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Study sets matching "regional anesthesia"

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Study sets matching "regional anesthesia"

730 terms
Regional anesthesia -
How may vertebrae are there?
What are the high points of the spinal…
What are the low points of the spinal…
Where does the SC extend from?
33... 7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal (fused together)
C3 & L3
T6 & S2
Foramen magnum to L1 adults & L3 newborn
How may vertebrae are there?
33... 7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal (fused together)
What are the high points of the spinal…
C3 & L3
732 terms
Regional anesthesia - Valley Anesthesia
How may vertebrae are there?
What are the high points of the spinal…
What are the low points of the spinal…
Where does the SC extend from?
33
C3 & L3
T6 & S2
The foramen magnum to lumbar level 1 in adults & 3 in the new…
How may vertebrae are there?
33
What are the high points of the spinal…
C3 & L3
66 terms
[Anesthesia 7] Regional Anesthesia
Regional Anesthesia Types
Central Neuraxial Blockade
Peripheral Neural Blockade
Spinal & Epidural operations reserved…
1. Central Neuraxial Blockade... 2. Peripheral Neural Blockade
Placement of local anesthetics around the nerves of the CNS (…
Placement of local anesthetic agents onto or near peripheral…
Below the umbilicus ... (gynecological + obstetrical, hernia, h…
Regional Anesthesia Types
1. Central Neuraxial Blockade... 2. Peripheral Neural Blockade
Central Neuraxial Blockade
Placement of local anesthetics around the nerves of the CNS (…
467 terms
regional anesthesia
What type of anesthesia requires less…
What type of patients are peripheral n…
What are some indications for a periph…
What are some intraoperative surgeries…
Spinal- you can feel the spinous process as a landmark for in…
Patients that will have intense pain for at least 24 hours af…
1. intraoperative... 2. Analgesia
Patient with large amount of pain postoperatively.... 1. Total K…
What type of anesthesia requires less…
Spinal- you can feel the spinous process as a landmark for in…
What type of patients are peripheral n…
Patients that will have intense pain for at least 24 hours af…
302 terms
Regional anesthesia -
How may vertebrae are there?
What provides motor innervation to the…
What provides sensory innervation to t…
What provides taste to the tongue?
33... (7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal fused together)
12 (XII hypoglossal)
Anterior 2/3 lingual branch of CN V. Posterior 1/3 glossophar…
Anterior 2/3 of tongue by chordae tympani, glossopharyngeal p…
How may vertebrae are there?
33... (7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal fused together)
What provides motor innervation to the…
12 (XII hypoglossal)
730 terms
Regional Anesthesia!
How may vertebrae are there?
What are the high points of the spinal…
What are the low points of the spinal…
Where does the SC extend from?
33... 7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal (fused together)
C3 & L3
T6 & S2
Foramen magnum to L1 adults & L3 newborn
How may vertebrae are there?
33... 7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal (fused together)
What are the high points of the spinal…
C3 & L3
56 terms
Regional Anesthesia
730 terms
Regional anesthesia -
How may vertebrae are there?
What are the high points of the spinal…
What are the low points of the spinal…
Where does the SC extend from?
33... 7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal (fused together)
C3 & L3
T6 & S2
Foramen magnum to L1 adults & L3 newborn
How may vertebrae are there?
33... 7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal (fused together)
What are the high points of the spinal…
C3 & L3
730 terms
Regional anesthesia -
How may vertebrae are there?
What are the high points of the spinal…
What are the low points of the spinal…
Where does the SC extend from?
33... 7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal (fused together)
C3 & L3
T6 & S2
Foramen magnum to L1 adults & L3 newborn
How may vertebrae are there?
33... 7C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 4Coccygeal (fused together)
What are the high points of the spinal…
C3 & L3
37 terms
Regional Anesthesia
What are four types of Regional Anesth…
what are the three types of central bl…
Indication for bier block
steps of bier block
local infiltration.... bier block.... peripheral nerve blocks... digi…
epidural... caudal... spinal
brief procedure of hand/arm
20 g IV in hand of operative arm w/extension tubing... 18-20 g I…
What are four types of Regional Anesth…
local infiltration.... bier block.... peripheral nerve blocks... digi…
what are the three types of central bl…
epidural... caudal... spinal
109 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Number of Vertebrae
On a lateral view the vertebral canal…
Vertebral Size
Most dependent area of your spine
33 Vertebrae ... Cervical 7... Thoracic 12... Lumbar 5... Sacral 5... Coccy…
Cervical ... thoracic (kyphosis)... Lumbar (lordosis)... Sacral
- Cervical... - Smallest... Least weight bearing/ maximal movement…
Thoracic
Number of Vertebrae
33 Vertebrae ... Cervical 7... Thoracic 12... Lumbar 5... Sacral 5... Coccy…
On a lateral view the vertebral canal…
Cervical ... thoracic (kyphosis)... Lumbar (lordosis)... Sacral
53 terms
regional anesthesia
risk factors for spinal hematoma
contraindications regional anesthesia
Subarachnoid space extends from (foram…
Primary barrier that prevents local an…
hemostatic abmormality (ie heparin)... difficult needle placemen…
-- stenotic valves bc if drop SVR, heart can't compensate by…
Foramen magnum to conus medularis, level of l3 in kiddos and…
Arachnoid mater
risk factors for spinal hematoma
hemostatic abmormality (ie heparin)... difficult needle placemen…
contraindications regional anesthesia
-- stenotic valves bc if drop SVR, heart can't compensate by…
Regional Anesthesia
How many vertebral are there?... Cervica…
Where does the spinal cord end?
What do we use as landmarks on the spi…
How do we know where L4 is?
33 Total vertebra ... 7 Cervical... 12Thoracic ... 5 Lumbar... 5 Fused S…
L2 or before... So we insert spinals in L2-3 space or lower
Use the transverse processes.
We palpate the superior/posterior iliac spines(crests) and th…
How many vertebral are there?... Cervica…
33 Total vertebra ... 7 Cervical... 12Thoracic ... 5 Lumbar... 5 Fused S…
Where does the spinal cord end?
L2 or before... So we insert spinals in L2-3 space or lower
31 terms
regional anesthesia
how many vertebrae are there? how many…
what are the layers of the spinal cord?
what space is the spinal cord fluid lo…
at what level of the vertebral column…
there are 24 vertebrae - 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, a…
the spinal cord is composed of three layers called the mening…
cerebral spinal fluid is located between the pia mater and ar…
the spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the level…
how many vertebrae are there? how many…
there are 24 vertebrae - 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, a…
what are the layers of the spinal cord?
the spinal cord is composed of three layers called the mening…
22 terms
regional anesthesia
I. HEAD AND NECK... CHAPTER-1. INTRACRAN…
Increased blood pressure. ... Several a…
Regional anesthesia of the scalp aims…
Scalp infiltration with 20 mL of 0.5 %…
...
What is the hemodynamic reaction associated with craniotomy?…
How does regional anesthesia of the scalp help in craniotomy?
Anesthesia used to control BP during intracranail surgery
I. HEAD AND NECK... CHAPTER-1. INTRACRAN…
...
Increased blood pressure. ... Several a…
What is the hemodynamic reaction associated with craniotomy?…
87 terms
Regional Anesthesia
How many vertebral are there?... Cervica…
Where does the spinal cord end and wha…
What do you risk by hitting the poster…
What do we use as landmarks on the spi…
33 Total vertebra ... 7 Cervical... 12Thoracic ... 5 Lumbar... 5 Fused S…
Conus Medularis (end of spinal cord):... L1-L2 in adults... L2-L3…
AORTA
Use the transverse processes.
How many vertebral are there?... Cervica…
33 Total vertebra ... 7 Cervical... 12Thoracic ... 5 Lumbar... 5 Fused S…
Where does the spinal cord end and wha…
Conus Medularis (end of spinal cord):... L1-L2 in adults... L2-L3…
87 terms
Regional Anesthesia
How many vertebrae are there?... Cervica…
Where does the spinal cord end?
What do we use as landmarks on the spi…
How do we know where L4 is?
33 Total vertebra ... 7 Cervical... 12Thoracic ... 5 Lumbar... 5 Fused S…
L2 or before... So we insert spinals in L2-3 space or lower
Use the transverse processes.
We palpate the superior/posterior iliac spines(crests) and th…
How many vertebrae are there?... Cervica…
33 Total vertebra ... 7 Cervical... 12Thoracic ... 5 Lumbar... 5 Fused S…
Where does the spinal cord end?
L2 or before... So we insert spinals in L2-3 space or lower
29 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Regional Anesthesia
Regional Analgesia
Goal
Type of blocks
Loss of sensation in a part of the body due to administration…
Loss of painful impulses by temporarily or partially interrup…
Accomplish 1 or both anesthesia and analgesia
Central, peripheral, IV, other
Regional Anesthesia
Loss of sensation in a part of the body due to administration…
Regional Analgesia
Loss of painful impulses by temporarily or partially interrup…
40 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Types of regional anesthesia
MOA of local anesthetics
Where do the ionized portion of the lo…
Where does the non-ionized portion of…
Topical... Local infiltration... Spinal... Epidural... Caudal... Peripheral…
Produce conduction blockade of neural impulses by preventing…
The receptors on the inside of the Na channel and locks it in…
Nerve axon
Types of regional anesthesia
Topical... Local infiltration... Spinal... Epidural... Caudal... Peripheral…
MOA of local anesthetics
Produce conduction blockade of neural impulses by preventing…
21 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Indications for peripheral nerve blocks
Absolute contraindication to regional…
Monitors required during regional
Purpose of blunted B bevel, insulated…
Reduce the risk of general, co-morbid items (CAD,COPD, cognit…
Patient refusal (cooperation is key), local infection, coagul…
Pulse ox, NIBP, ECG, PNS. 02 and resuscitation and sedative m…
Focuses current at tip point to allow for stimulation of targ…
Indications for peripheral nerve blocks
Reduce the risk of general, co-morbid items (CAD,COPD, cognit…
Absolute contraindication to regional…
Patient refusal (cooperation is key), local infection, coagul…
61 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Advantages to regional anesthesia?
Disadvantages to regional anesthesia?
Complications of regional anesthesia?
Methemoglobinemia is caused by which t…
less painful, minimum systemic effects, decrease in post-op m…
Complications, requires knowledge of anatomy/techniques/pharm…
nerve damage, infection, hemorrhage, allergic reaction, extra…
benzocaine, prilocaine.... Don't use in cats, ferrets, and other…
Advantages to regional anesthesia?
less painful, minimum systemic effects, decrease in post-op m…
Disadvantages to regional anesthesia?
Complications, requires knowledge of anatomy/techniques/pharm…
30 terms
Regional Anesthesia
What are two major complication of spi…
PDPH... mechanism... s/s... pt most at risk... dur…
High Spinal--how do you avoid it?... S/S-…
Epidural Anesthesia... mechanism... Onset... pr…
Post-Dural Puncture Headache... High Spinal
CSF leaks from subarachnoid space and causes traction on cran…
- avoid by giving approp. LA, volume, body position... -S/s: num…
injection of LA into lumbar or thoracic epidural epidural spa…
What are two major complication of spi…
Post-Dural Puncture Headache... High Spinal
PDPH... mechanism... s/s... pt most at risk... dur…
CSF leaks from subarachnoid space and causes traction on cran…
99 terms
Regional Anesthesia, good one
How many vertebra are there?... Cervical…
Where does the spinal cord end?
What do we use as landmarks on the spi…
How do we know where L4 is?
33 Total vertebra ... 7 Cervical... 12Thoracic ... 5 Lumbar... 5 Fused S…
L2 or before... So we insert spinals in L2-3 space or lower
Use the transverse processes.
We palpate the superior/posterior iliac spines(crests) and th…
How many vertebra are there?... Cervical…
33 Total vertebra ... 7 Cervical... 12Thoracic ... 5 Lumbar... 5 Fused S…
Where does the spinal cord end?
L2 or before... So we insert spinals in L2-3 space or lower
15 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Piezoelectric
3 Most important interactions of ultra…
Reflection
Scatter
Is a phenomenon exhibited by the generation of an electric ch…
Reflection... Scatter... Absorption
Some energy is sent back to originating media
The redirection of sound in any direction by rough surfaces o…
Piezoelectric
Is a phenomenon exhibited by the generation of an electric ch…
3 Most important interactions of ultra…
Reflection... Scatter... Absorption
43 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Topical regional anesthesia types
EMLA
Drugs used for local infiltration
IV regional (bier block) drugs
skin, oral/nasal muscoa
skin cream- mix of lidocaine and prilocaine
lidocaine, bupivacaine
plain lidocaine
Topical regional anesthesia types
skin, oral/nasal muscoa
EMLA
skin cream- mix of lidocaine and prilocaine
12 terms
Regional Anesthesia
benefits of regional
interscalene block
supraclavicular block
infraclavicular block
reducion in stress response, systemic analgesic requirements,…
shoulder and upper arm, root c5-7 blocked, ulnar nerve may be…
at or distal to the elbow, can spare ulnar nerve. blocking at…
at or distal to the elbow, blocking at level of the cords. av…
benefits of regional
reducion in stress response, systemic analgesic requirements,…
interscalene block
shoulder and upper arm, root c5-7 blocked, ulnar nerve may be…
36 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Q1) What types of procedures are neura…
Q2) Layers to pass for epidural?... Spin…
Q3) brachial plexus--> What are order…
Q4) Factors involved in distribution a…
At spinal cord - ... Spinal anesthesia (bier block)... Epidural... Pa…
Skin, subQ, fascia, supraspinous ligament, interspinous ligam…
-Roots, trunks, divisions, cords, branches (Randy travis drin…
1) height, position, anatomic configurations, pregnancy... 2) b…
Q1) What types of procedures are neura…
At spinal cord - ... Spinal anesthesia (bier block)... Epidural... Pa…
Q2) Layers to pass for epidural?... Spin…
Skin, subQ, fascia, supraspinous ligament, interspinous ligam…
62 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Today's local anesthetics are all desc…
LA are weak bases and poorly water sol…
LA all have the same basic structure of:
hydrophillic portion of LA
cocaine
They are prepared as HCl salts
a benzene ring joined to a tertiary amine by an ester or amid…
tertiary amine
Today's local anesthetics are all desc…
cocaine
LA are weak bases and poorly water sol…
They are prepared as HCl salts
62 terms
Regional Anesthesia
central/neuraxial anesthesia
Peripheral anesthesia
benefits of regional anesthesia
Who gets a block?
epidural... subdural ... caudal
extremeties... trunchal... others
less PONV... faster revovery... shorter PACU and hospital LOS... preve…
post op analgesia ... avoid GA... cancer pts... chronic pain... narcotic…
central/neuraxial anesthesia
epidural... subdural ... caudal
Peripheral anesthesia
extremeties... trunchal... others
98 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Extraocular muscles
Forms retrobulbar cone
Responsible for sensory innervation
Responsible for muscle innervation
rectus: medial, lateral, inferior, & superior... oblique: infer…
rectus muscles
opthalmic nerve; branch of trigeminal (CN 5)
superior oblique; trochlear (CN 4)... lateral rectus; abducens (…
Extraocular muscles
rectus: medial, lateral, inferior, & superior... oblique: infer…
Forms retrobulbar cone
rectus muscles
14 terms
Regional Anesthesia
US physics and technology-Science of u…
How does US work? What type of frequen…
Echogenicity
Hyperechoic; Hypoechoic
US technology provides anatomical exam of area of interest in…
US emits and receives (high frequency) sound waves in the ran…
Refers to a structure's ability to absorb or reflect ultrasou…
Hyperechoic materials produce echoes of higher amplitude or d…
US physics and technology-Science of u…
US technology provides anatomical exam of area of interest in…
How does US work? What type of frequen…
US emits and receives (high frequency) sound waves in the ran…
136 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Situations in which regional anesthesi…
Why is patency of grafts higher at the…
2 ways regional anesthesia can be grou…
What is the most common regional anest…
1.) OB: edema in airway makes airway difficult, patient is al…
due to clotting cascade not being activated under regional an…
1. Central nerve blocks - [A.) Spinal, B.) Epidural, C.) Caud…
Local infiltration (often this isn't even done by anesthesia…
Situations in which regional anesthesi…
1.) OB: edema in airway makes airway difficult, patient is al…
Why is patency of grafts higher at the…
due to clotting cascade not being activated under regional an…
65 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Spinal cord starts? ends?
Length of spinal cord?
Where does the spinal cord end in peds?
What structure does the s. cord end at?
Starts:foramen magnum and ends: L1-L2
42-45cm
L3-L4
Cornus Medullaris
Spinal cord starts? ends?
Starts:foramen magnum and ends: L1-L2
Length of spinal cord?
42-45cm
28 terms
Regional Anesthesia
T/F If a patient is on aspirin you can…
When reviewing the pt's coagulation pr…
What are some complications of RA? (5)
What are some benefits of using RA? (M…
True. Aspirin is not a contraindication but if they are on as…
INR < 1.2... Platelets > 100,000... You can ask pt when they brush…
Infection... Headache... Backache... Bleeding... Unable to get it
Less N/V... Reduced total opioid requirement... Quicker to eat, voi…
T/F If a patient is on aspirin you can…
True. Aspirin is not a contraindication but if they are on as…
When reviewing the pt's coagulation pr…
INR < 1.2... Platelets > 100,000... You can ask pt when they brush…
32 terms
Regional Anesthesia
The spinal cord extends from where to…
The intrathecal is bordered anteriorly…
What are 2 types of anesthetics? What…
What are 3 esters?
F. magnum to L1; Cauda equina; anterior and posterior nerve r…
Posterior longitudinal ligament; epidural space, ligamentum f…
Amides and Esters; Higher lipid solubility and increased prot…
Cocaine... Procaine... Tetracaine
The spinal cord extends from where to…
F. magnum to L1; Cauda equina; anterior and posterior nerve r…
The intrathecal is bordered anteriorly…
Posterior longitudinal ligament; epidural space, ligamentum f…
32 terms
Regional Anesthesia
What are the absolute contraindication…
What dermatome corresponds with numbne…
What dermatome corresponds with numbne…
What dermatome corresponds with numbne…
1. Hypovolemia... 2. Coagulation disorders... 3. Patient refusal... (i…
T10
T6
T4
What are the absolute contraindication…
1. Hypovolemia... 2. Coagulation disorders... 3. Patient refusal... (i…
What dermatome corresponds with numbne…
T10
36 terms
Regional anesthesia
Distal termination of spinal cord
Termination of subarachnoid space ("in…
Key factor accounting for varability o…
Primary barrier to epidural drug diffu…
-L3 in infants... -L1 in adults
S2
80%- CSF volume
Arachnoid matter... -nonvascular. tightly attached to
Distal termination of spinal cord
-L3 in infants... -L1 in adults
Termination of subarachnoid space ("in…
S2
124 terms
Regional Anesthesia
What are the 3 layers of a nerve?
Which layer of the nerve encapsulates…
Where in the nerve does blood/oxygen e…
What makes up the majority of the inte…
epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium
endoneurium
epineurium
perineurium - connective tissue
What are the 3 layers of a nerve?
epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium
Which layer of the nerve encapsulates…
endoneurium
26 terms
Regional anesthesia
The primary determinant of ability to…
Relative contraindications
S & S of an Epidural Hematoma
If epidural hematoma is suspected do M…
Preload
Sepsis,Uncooperative patients,Pre-existing neuro deficits/neu…
Low back pain (sharp and irradiating)... Sensory and motor loss…
prior to cath removal bc cath may be tamponading the bleed
The primary determinant of ability to…
Preload
Relative contraindications
Sepsis,Uncooperative patients,Pre-existing neuro deficits/neu…
85 terms
Regional Anesthesia
3 absolute contraindications for regio…
LAs do what to Ca? ... Na?... Rate of depola…
Probably don't need to know but: What…
Suggested minimum cutaneous levels for…
Pt refusal (most significant)... Uncorrected coagulopathy... Infect…
Ca ions displaced from receptor site at cell membrane d/t LA…
Tetracaine... Bupivacaine ... Levobupivacaine... Ropivacaine
LE: T-12... LE w/ tourniquet (maybe to consider tourniquet pain?…
3 absolute contraindications for regio…
Pt refusal (most significant)... Uncorrected coagulopathy... Infect…
LAs do what to Ca? ... Na?... Rate of depola…
Ca ions displaced from receptor site at cell membrane d/t LA…
12 terms
Regional Anesthesia
Axillary Level of Blockade
Axillary Peripheral Nerves Blocked the…
Axillary used for Operations of?
Axillary Unsuitable what type of surge…
Peripheral nerves
Radial... ulnar... median... musculocutaneous unreliably blocked
forearm and hand
proximal humerus ... shoulder surgery
Axillary Level of Blockade
Peripheral nerves
Axillary Peripheral Nerves Blocked the…
Radial... ulnar... median... musculocutaneous unreliably blocked
71 terms
Regional Anesthesia- Spinal Anesthesia Notes
In an adult patient, at what location…
What surgical procedures is spinal ane…
What patient population may benefit mo…
What patients should spinal not be use…
Below L2, a small amount of local anesthetic should be inject…
Surgical procedures below the umbilicus, obstetric/gynecologi…
Elderly patients who may not tolerate general anesthesia.
Severe hypovolemia or severe dehydration d/t causes hypotensi…
In an adult patient, at what location…
Below L2, a small amount of local anesthetic should be inject…
What surgical procedures is spinal ane…
Surgical procedures below the umbilicus, obstetric/gynecologi…
13 terms
Regional anesthesia - Upper extremity
Picture: Branches, cords, divisions, t…
Brachial plexus
What does C4 supply?
What does T2 supply?
- Anterior primary rami of C5 - C8 and T1 unite to form 3 tru…
An area of shoulder ( cervical plexus)
An area of axilla (intercostobrachial nerve)
Picture: Branches, cords, divisions, t…
Brachial plexus
- Anterior primary rami of C5 - C8 and T1 unite to form 3 tru…
90 terms
Spinal & Epidural Regional Anesthesia
how many cervical vertebrae are there?
how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
how many lumbar vertebrae are there?
how many sacral vertebrae are there?
7
12
5
5
how many cervical vertebrae are there?
7
how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
12
72 terms
Anesthesia - Regional & Neuraxial
What would be the difference/effect if…
Describe the myelination/nonmyelinatio…
Where does sympathetic chain run?
Where are the cardioaccelerator fibers?
Anterior nerve roots carries motor and sympathetic outflow... Po…
A-alpha thick myelinated (motor)... A delta thin myelinated (pai…
T1-L2
T1-T4
What would be the difference/effect if…
Anterior nerve roots carries motor and sympathetic outflow... Po…
Describe the myelination/nonmyelinatio…
A-alpha thick myelinated (motor)... A delta thin myelinated (pai…
50 terms
Anesthesia - Regionals
Identify an absolute contraindication…
identify the nerve that is the major s…
three trunks of the cervical plexus li…
stimulation of the radial nerve result…
patient refusal
radial
subclavian artery and vein
extension of wrist and fingers
Identify an absolute contraindication…
patient refusal
identify the nerve that is the major s…
radial
1,883 terms
Regional Anesthesia Final Summer 2015
neuron
dendrites
axons
epineurium
- basic functional unit responsible for the conduction of ner…
____ receive incoming messages
____ conduct outgoing messages... - there is only 1 per neuron... -…
- connective tissue that surrounds the entire nerve and holds…
neuron
- basic functional unit responsible for the conduction of ner…
dendrites
____ receive incoming messages
Pain Management & Regional Anesthesia
Pain Classification
Pain Classification
Pain Classification II
Acute Pain
Acute Pain ... Chronic Pain... Cancer Pain
Nociceptive:... Somatic... Visceral
Non-Nociceptive: ... Neuropathic... Central ... Peripheral ... Psychogenic
Associated with injury or surgery ... Gets better in days to we…
Pain Classification
Acute Pain ... Chronic Pain... Cancer Pain
Pain Classification
Nociceptive:... Somatic... Visceral
90 terms
Spinal & Epidural Regional Anesthesia
how many cervical vertebrae are there?
how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
how many lumbar vertebrae are there?
how many sacral vertebrae are there?
7
12
5
5
how many cervical vertebrae are there?
7
how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
12
43 terms
Regional anesthesia - Local anesthetics
All LA molecules have:
Ester chain
Amide chain
MOA of LA
- Tertiary amine - hydrophilic... - Aromatic ring - lipophilic... -…
-COO-
-NHCO-
Alters (decreases) the permeability of sodium across the neur…
All LA molecules have:
- Tertiary amine - hydrophilic... - Aromatic ring - lipophilic... -…
Ester chain
-COO-
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