#### Study sets matching "psychology chapter 12 research"

#### Study sets matching "psychology chapter 12 research"

interaction effect

factorial design

cell

participant variable

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

one in which there are two or more independent variables

overlay process that creates unique conditions

a variable whose levels are selected not manipulated

interaction effect

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

factorial design

one in which there are two or more independent variables

Quasi-experiments

Nonequivalent control group design

Interrupted time-series design

Nonequivalent groups interrupted time-…

Experimental situations where experimenter does not directly…

A quasi-experimental study that that has at least one treatme…

A quasi-experimental study that measures people repeatedly on…

Combines the nonequivalent control group design with the inte…

Quasi-experiments

Experimental situations where experimenter does not directly…

Nonequivalent control group design

A quasi-experimental study that that has at least one treatme…

Interaction Effect

Factorial Design

Reasons for Adding a Second Variable

Participant Variable

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

is one in which there are two or more independent variables (…

testing for theoretical interactions, establishing the genera…

a variable whose levels are selected (measured) not manipulat…

Interaction Effect

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

Factorial Design

is one in which there are two or more independent variables (…

Naturalistic Observation

Participant observation

What happened in Festinger's study of…

Parent-Child interaction in a science…

Study behavior in natural environments

Investigator is involved in the group being observed, and the…

The end of the world was predicted ... Festinger observed as a p…

Looking at genders of children actively being encouraged by p…

Naturalistic Observation

Study behavior in natural environments

Participant observation

Investigator is involved in the group being observed, and the…

Interaction effect

Factorial design

Cell

Participant variable

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

Used when testing for interactions; a design in which there a…

Unique conditions created when crossing two independent varia…

A variable whose levels are selected (i.e., measured), not ma…

Interaction effect

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

Factorial design

Used when testing for interactions; a design in which there a…

Interaction Effect

Factorial Design

Reasons for Adding a Second Variable

Participant Variable

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

is one in which there are two or more independent variables (…

testing for theoretical interactions, establishing the genera…

a variable whose levels are selected (measured) not manipulat…

Interaction Effect

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

Factorial Design

is one in which there are two or more independent variables (…

Quasi-experiments

Nonequivalent control group design

Interrupted time-series design

Nonequivalent groups interrupted time-…

Experimental situations where experimenter does not directly…

A quasi-experimental study that that has at least one treatme…

A quasi-experimental study that measures people repeatedly on…

Combines the nonequivalent control group design with the inte…

Quasi-experiments

Experimental situations where experimenter does not directly…

Nonequivalent control group design

A quasi-experimental study that that has at least one treatme…

Interaction effect

A "difference in differences"

Factorial design

Cell

- A result from a factorial design, in which the difference i…

- The mathematical way to describe an interaction of two inde…

- A design in which there are two or more independent variabl…

A condition in an experiment, in a simple experiment, it can…

Interaction effect

- A result from a factorial design, in which the difference i…

A "difference in differences"

- The mathematical way to describe an interaction of two inde…

In a quasi experiment make the effecti…

In a quasi experiment the effectivenes…

A drought in California created the op…

Which of these is not a method to maxi…

Selection validity

Nonequivalent control group the control group is not equivale…

External validity is the application to other places people o…

Replicate to study in a natural setting. This mall and extern…

In a quasi experiment make the effecti…

Selection validity

In a quasi experiment the effectivenes…

Nonequivalent control group the control group is not equivale…

In a quasi experiment make the effecti…

In a quasi experiment the effectivenes…

A drought in California created the op…

Which of these is not a method to maxi…

Selection validity

Nonequivalent control group the control group is not equivale…

External validity is the application to other places people o…

Replicate to study in a natural setting. This mall and extern…

In a quasi experiment make the effecti…

Selection validity

In a quasi experiment the effectivenes…

Nonequivalent control group the control group is not equivale…

Interaction Effect

Interaction Example

Crossover Interaction

Spreading Interaction

The effect of an additional independent variable and whether…

Do you like hot foods or cold foods? Your preference probably…

When two independent variables interact and their measured va…

A graph of an interaction where the lines are not parallel, b…

Interaction Effect

The effect of an additional independent variable and whether…

Interaction Example

Do you like hot foods or cold foods? Your preference probably…

Interaction Effect

Factorial Design

Reasons for Adding a Second Variable

Participant Variable

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

is one in which there are two or more independent variables (…

testing for theoretical interactions, establishing the genera…

a variable whose levels are selected (measured) not manipulat…

Interaction Effect

whether the effect of the original independent variable depen…

Factorial Design

is one in which there are two or more independent variables (…

In a quasi experiment make the effecti…

In a quasi experiment the effectivenes…

A drought in California created the op…

Which of these is not a method to maxi…

Selection validity

Nonequivalent control group the control group is not equivale…

External validity is the application to other places people o…

Replicate to study in a natural setting. This mall and extern…

In a quasi experiment make the effecti…

Selection validity

In a quasi experiment the effectivenes…

Nonequivalent control group the control group is not equivale…

Survey Research

Steps in Conducting Survey Research

Types of Survey Designs: ... *Cross-secti…

Types of Survey Designs: Longitudinal…

- Nonexperimental method using interviews or questionnaires t…

- Plan and design the survey research study (determine what i…

- collecting data in a single, brief time period... - typically…

- collecting data from the same participants at more than one…

Survey Research

- Nonexperimental method using interviews or questionnaires t…

Steps in Conducting Survey Research

- Plan and design the survey research study (determine what i…

Bracketing

Category

Coding

Confirmability

Identification of any previous knowledge, ideas, or beliefs a…

Type of concept that is usually used for a higher level of ab…

Process by which data are conceptualized

Method used to establish the scientific rigor of phenomenolog…

Bracketing

Identification of any previous knowledge, ideas, or beliefs a…

Category

Type of concept that is usually used for a higher level of ab…

What are Descriptive statistics used f…

In frequency distributions, __________…

Data for a variable can be completely…

Can the shape of a distribution can be…

used to summarize and describe quantitative data.

numeric values

the shape of the distribution, central tendency, and variabil…

with one tail longer than the other; it can also be unimodal…

What are Descriptive statistics used f…

used to summarize and describe quantitative data.

In frequency distributions, __________…

numeric values

Personality Trait

Factor Analysis

Psychodynamic Theories

ID

A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a vari…

Correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify cl…

All the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund F…

The primitive, instinctual component of personality that oper…

Personality Trait

A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a vari…

Factor Analysis

Correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify cl…

Mixed-methods research:

T/F: On average, a mixed-methods resea…

Convergent Design:

Embedded Design:

- Both qualitative and quantitative data... - Integrating conclu…

False, it requires more time.

Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data in a parall…

- Both quantitative and qualitative data are collected within…

Mixed-methods research:

- Both qualitative and quantitative data... - Integrating conclu…

T/F: On average, a mixed-methods resea…

False, it requires more time.

Bar Graph

Central Tendency

Correlation Coefficient

Criterion Variable

A visual presentation that uses bars to depict frequencies of…

A single number or value that describes the typical or centra…

An index of how strongly two variables are related to each ot…

The variable/score that is predicted based upon an individual…

Bar Graph

A visual presentation that uses bars to depict frequencies of…

Central Tendency

A single number or value that describes the typical or centra…

interaction effect

factorial design

cells

participant variable

the effect of an additional independent variable. ... A result f…

There are two or more independent variables. ... A study in whic…

A condition in an experiment; in a simple experiment, it can…

A variable whose levels are selected (i.e. measured), not man…

interaction effect

the effect of an additional independent variable. ... A result f…

factorial design

There are two or more independent variables. ... A study in whic…

Which statistic is often used for norm…

What level of measurement is most ofte…

Which inferential procedure is appropr…

Inferential statistics are used to dec…

Chi-square

Nominal

Chi-square

Independent variable.

Which statistic is often used for norm…

Chi-square

What level of measurement is most ofte…

Nominal

When appraising the sampling of a stud…

Sampling is the process of

Population

Target population is

Threats to internal and external validity and bias need to be…

selecting units in a population in a study

a well defined set that has specified properties ... -can be co…

-established by the population criteria, is the entire set of…

When appraising the sampling of a stud…

Threats to internal and external validity and bias need to be…

Sampling is the process of

selecting units in a population in a study

The levels of nominal scale variables…

In many experiments, the independent v…

Which of the following is a ratio-scal…

A __________ of exam scores reveals ho…

C) different categories or groups

A) nominal

C) weight

D) frequency distribution

The levels of nominal scale variables…

C) different categories or groups

In many experiments, the independent v…

A) nominal

mental illness

behaviorist

Freudian psycho-dynamic

humanist

a disorder that affects a person's thoughts, emotions, and be…

B.F. Skinner... Albert Bandura... Behavior is personality; determin…

abnormal behavior explained by unconscious psychic conflicts

Maslow... explain that mental illness developed by circumstances…

mental illness

a disorder that affects a person's thoughts, emotions, and be…

behaviorist

B.F. Skinner... Albert Bandura... Behavior is personality; determin…

interaction effect

factorial design

cell

participant variable

whether the effect of the original independent variable (ex;…

is one which there are two or more independent variables (als…

a condition in an experiment; in a simple experiment, it can…

variable whose levels are selected (measured), not manipulated

interaction effect

whether the effect of the original independent variable (ex;…

factorial design

is one which there are two or more independent variables (als…

personaility

nature

Psychoanalytic

Humanistic

Internally based characteristic way of thinking and acting ... T…

Where does personality come from?... Hippo campus a bodily fluid…

________Perspective... ▫ Exploring the Unconscious... ▫ The develop…

________Perspective... Abraham Maslow's Self-Actualizing Person…

personaility

Internally based characteristic way of thinking and acting ... T…

nature

Where does personality come from?... Hippo campus a bodily fluid…

Interaction Effect

Factorial Design

Cell

Participant Variable

A result from a factorial design, in which the difference in…

A study in which there are two or more independent variables,…

A condition in an experiment; in a simple experiment, it can…

A variable such as age, gender, or ethnicity whose levels are…

Interaction Effect

A result from a factorial design, in which the difference in…

Factorial Design

A study in which there are two or more independent variables,…

survey research

cross sectional study

longitudual study

panel studies

nonexperimental research method relying on questionares or in…

data are collected during a single, brief time period

data are collected at two or more points in time

longitudinal study where data are collected fromthe same indi…

survey research

nonexperimental research method relying on questionares or in…

cross sectional study

data are collected during a single, brief time period

Boolean search

Cause-and-effect order

Chronological, or time, order

Configural formats

A keyword search

An organizational format that categorizes a topic according t…

an organizational format that develops an idea using a time o…

Organizational patters that are indirect and inexplicit

Boolean search

A keyword search

Cause-and-effect order

An organizational format that categorizes a topic according t…

Evaluation research

Needs assessment

Cost-benefit offset

Monitoring

Research undertaking for the purpose of determining the impac…

Aim to determine the existence and extent of problems typical…

Studies that determine whether the results of a program can b…

Studies that provide a steady flow of information about somet…

Evaluation research

Research undertaking for the purpose of determining the impac…

Needs assessment

Aim to determine the existence and extent of problems typical…

assent

belmont report

confidentiality

ethics

affirmative agreement of participation in research by a child…

published in 1979 following gross scientific misconduct in th…

the manner in which the personal information gained through p…

the establishment of a set of guidelines for morally acceptab…

assent

affirmative agreement of participation in research by a child…

belmont report

published in 1979 following gross scientific misconduct in th…

Interaction effect

Factorial Design

Cell

Participant Variable

Result from a factorial design, in which the difference in th…

A study in which there are two or more independent variables,…

Represent the level of one independent variable

Variable such as age, gender, or ethnicity, whose levels are…

Interaction effect

Result from a factorial design, in which the difference in th…

Factorial Design

A study in which there are two or more independent variables,…

Attitude

Belief

Hypothetical Constructs

Scaling

A learned, stable predisposition to respond to oneself, other…

An estimate (probability) about the truth of something.

Construct inferred only from data; its presumption must be te…

The assignment of numbers or symbols to an indicant of a prop…

Attitude

A learned, stable predisposition to respond to oneself, other…

Belief

An estimate (probability) about the truth of something.

Measurement

Reliability

Validity

Ordinal measures

the process of specifying and operationalizing a given concept.

the ability to repeat research and replicate findings, which…

the extent to which it actually assesses what it purports to…

those indicators or variables whose attributes may be logical…

Measurement

the process of specifying and operationalizing a given concept.

Reliability

the ability to repeat research and replicate findings, which…

Evaluation research

Need assessment studies

Cost-benefit studies

Monitoring studies

undertaken for the purpose of determining the impact of some…

aims to determine the existence and extent of problems, typic…

determine whether the results of a program can be justified b…

Provide a steady flow of information about something of inter…

Evaluation research

undertaken for the purpose of determining the impact of some…

Need assessment studies

aims to determine the existence and extent of problems, typic…

Interaction Effects

Types of Interactions (2)

Factorial Design

Participant Variables

- Definition: whether the effect of the original IV depends o…

1) Crossover interaction (X)... 2) Spreading interaction (L)

- Definition: there are 2 or more IV's and are able to test f…

- Definition: a variable whose levels are selected, not manip…

Interaction Effects

- Definition: whether the effect of the original IV depends o…

Types of Interactions (2)

1) Crossover interaction (X)... 2) Spreading interaction (L)

Social Experiments

Experiments

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Putting people in situation and testing to see what their to…

good to determine cause and effect (causation)

Is manipulated to effect the dependent variable (the cause)

The effect

Social Experiments

Putting people in situation and testing to see what their to…

Experiments

good to determine cause and effect (causation)

Interaction effect

Factorial design

Participant variable

Testing for moderators

Whether effect of original independent bariable dependenon le…

2 or more independent variables crossed by studying each poss…

Levels are selected, not manipulated. Ex: age, gender, ethnic…

Process of using a factorial design to test limits

Interaction effect

Whether effect of original independent bariable dependenon le…

Factorial design

2 or more independent variables crossed by studying each poss…

Twenty Second Amendment

Twenty Fifth Amendment

Impeachment

Watergate

It's a limit for election, effectively limit to two the numbe…

It's a deals with succession to the presidency of Vice Presid…

It's charge something with doing something wrong.

It's a political scandal of Democratic Party led to resignati…

Twenty Second Amendment

It's a limit for election, effectively limit to two the numbe…

Twenty Fifth Amendment

It's a deals with succession to the presidency of Vice Presid…

Personality

Trait

Raymond Catell

Gordon Allport

Unique set of traits; essence of a person

a disposition to act in a certain way, characteristic

used factor analysis to reduce the thousands of traits used t…

discovered 4500 different traits

Personality

Unique set of traits; essence of a person

Trait

a disposition to act in a certain way, characteristic

descriptive statistics

parameters

statistic

inferential statistics

used to synthesize and describe data.

when indexes such as averages and percentages are calculated…

descriptive index from a sample

statistics that permit inferences about whether results obser…

descriptive statistics

used to synthesize and describe data.

parameters

when indexes such as averages and percentages are calculated…

statistical analysis uses 2 kinds of s…

descriptive

inferential

descriptive indexes:... parameter

descriptive statistics... inferential stastistics

used to describe and synthesize data

used to make inferences about the population based on sample…

the descriptor for a population (e.g. the average age of mens…

statistical analysis uses 2 kinds of s…

descriptive statistics... inferential stastistics

descriptive

used to describe and synthesize data

convergent designs

embedded designs

exploratory designs

explanatory designs

researcher collects both quantitative and qualitative data in…

similar to convergent, in that both quantitative and qualitat…

encompass two phases: one ore more qualitative methods to get…

usually two-phase processes that have quantitative first

convergent designs

researcher collects both quantitative and qualitative data in…

embedded designs

similar to convergent, in that both quantitative and qualitat…

Four primary goals of scientific resea…

Steps on how scientists solve problems

Operational definition

Construct

description-what happens, when and where... explanation-why is h…

1. identify and define the problem/issue... 2. gather informatio…

how to measure or test a specific phenomenon

abstract concept that is not directly measurable or tangible…

Four primary goals of scientific resea…

description-what happens, when and where... explanation-why is h…

Steps on how scientists solve problems

1. identify and define the problem/issue... 2. gather informatio…

Alzheimer's Disease

Empty-nest Syndrome

Mortality

Eulogy

progressive form of mental deterioration

feelings of emptiness after children have left home

inevitable death

speech praising person who has just died

Alzheimer's Disease

progressive form of mental deterioration

Empty-nest Syndrome

feelings of emptiness after children have left home

Behavior checklists

Biased sample

Closed question

Cluster sample

lists of behaviors with predefined operational definitions th…

a sample that is not representative of the population

a type of question found on surveys that can be answered yes…

a probability sample that randomly selects clusters of people…

Behavior checklists

lists of behaviors with predefined operational definitions th…

Biased sample

a sample that is not representative of the population

Absolute risk (AR)

Absolute risk reduction (ARR)

Alpha (α)

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)

the proportion of people in a group who experienced an undesi…

the difference between the absolute risk in one group (e.g.,…

(1) in test of statistical significance, the significance cri…

a statistical procedure for testing mean differences among th…

Absolute risk (AR)

the proportion of people in a group who experienced an undesi…

Absolute risk reduction (ARR)

the difference between the absolute risk in one group (e.g.,…

Evaluation Research definition

what are issues of measurement?

what is the benefit of using old measu…

operationalizing success/failure

undertaken for the purpose of determining the impact of some…

measuring experimental context: account for outside variables…

useful to compare with, have some idea about their reliabilit…

should be decided on beforehand, how to measure "success"

Evaluation Research definition

undertaken for the purpose of determining the impact of some…

what are issues of measurement?

measuring experimental context: account for outside variables…

Population

Target population

Accesible population

Sampling

entire aggregation of cases that meet specified criteria

the entire population in which the researcher is interested

comprises cases from the target population that are accessibl…

process of selecting a portion of the population to represent…

Population

entire aggregation of cases that meet specified criteria

Target population

the entire population in which the researcher is interested

personality

unconscious

free association

psychoanalysis

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling,…

According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable though…

In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in w…

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and ac…

personality

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling,…

unconscious

According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable though…