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Study sets matching "radiation radbio"

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Study sets matching "radiation radbio"

54 terms
Radbio. Chap34. Stochastic Effects of Radiation
Stochastic Effects result from
Stochastic Effects is also known as
Stochastic Effects is
Stochastic Effects follow
low doses of radiation over a long period of time
late effects
radiation induced malignancy and genetic effects
a linear, non-threshold dose-response relationship
Stochastic Effects result from
low doses of radiation over a long period of time
Stochastic Effects is also known as
late effects
25 terms
Radbio Lecture 9: Radiation Carcinogenesis and Cancer Biology
What is a deterministic effect?
What is a stochastic effect?
What does an absolute risk model state?
What does a relative risk model state?
An effect that has a threshold radiation dose before occurren…
An effect with no threshold. The probability of the effect oc…
The number of cancers induced by radiation above natural inci…
The ratio of increase in cancers induced by radiation to spon…
What is a deterministic effect?
An effect that has a threshold radiation dose before occurren…
What is a stochastic effect?
An effect with no threshold. The probability of the effect oc…
73 terms
Radbio (Effects of Radiation on Organ Systems)
Acute Radiation Syndrome
1Gy
Hematopoietic, Gastrointestinal, Cereb…
Prodromal, Latent Period, Manifest Ill…
Occurs when the whole body is exposed to 1Gy of ionizing radi…
Amount of radiation to produce Acute Radiation Syndrome
Manifestations of Acute Radiation Syndrome
4 major response stage of Acute Radiation Syndrome
Acute Radiation Syndrome
Occurs when the whole body is exposed to 1Gy of ionizing radi…
1Gy
Amount of radiation to produce Acute Radiation Syndrome
27 terms
Radbio lecture 6 - Repair of Radiation Damage and the Dose-Rate Effect
What makes sublethal damage different…
What makes potentially lethal damage d…
What cellular process can be delayed t…
What are two things that might happen…
Sublethal damage can be repaired unless additional damage is…
Potentially lethal damage indicates damage that would be leth…
Mitosis
Cancer cells can have the ability to repair. Also, allowing t…
What makes sublethal damage different…
Sublethal damage can be repaired unless additional damage is…
What makes potentially lethal damage d…
Potentially lethal damage indicates damage that would be leth…
23 terms
Radbio Lecture 11 - Doses and Risks in Medicine and Alternative Radiation Modalities
In the 1980's, what was the mean dose…
In the 1980's, what percentage of radi…
In 2006, what percentage of radiation…
In 2006, what was the mean dose to peo…
3.6 mSv
83% from background and 15% from medical
50% from background and 48% from medical
6.2 mSv
In the 1980's, what was the mean dose…
3.6 mSv
In the 1980's, what percentage of radi…
83% from background and 15% from medical
45 terms
Radbio Lecture 7 - Acute Effects of TBI and Cataracts and Radiation Exposure
What is an early radiation lethality?
What are the four syndromes associated…
What is N-V-D?
What is latency?
Death resulting in high intensity radiation exposure occurrin…
Prodromal radiation syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome, gastroi…
Nausea-vomiting-diarrhea, which is typically the initial symp…
The time between radiation injury and the expression of the i…
What is an early radiation lethality?
Death resulting in high intensity radiation exposure occurrin…
What are the four syndromes associated…
Prodromal radiation syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome, gastroi…
72 terms
Radbio Week 12 - Radiation Effects on The Embryo and Fetus
What studies have been done on the eff…
Who conducted the mega mouse experiment?
Where did the mega mouse experiment oc…
When did the mega mouse experiment sta…
Mega mouse experiments and epidemiological human data
Russell & Russell
Oakridge National Lab by Knoxville Tennessee
1946 to present
What studies have been done on the eff…
Mega mouse experiments and epidemiological human data
Who conducted the mega mouse experiment?
Russell & Russell
52 terms
*Radbio overview, history, cellular biology, cellular effects of radiation practice quiz
Which of the following ionizing radiat…
Which of the following is the most rad…
The unit of measurement for radiation…
Radiation-induced chromosome damage ma…
diagnostic x-rays
mitosis
roentgen
metaphase
Which of the following ionizing radiat…
diagnostic x-rays
Which of the following is the most rad…
mitosis
35 terms
Radbio Lecture 8: Genetic Effects and Embryo/Fetus Effects of Radiation
What are somatic mutations?
What are germline mutations?
What is the difference between relativ…
The "doubling dose" is an example of r…
Non-inheritable mutations that occur when the DNA of a non-re…
Inheritable mutations that occur when the DNA of a reproducti…
Relative uses ratios whereas absolute uses numbers.
It is a relative mutation risk. It is the dose it takes to do…
What are somatic mutations?
Non-inheritable mutations that occur when the DNA of a non-re…
What are germline mutations?
Inheritable mutations that occur when the DNA of a reproducti…
25 terms
radbio study guide
An alteration of chromosomes where 2 c…
LET
OER (oxygen enhancement ratio)
OER = biologic response without O2/ ra…
Reciprocal translocation
Rate at which an electron or photon will be decreased in inte…
Ratio of radiation dose required to cause a particular biolog…
OER formula
An alteration of chromosomes where 2 c…
Reciprocal translocation
LET
Rate at which an electron or photon will be decreased in inte…
10 terms
Radbio hw
H20 + lightening bolt = H0H+ + E
amount of energy deposited by radiatio…
the dose that is just below the lethal…
ability to produce biologic damage
what is the equation for radiolysis of water?
what is LET?
define threshold dose
what is RBE?
H20 + lightening bolt = H0H+ + E
what is the equation for radiolysis of water?
amount of energy deposited by radiatio…
what is LET?
radbio review
what is radiobiology
classification of radiation ... -ionizing…
types of radiation
xrays and gamma rays occupy the short…
a branch of science that deals with the effects of ionizing r…
ionizing: ... -directly(charged particles, electrons, protons, a…
-electromagnetic: xrays, radiowaves, radar, radiant heat, and…
streams of photons or "packets" of energy... each packet contai…
what is radiobiology
a branch of science that deals with the effects of ionizing r…
classification of radiation ... -ionizing…
ionizing: ... -directly(charged particles, electrons, protons, a…
68 terms
RADBio-L2
5 Types of X-ray Interactions with Mat…
Other names for Compton?
Other names for Classical?
Define attenuation
1. Compton... 2. Classical... 3. Photoelectric... 4. Pair Production... 5…
inelastic, incoherent, modified
elastic, coherent, unmodifed
decrease in intensity of primary beam
5 Types of X-ray Interactions with Mat…
1. Compton... 2. Classical... 3. Photoelectric... 4. Pair Production... 5…
Other names for Compton?
inelastic, incoherent, modified
5 terms
Radbio Lecture 16 - Hormesis
What is radiation hormesis?
What is the difference between the zer…
Who is responsible for the bulk of the…
What possibly triggers hormesis?
There is some small amount of radiation that we can tolerate…
Zero thesis: all radiation is harmful. Hormesis thesis: small…
Luckey
Cells react to radiation and create a surplus of repair enzym…
What is radiation hormesis?
There is some small amount of radiation that we can tolerate…
What is the difference between the zer…
Zero thesis: all radiation is harmful. Hormesis thesis: small…
43 terms
Radbio Chp 29
The study of the effects of ionizing r…
At nearly every stage in the sequence…
Cells and tissue regenerate and recove…
What do the early effects consist of
Radiobiology
Yes
radiation injury
local tissue damage, hematologic depression, gastrointestinal…
The study of the effects of ionizing r…
Radiobiology
At nearly every stage in the sequence…
Yes
48 terms
RADBIO MIDTERM
Inherent Sensitivity
Bergonie & Tribondeau
Ancel & Vitemberger
Differentiated cells
The reproduction capacity for all cells is similar to both in…
1906. Studied the role of cell division in the radiation resp…
1925. Appearance differs among different types of cells. Two…
One that is specialized functionally and or morphologically.…
Inherent Sensitivity
The reproduction capacity for all cells is similar to both in…
Bergonie & Tribondeau
1906. Studied the role of cell division in the radiation resp…
radbio chapter 2
linacs
5 interactions with matter
direct action
indirect action
electrons are accelerated and then bent to hit target. much h…
photo disintegration, coherent scatter, pair production, phot…
20% of radiation damage from xrays will be direct damage. rad…
80% of radiation from xrays will be from indirect damage. rad…
linacs
electrons are accelerated and then bent to hit target. much h…
5 interactions with matter
photo disintegration, coherent scatter, pair production, phot…
77 terms
Radbio
examples of low LET radiation
examples of high LET radiation
error prone
not error prone
xrays
alpha particles, low energy neutrons
nonhomo
homo
examples of low LET radiation
xrays
examples of high LET radiation
alpha particles, low energy neutrons
155 terms
Radbio - Midterm Studyage
How many cells cells does the human bo…
What 6 things make up cells?
In what part of the cell does metaboli…
What are the three major elements that…
50 to 60 trillion cells.
Water, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA),…
The cytoplasm
Cytosol, organelles, and inclusions
How many cells cells does the human bo…
50 to 60 trillion cells.
What 6 things make up cells?
Water, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA),…
89 terms
radiation biology 2
High LET radiations cause ___ damage.…
Low LET radiation cause ____ damage of…
indirect DNA damage involved ____ and…
direct is ___ percent of the damage
direct; alpha
indirect, gamma
radials; low
33
High LET radiations cause ___ damage.…
direct; alpha
Low LET radiation cause ____ damage of…
indirect, gamma
26 terms
CH 1 RADBIO
Energy that passes from one location t…
Mechanical vibration of a material in…
Electromagnetic radiation appears to h…
The full range of frequencies and wave…
radiation
ultrasound
wave particle duality
o Electromagnetic spectrum
Energy that passes from one location t…
radiation
Mechanical vibration of a material in…
ultrasound
40 terms
Radbio vocabulary
All or none effect
Cataractogenesis
Cytopenia
Desquamation
Either a radiation induced abortion occurs or pregnancy carri…
Radiation damage to lens of eye that leads to the process of…
Deficiency of some cell in the blood
Ulceration and denudation of the skin
All or none effect
Either a radiation induced abortion occurs or pregnancy carri…
Cataractogenesis
Radiation damage to lens of eye that leads to the process of…
radbio chapter 1
carbohydrates
proteins
DNA and RNA
lipids
provide energy and structure
made up of amino acid... provide structure and function... made of…
made up of nucleotides... contains genetic info that tells cells…
provide energy and cell membrane
carbohydrates
provide energy and structure
proteins
made up of amino acid... provide structure and function... made of…
17 terms
Radbio Lecture 13 - Biological Effects
From where do most risk assessment dat…
What does ABS stand for with respect t…
Which tissues are most affected by rad…
What is the dose range for LD_50/30, i…
Atomic bomb survivor data.
Atomic bomb survivors
Tissues with rapid cellular regeneration rates (i.e. cells th…
400 to 500 rads
From where do most risk assessment dat…
Atomic bomb survivor data.
What does ABS stand for with respect t…
Atomic bomb survivors
47 terms
Radbio personnel protection
Which effects should a technologist be…
What type of exposures should a techno…
What are three principles of radiation…
List three radiation protection actions
Late effects
occupational exposure
Justification... Optimization of ALARA... Dose limitation
Time... shielding... Distance
Which effects should a technologist be…
Late effects
What type of exposures should a techno…
occupational exposure
49 terms
Radbio midterm
Two types of human cells
Mitosis
Interphase
G1 phase
Somatic - organs, tissue, etc... Germ - Reproductive
Cell division: ... divided into 4 distinct phases (PMAT)... -propha…
Growth phase ... Divided into: G1, S and G2 phases
Growth phase: cells synthesize proteins and grow vigorously
Two types of human cells
Somatic - organs, tissue, etc... Germ - Reproductive
Mitosis
Cell division: ... divided into 4 distinct phases (PMAT)... -propha…
177 terms
Radbio Final
How long does the prodromal stage of a…
During which of the acute radiation sy…
Blood count can be depressed with a wh…
Skin cancer follows what type of dose…
a few hours to several days
Latent
250 Gy
Threshold
How long does the prodromal stage of a…
a few hours to several days
During which of the acute radiation sy…
Latent
50 terms
Radiation Protection Final Exam (Test 1)
What does ionization do
The x-rays that are emitted from the x…
Cosmic radiation occurs in which two f…
Terrestrial radiation includes which o…
knocks an electron out of an atom
0, maximum kVp
solar and galactic
radioactive elements such as uranium, radium and thorium that…
What does ionization do
knocks an electron out of an atom
The x-rays that are emitted from the x…
0, maximum kVp
94 terms
Radbio Test 1
Radiation-induced cancer, leukemia, an…
At low radiation doses, _______ (is/ar…
Tissue is ____ radiosensitive under hi…
During the _____ phase of cell life ea…
Linear, non threshold
point lesions
More, less
S
Radiation-induced cancer, leukemia, an…
Linear, non threshold
At low radiation doses, _______ (is/ar…
point lesions
49 terms
Radbio pt 2
Dose limits are based on a _____ dose-…
The dose limit for the general public…
Health physics is concerned with minim…
If a technologist is receiving 200 mR/…
linear nonthreshold relationship
1/10
All of the above
50mR/hour
Dose limits are based on a _____ dose-…
linear nonthreshold relationship
The dose limit for the general public…
1/10
237 terms
radbio test 56
ionizing radiation may change water to
a free radical is
the primary method by which x-rays cau…
which of the following relationships d…
free radicals, hydroxyl ions, hydrogen ions, hydrogen peroxide
highly reactive and unstable, has an unpaired electron in the…
free radical formation
linear non-threshhold
ionizing radiation may change water to
free radicals, hydroxyl ions, hydrogen ions, hydrogen peroxide
a free radical is
highly reactive and unstable, has an unpaired electron in the…
95 terms
final radbio
The major dose-limiting structure that…
This type of radiotherapy has approxim…
This type of simulator allows for bett…
Reirradiation is possible in various s…
C. Spinal cord
C.Gamma Knife
B. MRI Simulator
True!
The major dose-limiting structure that…
C. Spinal cord
This type of radiotherapy has approxim…
C.Gamma Knife
16 terms
Radbio Ch. 1
Form of ionizing radiation
Effective measures employed by radiati…
Damaging to living tissue of animals a…
Synonymous with the term "as low as re…
X-rays
Radiation protection
Biologic Effects
Optimization for radiation protection (ORP)
Form of ionizing radiation
X-rays
Effective measures employed by radiati…
Radiation protection
32 terms
radbio test 2
Main change scission
Breakdown into smaller molecules
Cross linking
Viscosity
Breakage of the back-bone of the long-chain macromolecule
A main-chain scission of a macromolecule results in a ___
Macromolecules have small, spur-like structures that extend o…
Cross-linking increases _____of a solution
Main change scission
Breakage of the back-bone of the long-chain macromolecule
Breakdown into smaller molecules
A main-chain scission of a macromolecule results in a ___
78 terms
Radbio Exam 2
Dose to general public Requirement
Whole body (Total effective dose equiv…
Individual organ/tissue occupational d…
Lens of the eye occupational dose requ…
0.1 rem/year OR 2 mrem/hr
5 rem/year
50 Rem/year
15 Rem/year
Dose to general public Requirement
0.1 rem/year OR 2 mrem/hr
Whole body (Total effective dose equiv…
5 rem/year
19 terms
Midterm radbio
The high dose effect that would occur…
The most radioresistant phase of the c…
According to target theory
Of the following, which are considered…
Hematologist syndrome
DNA replication
DNA is considered the target
Amino acids
The high dose effect that would occur…
Hematologist syndrome
The most radioresistant phase of the c…
DNA replication
15 terms
RADBIO test 3
after how many treatments to the brain…
what side effects are NOT always contr…
Response to damage is governed by what?
what are the types of factors affectin…
1 tx
Nausea/Vomiting... Fatigue **most common thing caused by radiati…
Inherent cellular radiosensitivity... Kinetics of the tissue... Cel…
Chemical factors: (chemo, medications for radiosensitiser or…
after how many treatments to the brain…
1 tx
what side effects are NOT always contr…
Nausea/Vomiting... Fatigue **most common thing caused by radiati…
71 terms
Midterm 1 Radbio
the site of all metabolic function
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
ribosomes
where does protein synthesis occur
cytoplasm
rough- protein synthesis and intracellular transport... smooth-…
40 percent protein and RNA 60 percent
ribosomes
the site of all metabolic function
cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
rough- protein synthesis and intracellular transport... smooth-…
70 terms
RADBIO Ch 9 (B) & Ch 11 (B)
____ occurs because of compton scatter…
5 ways x-rays interact
only ____ are important in making an x…
the interaction between electromagneti…
differential absorption
coherent scatter;... compton scatter;... photoelectric scatter;... pai…
compton scatter and photoelectric
wavelike, particle-like
____ occurs because of compton scatter…
differential absorption
5 ways x-rays interact
coherent scatter;... compton scatter;... photoelectric scatter;... pai…
113 terms
Radbio Exam 2
when and who discovered x-rays
scientist found out that x-rays could…
who studied the radiation sensitivity…
what did bergonie and tribondeau test…
roentgen 1895 november 8th
destroy it
bergonie and tribondeau
rodent testicles
when and who discovered x-rays
roentgen 1895 november 8th
scientist found out that x-rays could…
destroy it
77 terms
radbio test III
is acute radiation lethality applicabl…
what did early pioneers or radiation d…
what defines a lethal dose
what happened in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
no
leukemia
instanteneous, external, whole body exposure >.7Gy
WWII nuclear bombs
is acute radiation lethality applicabl…
no
what did early pioneers or radiation d…
leukemia
76 terms
Radbio Test 2
Which of the following should not be u…
The exposure switch of a mobile xray u…
Personnel monitoring is required:
Which of the following dosimetry monit…
routine blood examination
2.0m
When it is likely that one will receive 1/10 their DL
OSL
Which of the following should not be u…
routine blood examination
The exposure switch of a mobile xray u…
2.0m
242 terms
Radbio - Final Exam Review
Which gas is believed to be the major…
Where does radon gas come from?
How does radon gas enter the body?
Which isotope of radon is the most sig…
Radon
It is naturally occurring in soils. It is an inert gas, so it…
It is inhaled.
Rn-222 is the most significant. It has a half-life of 4.8 day…
Which gas is believed to be the major…
Radon
Where does radon gas come from?
It is naturally occurring in soils. It is an inert gas, so it…
29 terms
Radbio 1
Rontgen
Muller
Mcclintlock
Rowley
Discovered Xrays in 1895
Discovered external agents can cause mutations
Discovered Corn
Discovered Philidelphia Chromosome
Rontgen
Discovered Xrays in 1895
Muller
Discovered external agents can cause mutations
83 terms
RADBIO ch 38 (B)
radiation dose is measured in ____; me…
radiation exposure is measured in ____…
exposure to radiologists and technolog…
the unit of effective dose; used for r…
Gyt (rads)
Gya (roentgens)
rem
Sv
radiation dose is measured in ____; me…
Gyt (rads)
radiation exposure is measured in ____…
Gya (roentgens)
13 terms
RADBIO Study Guide 2016
Which one of the following statements…
Which one of the following is a radiol…
The approximate minimum photon energy…
Which of the following X-ray interacti…
...
...
...
...
Which one of the following statements…
...
Which one of the following is a radiol…
...
27 terms
Radbio Ch. 2
Ionizing radiation from environmental…
Produced by ionizing radiation penetra…
If excessive amounts of this occur, th…
A radiation quantity used for radiatio…
Natural background radiation
Biologic damage
cellular damage
Equivalent dose
Ionizing radiation from environmental…
Natural background radiation
Produced by ionizing radiation penetra…
Biologic damage
19 terms
Effects of Radiation Exposure
Acute
Acute radiation syndrome
ALARA
Cumulative effect
having a rapid onset, short, severe course, and pronounced sy…
symptoms of the short term radiation effects after a massive…
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
The theory that radiation exposed tissues accrue damage and m…
Acute
having a rapid onset, short, severe course, and pronounced sy…
Acute radiation syndrome
symptoms of the short term radiation effects after a massive…
22 terms
Radbio quiz tomorrow: ch.7 molecular and cellular radbio
Biologic damage that occurs as a resul…
The average energy deposited per unit…
Chemical unions created between atoms…
used to calculate equivalent dose to d…
Direct action
LET
covalent cross-links
Radiation Weighting Factor (WR)
Biologic damage that occurs as a resul…
Direct action
The average energy deposited per unit…
LET
10 terms
Radiation induced malignancies
Leukemia latent period
Leukemia affected groups
Thyroid CA latent period
Thyroid CA affected groups
4-7 years, but approx 20 years before effect occurs
A-bomb survivors, American radiologists, AS patients, radium…
20 years
Children
Leukemia latent period
4-7 years, but approx 20 years before effect occurs
Leukemia affected groups
A-bomb survivors, American radiologists, AS patients, radium…
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