How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

partial

algebra

black

hard

The languages of Quantum Mechanics are _____ differential equ…

The languages of Quantum Mechanics are partial differential e…

Every electron is either _____ or white and no other color

Every electron is either ____ or soft

partial

The languages of Quantum Mechanics are _____ differential equ…

algebra

The languages of Quantum Mechanics are partial differential e…

light

electric field

magnetic field

3.00 X 10^8 m/s

a form of electromagnetic radiation that is composed of perpe…

a region where an electrically charged particle experiences a…

where a magnetized particle experiences a force

the constant speed that electromagnetic waves move through sp…

light

a form of electromagnetic radiation that is composed of perpe…

electric field

a region where an electrically charged particle experiences a…

The distance from crest to crest or tr…

The number of wavelengths that pass pe…

When energy is added to an atom throug…

When hydrogen is excited by electricit…

wavelength

Frequency

absorption

pinkish glow

The distance from crest to crest or tr…

wavelength

The number of wavelengths that pass pe…

Frequency

The distance from crest to crest or tr…

The number of wavelengths that pass pe…

When energy is added to an atom throug…

When hydrogen is excited by electricit…

wavelength

Frequency

absorption

pinkish glow

The distance from crest to crest or tr…

wavelength

The number of wavelengths that pass pe…

Frequency

The distance from crest to crest or tr…

The number of wavelengths that pass pe…

When energy is added to an atom throug…

When hydrogen is excited by electricit…

wavelength

Frequency

absorption

pinkish glow

The distance from crest to crest or tr…

wavelength

The number of wavelengths that pass pe…

Frequency

What is the order of the light spectrum?

wavelength

node

amplitude

gamma, xray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, terahertz, micro…

distance between two identical points

point of zero amplitude

height or intensity

What is the order of the light spectrum?

gamma, xray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, terahertz, micro…

wavelength

distance between two identical points

Quantization

Atomic Mass

Atomic Number

Bohr Model

Electron has to be on 1 spot, only 1 spot ON the atom

Weight average of several mass numbers; usually a decimal; nu…

Number of protons and electrons, numerically smaller number o…

Put e- at different distances; nucleus in the center with the…

Quantization

Electron has to be on 1 spot, only 1 spot ON the atom

Atomic Mass

Weight average of several mass numbers; usually a decimal; nu…

quantum numbers

principal quantum number

angular momentum quantum number

magnetic quantum number

describe various properties of the orbital ... there are 4 categ…

(n) ... whole number integrals ... related to the size and energy o…

(ℓ) ... aka "subshell" or "sublevel" ... tells us the shape of the…

(mℓ)... has integral values between (ℓ) and -(ℓ), including zero…

quantum numbers

describe various properties of the orbital ... there are 4 categ…

principal quantum number

(n) ... whole number integrals ... related to the size and energy o…

Democritus

Invisible

Aristotle

Dalton

From about 400 B.C., was a greek philosopher, said matter was…

Democritus said that atoms were __________?

Man that Democritus debated with about the subject of matter.

From the 1800's, was an English scientist used investigations…

Democritus

From about 400 B.C., was a greek philosopher, said matter was…

Invisible

Democritus said that atoms were __________?

Energy Level (City)

Sub Shell (Neighborhood)

1st Energy Level (Bohr)

2nd Energy Level (Bohr)

Represented on periodic table by periods.

S,P,D,F - 2,6,10,14 respectively

S, 2 total electrons

SP, 8 total electrons

Energy Level (City)

Represented on periodic table by periods.

Sub Shell (Neighborhood)

S,P,D,F - 2,6,10,14 respectively

Excited State

Ground State

Photon

Quantum

A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than i…

The lowest energy state of an atom

A particle of electromagnetic radiation

The minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by…

Excited State

A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than i…

Ground State

The lowest energy state of an atom

Aufbau principle

Pauli's exclusion principle

Hund's rule

Schrodinger's electron model

Electrons must be stacked starting at the bottom first (lowes…

Each electron parking space (orbital) may hold only two elect…

When there are multiple rooms on each floor of the high rise,…

Electrons can be stacked on different levels of a high rise b…

Aufbau principle

Electrons must be stacked starting at the bottom first (lowes…

Pauli's exclusion principle

Each electron parking space (orbital) may hold only two elect…

Because the speed of electromagnetic r…

Electromagnetic radiation behaves like…

As it travels through space, electroma…

If electromagnetic radiation has a low…

Inversely proportional to its frequency

Is absorbed by matter

Exhibits wavelike radiation

Longer

Because the speed of electromagnetic r…

Inversely proportional to its frequency

Electromagnetic radiation behaves like…

Is absorbed by matter

Quantum Mechanics

The Bohr Model

Quantum theory

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Light behaves as a wave. Light behaves as a particle.

Bohr drew the connection between Rutherford's model of the at…

used to explain the origin of spectral lines and to describe…

The position and momentum of a moving object cannot simultane…

Quantum Mechanics

Light behaves as a wave. Light behaves as a particle.

The Bohr Model

Bohr drew the connection between Rutherford's model of the at…

electromagnetic spectrum

radio waves

microwaves

infrared radiation

All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radi…

Electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest…

Radio waves with short wavelengths and the high frequencies;…

Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths that are longer than v…

electromagnetic spectrum

All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radi…

radio waves

Electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest…

Orbital

Electron Probability Density

Quantum Mechanics

Wave function

Region in space where an electron spends 90% of its time... No s…

Probability of finding an electron at a given location, deriv…

Application of quantum theory to explain the properties of ma…

Mathematical probability of finding an electron in a certain…

Orbital

Region in space where an electron spends 90% of its time... No s…

Electron Probability Density

Probability of finding an electron at a given location, deriv…

John Dalton

J.J. Thomson

Ernest Rutherford

Niels Bohr

discovered that atoms are hard, indivisible particles

discovered that atoms have charged particles

discovered that nucleus is positive and electrons are centere…

discovered that electrons are in shells with definite amounts…

John Dalton

discovered that atoms are hard, indivisible particles

J.J. Thomson

discovered that atoms have charged particles

Bohr

n=1

n = ?

Heisenberg

____ drew the connection between Rutherford's model of the at…

ground state/lowest energy level

energy levels are labeled by ____

___ came up with the uncertainty principle

Bohr

____ drew the connection between Rutherford's model of the at…

n=1

ground state/lowest energy level

Photoelectric effect

2. Ground state

3. Excited state

4. Emission spectrum

The emission of electrons from a material when light of certa…

The lowest energy state of a quantized system.

A state in which an atom has more energy than it does at its…

A diagram or graph that indicates the degree to which a subst…

Photoelectric effect

The emission of electrons from a material when light of certa…

2. Ground state

The lowest energy state of a quantized system.

Equation for the photoelectric effect:

what does the "equipartition of energy…

Using the equipartition of energy, wha…

Derive the form of the spectrum of bla…

hf - W = eV

It is a statement that in thermal equilibrium particles have…

1D harmonic oscillator has 2 degrees of freedom (potential an…

-Spectrum is the same as a cavity with temperature T supporti…

Equation for the photoelectric effect:

hf - W = eV

what does the "equipartition of energy…

It is a statement that in thermal equilibrium particles have…

Lepton

Quark

Hadron

Baryon

A class of particles with an integer charge.

A class of particles that has the unique attribute of a fract…

A conglomeration of quarks.

A conglomeration of three quarks.

Lepton

A class of particles with an integer charge.

Quark

A class of particles that has the unique attribute of a fract…

Reflection

Dispersion

Refraction

Diffraction

illuminating polished surface... Diffuse reflections come from r…

Illuminating white light through a prism results in separatio…

Light velocity changing (i.e. objects "bending" when in water)

Bending around an edge

Reflection

illuminating polished surface... Diffuse reflections come from r…

Dispersion

Illuminating white light through a prism results in separatio…

Electron Diffraction: Ewald Sphere

Channelling

Kikuchi Lines

2 Approaches to Microscopy

Due to charge, strong electron beams are typical. This yields…

The positive atomic cores can guide the electron cloud along…

Strong electron-electron interactions can yield new overlappi…

1. Standard: flood the sample with light and then use a lens…

Electron Diffraction: Ewald Sphere

Due to charge, strong electron beams are typical. This yields…

Channelling

The positive atomic cores can guide the electron cloud along…

Amplitude

Angular Momentum Quantum Number

Atom

Atomic Emission Spectrum

For a wave or vibration, the maximum displacement on either s…

Symbol- L -tells you the shape of the orbital

Basic unit of matter

The discontinuous line spectra of light produced when excited…

Amplitude

For a wave or vibration, the maximum displacement on either s…

Angular Momentum Quantum Number

Symbol- L -tells you the shape of the orbital

The distance from crest to crest or tr…

The number of wavelengths that pass pe…

When energy is added to an atom throug…

When hydrogen is excited by electricit…

wavelength

Frequency

absorption

pinkish glow

The distance from crest to crest or tr…

wavelength

The number of wavelengths that pass pe…

Frequency

Things to consider when getting ready…

Who discovered the neutron?

Who developed the quantum mechanical m…

Who discovered the electron?

This unit is one of the most concept-heavy parts of the cours…

James Chadwick

Erwin Schrodinger

J. J. Thompson

Things to consider when getting ready…

This unit is one of the most concept-heavy parts of the cours…

Who discovered the neutron?

James Chadwick

french physicist that mathematically s…

deBroglie's equation

What did deBroglie call his theory?

german scientist that treated electron…

Louis deBroglie

wavelength=planck's constant / mass * velocity

wave-particle duality of light

Werner Heisenberg

french physicist that mathematically s…

Louis deBroglie

deBroglie's equation

wavelength=planck's constant / mass * velocity

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

How is the Heisenberg uncertainty prin…

Quantum

History Behind Quantum Mechanical Model

-impossible to know both the velocity and position of a parti…

-to locate electron, might strike with a photon... -electron has…

-the energy required to move an electron form one level to an…

-Bohr proposed electrons have fixed energy levels or orbits... -…

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

-impossible to know both the velocity and position of a parti…

How is the Heisenberg uncertainty prin…

-to locate electron, might strike with a photon... -electron has…

What is quantum mechanics based on?

Who discovered that atoms emit energy…

Who developed the Quantum Mechanical M…

What form of energy does light come in?

Based on the idea that laws that govern large objects (i.e. g…

Max Planck discovered that atoms or molecules emit energy in…

Max Planck

Heat

What is quantum mechanics based on?

Based on the idea that laws that govern large objects (i.e. g…

Who discovered that atoms emit energy…

Max Planck discovered that atoms or molecules emit energy in…

What does the quantum mechanical model…

What is wave-particle duality?

What is the atomic emission spectra?

What is "exciting" an electron?

The electrons live in the clouds or space around the nucleus

Electrons not only act like matter, but also like waves (not…

A chemical spectrum in which, in an atom, the electrons absor…

Adding energy to the electron

What does the quantum mechanical model…

The electrons live in the clouds or space around the nucleus

What is wave-particle duality?

Electrons not only act like matter, but also like waves (not…

What is the continuous spectrum?

What is the line spectrum?

What do the colors do in the continuou…

What do the colors do in the line spec…

The visible spectrum; contains all wavelengths of visible light

contains only specific wavelengths of visible light that are…

Flow together

They don't flow together

What is the continuous spectrum?

The visible spectrum; contains all wavelengths of visible light

What is the line spectrum?

contains only specific wavelengths of visible light that are…

Diffraction

Photoelectric effect

Deterministic

Hamiltonian Operator

The bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passe…

The observation that many metals emit electrons when light sh…

The principle that the present determines the future... Ex. newt…

A set of mathematical operations that represents the total en…

Diffraction

The bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passe…

Photoelectric effect

The observation that many metals emit electrons when light sh…

Ludwig Boltzmann

Heinrich Herz

Max Plank's quantum hypothesis

Gilbert Lewis calls quantum light part…

suggested energy sates of a physical system could be discrete

observes the photoelectric effect

E=hf

photons

Ludwig Boltzmann

suggested energy sates of a physical system could be discrete

Heinrich Herz

observes the photoelectric effect

Duality of nature

Einstein

Schrodinger

De Broglie

light & electron can be both a particle and a wave

Photoelectric effect

Math that showed the electron cloud (quantum #s)

Experiment that showed electron are waves

Duality of nature

light & electron can be both a particle and a wave

Einstein

Photoelectric effect

Quantum

Quantum Theory

Orbital

Quantum Numbers

minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom

describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons

probable location of an electron

4 of them; indicate properties of atomic orbitals and propert…

Quantum

minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom

Quantum Theory

describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons

quantum mechanics

psi

electron density

n

dual nature of matter and light to find eave nature of object…

wave function

psi^2 gives... where electron is located at any given time

principle quantum number

quantum mechanics

dual nature of matter and light to find eave nature of object…

psi

wave function

Aufbau Principle

Pauli's Exclusion Principle

Hund's Rule

De Brogile

An electorn occupies the lowest energy orbital that can recei…

No 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four…

Every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one elect…

-light has dual particle nature and so do electrons... -electron…

Aufbau Principle

An electorn occupies the lowest energy orbital that can recei…

Pauli's Exclusion Principle

No 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four…

electromagnetic radiation

types of electromagnetic radiation

electromagnetic spectrum

wavelength

a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travel…

x-rays... ultraviolet... infrared... microwaves... radio waves

together all forms of light form?

the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves /…

electromagnetic radiation

a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travel…

types of electromagnetic radiation

x-rays... ultraviolet... infrared... microwaves... radio waves