Study sets matching "psych exam 2"

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Study sets matching "psych exam 2"

242 terms
Psychology exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Sensation vs. Perception
Five senses (plus more)
The detection of physical energy emitted by physical objects…
the process by which the brain organizes and interprets senso…
These slides illustrate that human beings are able to pay att…
vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. Skin senses heat, c…
Sensation
The detection of physical energy emitted by physical objects…
Perception
the process by which the brain organizes and interprets senso…
110 terms
psychology exam 2
habituation
dishabituation
what are the types of learning
Pavlov and conditioned response
learning not to respond
a way of responding to old stimuli as if it were new ... 1) a pr…
1. habituation... 2. classical conditioning... 3. instrumental cond…
habituation
learning not to respond
dishabituation
a way of responding to old stimuli as if it were new ... 1) a pr…
23 terms
PSYCHOLOGY EXAM#2: Intelligence
Intelligence
IQ (Intelligence Quotient)
Binet & Simon (1905)
Weschler (1939)
- Ability to solve problems... - Learn complex material effectiv…
- Originally computed by dividing mental age by chronological…
- Developed intelligence test for French Gov.... - Wanted test t…
- Developed scales in 1939, later revised... - Used more frequen…
Intelligence
- Ability to solve problems... - Learn complex material effectiv…
IQ (Intelligence Quotient)
- Originally computed by dividing mental age by chronological…
219 terms
Psychology 1200 exam 2
Sensation
Perceptual Magic in art
Perception
Transduction
The process of detecting external events by sense organs and…
-rely heavily on our senses to tell us whats going on... -sound…
Involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli t…
The process of converting basic sensory information into neur…
Sensation
The process of detecting external events by sense organs and…
Perceptual Magic in art
-rely heavily on our senses to tell us whats going on... -sound…
138 terms
Abnormal Psychology: Exam 2
Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder…
Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorde…
Erectile Disorder symptoms
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
-persistently or recurrently deficient or absent sexual/eroti…
-significantly reduced, or absent, sexual interest/ arousal a…
-repeated failure to obtain or maintain erections during part…
-reverse Vegetative Symptoms (Late August-Septemeber: symptom…
Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder…
-persistently or recurrently deficient or absent sexual/eroti…
Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorde…
-significantly reduced, or absent, sexual interest/ arousal a…
Elementary Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Transduction
Sensory Adaptation
Process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system rec…
Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
Process of converting an external energy or substance into el…
Activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected
Sensation
Process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system rec…
Perception
Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
60 terms
Social Psychology exam 2
Persuasion
Who started research in Persuassion
Opinion
Attitude
Communication designed to influence attitudes... -the process by…
Research began with Hovland (1930-1950s) Yale Professor... -rese…
Judgement expressed in verbal responses
favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward a stimuli…
Persuasion
Communication designed to influence attitudes... -the process by…
Who started research in Persuassion
Research began with Hovland (1930-1950s) Yale Professor... -rese…
61 terms
Social Psychology exam 2
Who said "Know thyself"?... Who said "Exi…
______________ : the sum total of beli…
____________ - Different siblings take…
___________ - establishment niche (hen…
1. Socrates... 2. Jean-Paul Sartre
Self Concept
Diversification
Older Siblings
Who said "Know thyself"?... Who said "Exi…
1. Socrates... 2. Jean-Paul Sartre
______________ : the sum total of beli…
Self Concept
Physiological Psychology-EXAM 2
Neuroaxis
Posterior
Anterior
Dorsal
- An imaginary line that shows the direction in which the cen…
- Relatively speaking toward the back
- Relatively speaking toward the front
- Relatively speaking of the upper side or back
Neuroaxis
- An imaginary line that shows the direction in which the cen…
Posterior
- Relatively speaking toward the back
PSYCHOLOGY - EXAM 2
Consciousness
Waking Consciousness
Altered State of Consciousness
Selective Attention
awareness of everything going on around you and inside your m…
alert state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are c…
shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity
allows us to focus on one stimulus and block out others, whic…
Consciousness
awareness of everything going on around you and inside your m…
Waking Consciousness
alert state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are c…
108 terms
General Psychology - Exam 2
What is the last lobe of the brain to…
Moro Reflex
Rooting Reflex
Sucking Reflex
The Frontal lobe is the last lobe to develop. The frontal lob…
Startle Reflex
Assists in the acting of breastfeeding. A newborn infant will…
Linked with the rooting reflex as it causes a child to instin…
What is the last lobe of the brain to…
The Frontal lobe is the last lobe to develop. The frontal lob…
Moro Reflex
Startle Reflex
57 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Stages of sleep
Stage 1 Sleep
Stage 2 Sleep
Stage 3 Sleep
sleep is composed of several different stages that can... be dif…
transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep;…
the body goes into deep relaxation; characterized by the appe…
deep sleep characterized by low frequency, high amplitude del…
Stages of sleep
sleep is composed of several different stages that can... be dif…
Stage 1 Sleep
transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep;…
Social Psychology Exam2
Cognitive Dissonance
Self-Affirmation
Impact Bias
Postdecision Dissonance
A drive or feeling of discomfort, origionally defined as bein…
In the context of dissonance theory, a way of reducing disson…
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of on…
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced…
Cognitive Dissonance
A drive or feeling of discomfort, origionally defined as bein…
Self-Affirmation
In the context of dissonance theory, a way of reducing disson…
Psychology 101 Exam 2
sensation
perception
Photoreceptors... Mechanoreceptors... Chemor…
Photoreceptors
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system…
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory informatio…
What are the three types of receptor?
vision: light into electricity
sensation
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system…
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory informatio…
215 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Developmental Psychology
Zygote
Emybryo
fetus
examines our physical, cognitive, and social development acro…
the fertilized egg; enters a 2-week period of rapid cell divi…
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertil…
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception t…
Developmental Psychology
examines our physical, cognitive, and social development acro…
Zygote
the fertilized egg; enters a 2-week period of rapid cell divi…
Psychology Exam 2
Classical Conditioning
Example of Classical conditioning
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
A type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus co…
US: Ice Cream... UR: Happy... NS: Sound of an ice cream truck... CR: H…
A response that does not have to be learned.
A stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning.
Classical Conditioning
A type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus co…
Example of Classical conditioning
US: Ice Cream... UR: Happy... NS: Sound of an ice cream truck... CR: H…
123 terms
Psychology Exam 2
personality
personality trait
Raymond Cattell
McCrae and Costa
an individual's unique set of consistent behavioral traits
a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a vari…
concluded that an individual's personality can be described c…
used factor analysis to arrive at a five-factor model of pers…
personality
an individual's unique set of consistent behavioral traits
personality trait
a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a vari…
115 terms
Psychology exam 2
sensation
perception
transduction
sensory neurons
any pattern of physical energy existing around us
making "sense" of what our senses tell us - active process of…
process whereby the characteristics of a stimulus are convert…
detect different forms of energy; biological entities that in…
sensation
any pattern of physical energy existing around us
perception
making "sense" of what our senses tell us - active process of…
98 terms
psychology exam 2
behavior genetics
environment
chromosomes
DNA
the study of the relative power and limits of genetics and en…
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the pe…
made of DNA and contain our genes
a molecule that contains the genetic info. that makes up the…
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetics and en…
environment
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the pe…
Developmental Psychology Exam 2
Pituitary Glands
Growth Hormone
Neuron
Synapse
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the infl…
A hormone released by the anterior pituitary that targets all…
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another…
Pituitary Glands
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the infl…
Growth Hormone
A hormone released by the anterior pituitary that targets all…
Psychology Exam 2
Definition of sensation
Definition of perception
Rods
Cones
Simple stimulation of a sense organ.
The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sen…
-Become active under low-light conditions for night vision ... -…
-Detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and…
Definition of sensation
Simple stimulation of a sense organ.
Definition of perception
The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sen…
Huber Psychology Exam 2
G-Factor
Intelligence
Fluid Intelligence
Crystalized Intelligence
(general factor for mental ability) Was thought to underlie p…
The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and u…
Reflects the ability to reason abstractly
Accumulation of information, knowledge, and skills that: ... Peo…
G-Factor
(general factor for mental ability) Was thought to underlie p…
Intelligence
The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and u…
156 terms
Psychology Exam 2
neurons
How many neurons are in the human nerv…
How many neurons support cells, mostly…
Golgi
fundamental information-processing unit of the nervous system…
100 billion
300 billion to 1 trillion
A man who invented the golgi stain that shows individual neur…
neurons
fundamental information-processing unit of the nervous system…
How many neurons are in the human nerv…
100 billion
131 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Classical Conditioning
Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
a type of learning through which an organism learns to associ…
a stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response wit…
a response that is elicited by an unconditional stimulus with…
a neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an uncon…
Classical Conditioning
a type of learning through which an organism learns to associ…
Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response wit…
115 terms
Exam 2 Psychology
chemical; electric
neurotransmitters
An ________ occurs when an electical s…
sodium ions; positively
A nerve cell communicates with other nerve cells by using bot…
________ travels across the gap between the cells, and plays…
action potential; axon
During an action potential ion channels open along the axon a…
chemical; electric
A nerve cell communicates with other nerve cells by using bot…
neurotransmitters
________ travels across the gap between the cells, and plays…
Psychology Exam 2
Conciousness
Awareness
Metacognition
Arousal
Awareness of external events and internal sensations while un…
The subjective state of reflecting about yourself, your thoug…
Thinking about thinking
Physiological state of being engaged with the environment.... E…
Conciousness
Awareness of external events and internal sensations while un…
Awareness
The subjective state of reflecting about yourself, your thoug…
Psychology Exam 2
Learning
Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus
A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behav…
The process of learning associations between environmental ev…
The basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a…
The natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response with…
Learning
A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behav…
Conditioning
The process of learning associations between environmental ev…
142 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Ambiguous Images
Filling-In
The experience of having your sense organs stimulated
Interpreting the sensations that are experienced
Images with multiple interpretations
(Pattern Completion) phenomena=perception that goes beyond yo…
Sensation
The experience of having your sense organs stimulated
Perception
Interpreting the sensations that are experienced
65 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
Automatic Processing
Effortful Processing
-can store only 7 +/- 2 chunks of information... -quickly lost
-can store billions of information... -lasts for a very long time
unconscious encoding of info
conscious encoding of info
Short-Term Memory
-can store only 7 +/- 2 chunks of information... -quickly lost
Long-Term Memory
-can store billions of information... -lasts for a very long time
136 terms
General Psychology Exam 2
Levels of Processing
cognitive neuroscience
blindsight
hallucinations
unconscious, subconscious, conscious
the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cog…
condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus…
false sensory experiences
Levels of Processing
unconscious, subconscious, conscious
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cog…
psychology Exam 2
stream of consciousness
theory of mind
controlled process
automatic process
a term used by william james to describe the mind as a contin…
an individuals understanding that they and other think, feel,…
the most alert states of human consciousness during which ind…
states of consciousness that require little attention and do…
stream of consciousness
a term used by william james to describe the mind as a contin…
theory of mind
an individuals understanding that they and other think, feel,…
61 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Transduction
Rods
sense organs detection of external stimulus and the transmiss…
brains processing of sense information; provides a neural rep…
sense receptors change the stimulus to signals that go to the…
(photoreceptor) low light vision, no color and not sharp
Sensation
sense organs detection of external stimulus and the transmiss…
Perception
brains processing of sense information; provides a neural rep…
Psychology Exam 2
Behavior geneticists
Environment
Genes
Chromosome
-The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and en…
Every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the p…
-The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosom…
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the…
Behavior geneticists
-The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and en…
Environment
Every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the p…
112 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Visualizing Structure
Visualizing Function
Visualizing Timing
Sympathetic System
Computer-assisted Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging ... Str…
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)... Functional Magnetic Resona…
Electroencephalograph (EEG)... -excellent temporal resolution (m…
Apart of the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous sys…
Visualizing Structure
Computer-assisted Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging ... Str…
Visualizing Function
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)... Functional Magnetic Resona…
61 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Repair and restoration theory
Evolutionary theory of sleep
Stage 1
Stage 2
We sleep to repair and restore our body. 1st theory of why we…
States that our sleep patterns evolved from our ancestors.
Drifting off to sleep
You are in a light sleep
Repair and restoration theory
We sleep to repair and restore our body. 1st theory of why we…
Evolutionary theory of sleep
States that our sleep patterns evolved from our ancestors.
Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Bottom-Up Processing
Top-Down Processing
Sensory information coming into the brain
Interpretation of the sensory information
Enables our sensory systems to detect lines, colors, and move…
Constructs perceptions from sensory input by drawing on our e…
Sensation
Sensory information coming into the brain
Perception
Interpretation of the sensory information
Cross Cultural Psychology (Exam 2)
Intelligence
Intelligence
Psychometric view of intelligence
Taiwanese-Chinese Intelligence
- set of mental skills necessary to achieve goals and aid ada…
- global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, over…
the view based on an assumption that our intelligence can rec…
emphasizes understanding and relating to others (including kn…
Intelligence
- set of mental skills necessary to achieve goals and aid ada…
Intelligence
- global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, over…
38 terms
Psychology Exam 2 Social Psychology
Three main findings about how you tend…
Spotlight Effect
Gilovich's T-shirt Experiment
"Lake Wobegon" effect and possible exp…
1. You're the hero of your own story. 2. You are above averag…
People overestimate the degree to which others pay attention…
In an experiment, participants wearing an embarrassing t-shir…
Systematic tendency to see ourselves as better than average.…
Three main findings about how you tend…
1. You're the hero of your own story. 2. You are above averag…
Spotlight Effect
People overestimate the degree to which others pay attention…
Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Psychophysics
Absolute Threshold
Sensory organs receiving information and producing neural imp…
How we organize and interpret sensory information
Study of relationship between physical stimuli and psychologi…
Minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50 percent of…
Sensation
Sensory organs receiving information and producing neural imp…
Perception
How we organize and interpret sensory information
Psychology Exam 2
mnemonics
Three basic memory processes
capacity of short term memory
elaboration
memory aids such as: ... acronyms and acrostics
encoding- info is perceived and initially put into memory ... st…
info can be held for 15-30 seconds ... 7 plus or minus 2 pieces…
making connections between new info and info that is already…
mnemonics
memory aids such as: ... acronyms and acrostics
Three basic memory processes
encoding- info is perceived and initially put into memory ... st…
126 terms
Psychology Exam 2 Review
What theory helps explain why, after s…
What part of the ear do sound waves fi…
Which type of receptor is most effecti…
Someone turned off the lights! Is ther…
Opponent-Process Theory
Outer Ear
Rods
Turn your head slightly, because the position of rods and con…
What theory helps explain why, after s…
Opponent-Process Theory
What part of the ear do sound waves fi…
Outer Ear
20 terms
Lifespan Psychology exam 2
Teratogens
The Newborn Assessment: Apgar Scores
The Newborn Assessment: ... Neonatal Beha…
3 Types of crying
Things in the internal or external environment that can be ha…
0-10 Scale: Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance, Respiration…
Provides a comprehensive evaluation of a baby's behavioral or…
Basic... Mad... Pain
Teratogens
Things in the internal or external environment that can be ha…
The Newborn Assessment: Apgar Scores
0-10 Scale: Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance, Respiration…
17 terms
Psychology Exam 2
What is meant by personality?
Personality
American psychologist Gordon Allport's…
Trait
-Continued Patterns of behavior... -Consistent over time... -No per…
people's typical way of thinking, feeling, and behaving
Personality consisting of predisposition that influence our b…
relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behavi…
What is meant by personality?
-Continued Patterns of behavior... -Consistent over time... -No per…
Personality
people's typical way of thinking, feeling, and behaving
Psychology 150 exam 2
probability sampling techniques
Theory
Case study
Positive correlation
random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling, co…
a general explanation that organizes observations and predict…
Study on a persons very rare condition.
r=+1.0 positive linear line
probability sampling techniques
random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling, co…
Theory
a general explanation that organizes observations and predict…
abnormal psychology: exam 2
independent variable
dependent variable
ethical issues in research
case study
factor that can affect dependent variable
factor that can be predicted
understanding the study, confidentiality, right to withdraw,…
detailed history of an individual, cannot be generalized
independent variable
factor that can affect dependent variable
dependent variable
factor that can be predicted
203 terms
Personality psychology Exam 2
Object relations
Terror Management Theory (TMT)
Mortality salience inductions
subtle thoughts
well defined ideas or mental representations (objects) that a…
suggests that we are strongly (though often unconsciously) in…
With threat to mortality, we act aggressively towards others…
(standing near a funeral home)
Object relations
well defined ideas or mental representations (objects) that a…
Terror Management Theory (TMT)
suggests that we are strongly (though often unconsciously) in…
58 terms
Psychology exam 2
inattentional blindness
change blindness
cost of focus
mind wandering
Failure to fully see visible objects or events bc ones attent…
failure to see a change in an enviorment bc ones attention is…
Focusing awareness has a cost. It is tiring in the same way t…
a redirection of attention away from an intended goal or focus.
inattentional blindness
Failure to fully see visible objects or events bc ones attent…
change blindness
failure to see a change in an enviorment bc ones attention is…
75 terms
Cognitive Psychology Exam 2
Alexia
Visual Agnosia
Apperceptive Agnosia
Associative Agnosia
Aquired Dislexia... -difficulty with letters and words
Difficulty Perceiving Objects
Damage in the back of the brain (Ventral Pathway)... -Cannot dis…
Damage towards the front of the Brain... -CAN copy basic shapes…
Alexia
Aquired Dislexia... -difficulty with letters and words
Visual Agnosia
Difficulty Perceiving Objects
109 terms
Abnormal Psychology Exam 2
What Are Mood Disorders?
Depression
Mania
2 Classes of Mood Disorders
Abnormalities in 2 key moods:... Depression... Mania
Extreme sadness... ↓ energy... ↓ motivation... ↓ ability to experience…
Euphoric... ↑ energy... ↑ motivation... ↑ self-esteem (grandiosity) ... R…
Unipolar depression... Bipolar depression
What Are Mood Disorders?
Abnormalities in 2 key moods:... Depression... Mania
Depression
Extreme sadness... ↓ energy... ↓ motivation... ↓ ability to experience…
Psychology Exam 2
Conciousness
Selective attention
Circadian Rhythm
REM Sleep
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
More than a day, 20-24 hour rhythm, temp goes up and down; th…
Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during whic…
Conciousness
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Selective attention
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
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