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Study sets matching "psych exam 2"

242 terms
Psychology exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Sensation vs. Perception
Five senses (plus more)
The detection of physical energy emitted by physical objects…
the process by which the brain organizes and interprets senso…
These slides illustrate that human beings are able to pay att…
vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. Skin senses heat, c…
Sensation
The detection of physical energy emitted by physical objects…
Perception
the process by which the brain organizes and interprets senso…
110 terms
psychology exam 2
habituation
dishabituation
what are the types of learning
Pavlov and conditioned response
learning not to respond
a way of responding to old stimuli as if it were new ... 1) a pr…
1. habituation... 2. classical conditioning... 3. instrumental cond…
habituation
learning not to respond
dishabituation
a way of responding to old stimuli as if it were new ... 1) a pr…
Psychology Exam 2
Definition of sensation
Definition of perception
Rods
Cones
Simple stimulation of a sense organ.
The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sen…
-Become active under low-light conditions for night vision ... -…
-Detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and…
Definition of sensation
Simple stimulation of a sense organ.
Definition of perception
The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sen…
23 terms
PSYCHOLOGY EXAM#2: Intelligence
Intelligence
IQ (Intelligence Quotient)
Binet & Simon (1905)
Weschler (1939)
- Ability to solve problems... - Learn complex material effectiv…
- Originally computed by dividing mental age by chronological…
- Developed intelligence test for French Gov.... - Wanted test t…
- Developed scales in 1939, later revised... - Used more frequen…
Intelligence
- Ability to solve problems... - Learn complex material effectiv…
IQ (Intelligence Quotient)
- Originally computed by dividing mental age by chronological…
138 terms
Abnormal Psychology: Exam 2
Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder…
Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorde…
Erectile Disorder symptoms
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
-persistently or recurrently deficient or absent sexual/eroti…
-significantly reduced, or absent, sexual interest/ arousal a…
-repeated failure to obtain or maintain erections during part…
-reverse Vegetative Symptoms (Late August-Septemeber: symptom…
Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder…
-persistently or recurrently deficient or absent sexual/eroti…
Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorde…
-significantly reduced, or absent, sexual interest/ arousal a…
128 terms
Physiological Psychology-EXAM 2
Neuroaxis
Posterior
Anterior
Dorsal
- An imaginary line that shows the direction in which the cen…
- Relatively speaking toward the back
- Relatively speaking toward the front
- Relatively speaking of the upper side or back
Neuroaxis
- An imaginary line that shows the direction in which the cen…
Posterior
- Relatively speaking toward the back
Elementary Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Transduction
Sensory Adaptation
Process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system rec…
Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
Process of converting an external energy or substance into el…
Activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected
Sensation
Process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system rec…
Perception
Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
60 terms
Social Psychology exam 2
Persuasion
Who started research in Persuassion
Opinion
Attitude
Communication designed to influence attitudes... -the process by…
Research began with Hovland (1930-1950s) Yale Professor... -rese…
Judgement expressed in verbal responses
favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward a stimuli…
Persuasion
Communication designed to influence attitudes... -the process by…
Who started research in Persuassion
Research began with Hovland (1930-1950s) Yale Professor... -rese…
61 terms
Social Psychology exam 2
Who said "Know thyself"?... Who said "Exi…
______________ : the sum total of beli…
____________ - Different siblings take…
___________ - establishment niche (hen…
1. Socrates... 2. Jean-Paul Sartre
Self Concept
Diversification
Older Siblings
Who said "Know thyself"?... Who said "Exi…
1. Socrates... 2. Jean-Paul Sartre
______________ : the sum total of beli…
Self Concept
57 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Stages of sleep
Stage 1 Sleep
Stage 2 Sleep
Stage 3 Sleep
sleep is composed of several different stages that can... be dif…
transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep;…
the body goes into deep relaxation; characterized by the appe…
deep sleep characterized by low frequency, high amplitude del…
Stages of sleep
sleep is composed of several different stages that can... be dif…
Stage 1 Sleep
transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep;…
345 terms
Social Psychology-Exam 2
what is the process by which people th…
what kind of thought to people have a…
when do controlled behaviors occur?
what are the goals of social cognition?
social cognition
effortful, conscious thought
when something is vitally important to meeting goals and stan…
to conserve mental effort, to be accurate, and to manage self…
what is the process by which people th…
social cognition
what kind of thought to people have a…
effortful, conscious thought
45 terms
Social Psychology Exam2
Cognitive Dissonance
Self-Affirmation
Impact Bias
Postdecision Dissonance
A drive or feeling of discomfort, origionally defined as bein…
In the context of dissonance theory, a way of reducing disson…
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of on…
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced…
Cognitive Dissonance
A drive or feeling of discomfort, origionally defined as bein…
Self-Affirmation
In the context of dissonance theory, a way of reducing disson…
108 terms
General Psychology - Exam 2
What is the last lobe of the brain to…
Moro Reflex
Rooting Reflex
Sucking Reflex
The Frontal lobe is the last lobe to develop. The frontal lob…
Startle Reflex
Assists in the acting of breastfeeding. A newborn infant will…
Linked with the rooting reflex as it causes a child to instin…
What is the last lobe of the brain to…
The Frontal lobe is the last lobe to develop. The frontal lob…
Moro Reflex
Startle Reflex
184 terms
PSYCHOLOGY - EXAM 2
Consciousness
Waking Consciousness
Altered State of Consciousness
Selective Attention
awareness of everything going on around you and inside your m…
alert state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are c…
shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity
allows us to focus on one stimulus and block out others, whic…
Consciousness
awareness of everything going on around you and inside your m…
Waking Consciousness
alert state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are c…
60 terms
Huber Psychology Exam 2
G-Factor
Intelligence
Fluid Intelligence
Crystalized Intelligence
(general factor for mental ability) Was thought to underlie p…
The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and u…
Reflects the ability to reason abstractly
Accumulation of information, knowledge, and skills that: ... Peo…
G-Factor
(general factor for mental ability) Was thought to underlie p…
Intelligence
The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and u…
215 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Developmental Psychology
Zygote
Emybryo
fetus
examines our physical, cognitive, and social development acro…
the fertilized egg; enters a 2-week period of rapid cell divi…
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertil…
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception t…
Developmental Psychology
examines our physical, cognitive, and social development acro…
Zygote
the fertilized egg; enters a 2-week period of rapid cell divi…
58 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Classical Conditioning
Example of Classical conditioning
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
A type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus co…
US: Ice Cream... UR: Happy... NS: Sound of an ice cream truck... CR: H…
A response that does not have to be learned.
A stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning.
Classical Conditioning
A type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus co…
Example of Classical conditioning
US: Ice Cream... UR: Happy... NS: Sound of an ice cream truck... CR: H…
Psychology 101 Exam 2
sensation
perception
Photoreceptors... Mechanoreceptors... Chemor…
Photoreceptors
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system…
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory informatio…
What are the three types of receptor?
vision: light into electricity
sensation
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system…
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory informatio…
154 terms
Psychology Exam 2
binocular disparity
trichromatic ("three colors") theory
relative size
bottom-up processing
the difference in images between the two eyes, which is great…
theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: re…
perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to…
the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complet…
binocular disparity
the difference in images between the two eyes, which is great…
trichromatic ("three colors") theory
theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: re…
197 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Consciousness
Waking consciousness
Altered state of consciousness
Biological rhythms
Your awareness of everything that is going on around you and…
In which their thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear a…
State in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of…
The natural cycle of activities that a body must go through.
Consciousness
Your awareness of everything that is going on around you and…
Waking consciousness
In which their thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear a…
98 terms
psychology exam 2
behavior genetics
environment
chromosomes
DNA
the study of the relative power and limits of genetics and en…
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the pe…
made of DNA and contain our genes
a molecule that contains the genetic info. that makes up the…
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetics and en…
environment
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the pe…
118 terms
Developmental Psychology Exam 2
Pituitary Glands
Growth Hormone
Neuron
Synapse
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the infl…
A hormone released by the anterior pituitary that targets all…
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another…
Pituitary Glands
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the infl…
Growth Hormone
A hormone released by the anterior pituitary that targets all…
Psychology Exam 2
neuron
neurotransmitter
synapse
afferent neurons
A nerve cell - Neurons communicate by ways of the NT
Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural im…
Watery area between neurons
(Sensory neurons) Carry info from sense receptors to the brai…
neuron
A nerve cell - Neurons communicate by ways of the NT
neurotransmitter
Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural im…
175 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Learning
Two types of Learning
Associative Learing
Conditioning
A systemic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occu…
1. Associative learning... 2. Observational Learning
Makes connections between two events
The process of learning these associations
Learning
A systemic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occu…
Two types of Learning
1. Associative learning... 2. Observational Learning
106 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Bottom Up Processing
Top Down Processing
the processes by which our sense organs receive information f…
the processes by which people select, organize, and interpret…
Perception based on the physical features of the stimulus. Ex…
How knowledge, expectations, or past experiences shape the in…
Sensation
the processes by which our sense organs receive information f…
Perception
the processes by which people select, organize, and interpret…
206 terms
Psychology Exam 2
neurotransmitters
Helmholtz's subtraction method
ligands
synaptic cleft
-released by the presynaptic cell and, by diffusing from its…
long distance-short distance... --------------------------------…
fit receptors and activate or block them... -endogenous ligands:…
-little space between pre and postsynaptic cells... -small dista…
neurotransmitters
-released by the presynaptic cell and, by diffusing from its…
Helmholtz's subtraction method
long distance-short distance... --------------------------------…
131 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Classical Conditioning
Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
a type of learning through which an organism learns to associ…
a stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response wit…
a response that is elicited by an unconditional stimulus with…
a neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an uncon…
Classical Conditioning
a type of learning through which an organism learns to associ…
Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response wit…
115 terms
Exam 2 Psychology
chemical; electric
neurotransmitters
An ________ occurs when an electical s…
sodium ions; positively
A nerve cell communicates with other nerve cells by using bot…
________ travels across the gap between the cells, and plays…
action potential; axon
During an action potential ion channels open along the axon a…
chemical; electric
A nerve cell communicates with other nerve cells by using bot…
neurotransmitters
________ travels across the gap between the cells, and plays…
158 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Conciousness
Awareness
Metacognition
Arousal
Awareness of external events and internal sensations while un…
The subjective state of reflecting about yourself, your thoug…
Thinking about thinking
Physiological state of being engaged with the environment.... E…
Conciousness
Awareness of external events and internal sensations while un…
Awareness
The subjective state of reflecting about yourself, your thoug…
276 terms
Exam 2 - Psychology
Genes + Environment / Experience =
Nucleus
Karyotype
Alleles
provide a basis for all structures and functions... genes code…
46 chromosomes/cell... you get 23 from dad and 23 from mom
set up of all chromosomes - 23 positions with two chromosome…
Gene Pair: 1 from dad or 1 from mom... can be homozygous or het…
Genes + Environment / Experience =
provide a basis for all structures and functions... genes code…
Nucleus
46 chromosomes/cell... you get 23 from dad and 23 from mom
63 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Learning
Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus
A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behav…
The process of learning associations between environmental ev…
The basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a…
The natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response with…
Learning
A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behav…
Conditioning
The process of learning associations between environmental ev…
63 terms
psychology Exam 2
stream of consciousness
theory of mind
controlled process
automatic process
a term used by william james to describe the mind as a contin…
an individuals understanding that they and other think, feel,…
the most alert states of human consciousness during which ind…
states of consciousness that require little attention and do…
stream of consciousness
a term used by william james to describe the mind as a contin…
theory of mind
an individuals understanding that they and other think, feel,…
Psychology Exam 2
Behavior geneticists
Environment
Genes
Chromosome
-The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and en…
Every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the p…
-The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosom…
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the…
Behavior geneticists
-The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and en…
Environment
Every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the p…
112 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Visualizing Structure
Visualizing Function
Visualizing Timing
Sympathetic System
Computer-assisted Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging ... Str…
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)... Functional Magnetic Resona…
Electroencephalograph (EEG)... -excellent temporal resolution (m…
Apart of the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous sys…
Visualizing Structure
Computer-assisted Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging ... Str…
Visualizing Function
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)... Functional Magnetic Resona…
25 terms
Introduction to Psychology, Exam 2
Harlows' studies of attachment....
The cocktail part effect provides an e…
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep…
Repeated use of an opiate...
A cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response.
selective attention
our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary musc…
decreases the brain's production of endorphins.
Harlows' studies of attachment....
A cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response.
The cocktail part effect provides an e…
selective attention
61 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Transduction
Rods
sense organs detection of external stimulus and the transmiss…
brains processing of sense information; provides a neural rep…
sense receptors change the stimulus to signals that go to the…
(photoreceptor) low light vision, no color and not sharp
Sensation
sense organs detection of external stimulus and the transmiss…
Perception
brains processing of sense information; provides a neural rep…
69 terms
Cross Cultural Psychology (Exam 2)
Intelligence
Intelligence
Psychometric view of intelligence
Taiwanese-Chinese Intelligence
- set of mental skills necessary to achieve goals and aid ada…
- global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, over…
the view based on an assumption that our intelligence can rec…
emphasizes understanding and relating to others (including kn…
Intelligence
- set of mental skills necessary to achieve goals and aid ada…
Intelligence
- global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, over…
59 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Sensation
Perception
Psychophysics
Absolute Threshold
Sensory organs receiving information and producing neural imp…
How we organize and interpret sensory information
Study of relationship between physical stimuli and psychologi…
Minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50 percent of…
Sensation
Sensory organs receiving information and producing neural imp…
Perception
How we organize and interpret sensory information
219 terms
Psychology 1200 exam 2
Sensation
Perceptual Magic in art
Perception
Transduction
The process of detecting external events by sense organs and…
-rely heavily on our senses to tell us whats going on... -sound…
Involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli t…
The process of converting basic sensory information into neur…
Sensation
The process of detecting external events by sense organs and…
Perceptual Magic in art
-rely heavily on our senses to tell us whats going on... -sound…
64 terms
Psychology Exam 2
mnemonics
Three basic memory processes
capacity of short term memory
elaboration
memory aids such as: ... acronyms and acrostics
encoding- info is perceived and initially put into memory ... st…
info can be held for 15-30 seconds ... 7 plus or minus 2 pieces…
making connections between new info and info that is already…
mnemonics
memory aids such as: ... acronyms and acrostics
Three basic memory processes
encoding- info is perceived and initially put into memory ... st…
46 terms
Psychology Exam 2
dissociation and hypnosis
narcolepsy
narcotics
nightmares vs. night terrors
-hypnosis as dissociation... -a divided state of consciousness…
-sleeping disorder... -can lead to injury... -sudden attacks of ove…
-depressants... -make you mellow... -decrease nervous system activi…
*Nightmare... *Night Terror... -state of panic while asleep... -high…
dissociation and hypnosis
-hypnosis as dissociation... -a divided state of consciousness…
narcolepsy
-sleeping disorder... -can lead to injury... -sudden attacks of ove…
37 terms
PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 2
Sensory adaptation
Top down processing
Bottom up processing
Absolute VS. differential threshold
Involves a gradual decrease in sensory response caused by the…
The brain imposes its own structure on incoming information u…
The brain uses incoming signals to construct perceptions ... Per…
-The absolute threshold is the smallest detectable level of a…
Sensory adaptation
Involves a gradual decrease in sensory response caused by the…
Top down processing
The brain imposes its own structure on incoming information u…
156 terms
Psychology Exam 2
neurons
How many neurons are in the human nerv…
How many neurons support cells, mostly…
Golgi
fundamental information-processing unit of the nervous system…
100 billion
300 billion to 1 trillion
A man who invented the golgi stain that shows individual neur…
neurons
fundamental information-processing unit of the nervous system…
How many neurons are in the human nerv…
100 billion
144 terms
Psychology 101 Exam 2
Learning
Behaviorism
Classical Conditioning
How to achieve Classical Conditioning:
relatively enduring change in behavior that occurs as a resul…
-the environment shapes behavior, ... -all learning occurs throu…
forming a relationship between 2 stimuli resulting in a learn…
To achieve conditioning, the neutral stimulus is presented ju…
Learning
relatively enduring change in behavior that occurs as a resul…
Behaviorism
-the environment shapes behavior, ... -all learning occurs throu…
275 terms
psychology 2000 exam 2
Awareness of everything around you and…
consciousness is used to organize your…
2 types of consciousness?
waking consciousness?
consciousness
behavior, thoughts, sensations and feelings
waking, altered state
thoughts, feeling sensations when we are awake; generally cle…
Awareness of everything around you and…
consciousness
consciousness is used to organize your…
behavior, thoughts, sensations and feelings
136 terms
General Psychology Exam 2
Levels of Processing
cognitive neuroscience
blindsight
hallucinations
unconscious, subconscious, conscious
the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cog…
condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus…
false sensory experiences
Levels of Processing
unconscious, subconscious, conscious
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cog…
279 terms
Psychology: Exam 2
consciousness
working consciousness
altered consciousness
stage 1 sleep
the awareness of the sensations, thoughts and feelings we exp…
we are awake and aware of our thoughts, emotions, and percept…
all other states besides working consciousness; sleeping and…
the state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, charac…
consciousness
the awareness of the sensations, thoughts and feelings we exp…
working consciousness
we are awake and aware of our thoughts, emotions, and percept…
104 terms
Psychology Exam 2
Conciousness
Selective attention
Circadian Rhythm
REM Sleep
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
More than a day, 20-24 hour rhythm, temp goes up and down; th…
Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during whic…
Conciousness
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Selective attention
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
20 terms
Lifespan Psychology exam 2
Teratogens
The Newborn Assessment: Apgar Scores
The Newborn Assessment: ... Neonatal Beha…
3 Types of crying
Things in the internal or external environment that can be ha…
0-10 Scale: Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance, Respiration…
Provides a comprehensive evaluation of a baby's behavioral or…
Basic... Mad... Pain
Teratogens
Things in the internal or external environment that can be ha…
The Newborn Assessment: Apgar Scores
0-10 Scale: Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance, Respiration…
200 terms
General Psychology Exam 2
Learning
Learning: Process of Memory
Types of Learning
Classical Conditioning
A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by ex…
Some part of the brain is physically changed to record what h…
Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational l…
Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus that normall…
Learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by ex…
Learning: Process of Memory
Some part of the brain is physically changed to record what h…
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