own mental activity.
Conscious Level
The level at which mental activities that people are normally…
55 terms
Chapter 9: Developmental Psychology
developmental psychology
twin studies
contuinity view
discontinuity view
the psychological speciality studying how organisms change ov…
studies comparing two sets of twin siblings (identical vs fra…
the perspective that development is gradual and continuous
the perspective that development proceeds in an uneven fashio…
developmental psychology
the psychological speciality studying how organisms change ov…
twin studies
studies comparing two sets of twin siblings (identical vs fra…
68 terms
AP Psychology Chapter 9-10 Vocab
memory
encoding
storage
retrieval
the persistence of learning overtime through the storage and…
the processing of information into the memory system- for exa…
the retention of encoded information overtime
the process of getting information out of memory storage
memory
the persistence of learning overtime through the storage and…
encoding
the processing of information into the memory system- for exa…
13 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Ch 9.1
Ch 9.1 (continued)
Ch 9.2
Ch 9.3
-motivation: the process by which activities are started, dir…
-need: a requirement of some matericak that is essential for…
-3 psychological needs (David C. McClelland): affiliation, po…
-stimulative motive: one that appears to be unlearned but cau…
Ch 9.1
-motivation: the process by which activities are started, dir…
Ch 9.1 (continued)
-need: a requirement of some matericak that is essential for…
11 terms
Abnormal Psychology- Chapter 9
Schizophrenia
Catatonia
Schizophreniform
Schizoeffective
characterized by disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavi…
symptom of schizophrenia--- use of gestures for purposeful in…
same symptoms of Schizophrenia, but only last from 1 to 6 mon…
comprises a mixture of symptoms from schizophrenia and mood d…
Schizophrenia
characterized by disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavi…
Catatonia
symptom of schizophrenia--- use of gestures for purposeful in…
6 terms
psychology chapter 9
Intelligence
intelligence tests measure
g factor
Charles Spearman
Capacity to understand the world, think rationally, & use res…
In research studies, intelligence is whatever the
General factor for mental ability, Was thought to underlie pe…
he proposed the idea of general intelligence (g)
Intelligence
Capacity to understand the world, think rationally, & use res…
intelligence tests measure
In research studies, intelligence is whatever the
15 terms
Psychology Chapter 9
Cognition
Concepts
Problem Solving
Trial and Error
thinking
Mental groupings
thinking we do to solve a problem
Trying things out until something works
Cognition
thinking
Concepts
Mental groupings
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