Study sets matching "research chapter 8"

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Study sets matching "research chapter 8"

18 terms
Research Chapter 8
Construct Validity
Content Validity
Continuous Variable
Criterion-related Validity
Extent to which an instrument of test measures an intended hy…
Extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…
Variable that takes on an infinite number of different values…
Extent to which an instrument or test measures a particular c…
Construct Validity
Extent to which an instrument of test measures an intended hy…
Content Validity
Extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…
56 terms
Research Chapter 8
Objectives
Quantitative Approach
Quantitative
Qualitative
Define research design.... Identify the purposes of research des…
Used when... Purpose of study is to measure the effect of an int…
Systematic... Ojbective... Deductvie ... Poteitlaly "generalizeable…
Systematic... subjective (to an extent)... Inductive ... Potentiall…
Objectives
Define research design.... Identify the purposes of research des…
Quantitative Approach
Used when... Purpose of study is to measure the effect of an int…
research methods chapter 8
bivariate correlation
curvilinear association
directionality problem
effect size
An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…
An association between two variables which is not a straight…
A situation in which it is unclear which variable in an assoc…
The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.
bivariate correlation
An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…
curvilinear association
An association between two variables which is not a straight…
12 terms
Chapter 8 Health Research
Cold-deck imputation
Cross-sectional survey
Deductive imputation
Hot-deck imputation
In chapter 8, what is the method for minimizing the effect of…
In chapter 8, in this type of survey, data of a sample or cro…
In chapter 8,what is a method for minimizing the effect of mi…
In chapter 8, what is a method for minimizing the effect of m…
Cold-deck imputation
In chapter 8, what is the method for minimizing the effect of…
Cross-sectional survey
In chapter 8, in this type of survey, data of a sample or cro…
25 terms
Research Chapter 8
bias
consistency
control
control group
a distortion in the data-analysis results
data are collected from each subject in ths tudy in exactly t…
measures used to hold uniform or constant the conditions unde…
the group in an experimental investigation that does not rece…
bias
a distortion in the data-analysis results
consistency
data are collected from each subject in ths tudy in exactly t…
23 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Criteria for Causality
Characteristics of Survey Research
Advantage of Survey Research
Disadvantages of Survey Research
1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…
Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…
Ability to provide detailed and precise information about a h…
Limit ability to make causal claims... • Ex. Low internal validi…
Criteria for Causality
1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…
Characteristics of Survey Research
Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…
Research in Counseling Chapter 8
Action Research
Practical Action Research
Participatory Action Research
Clinical Significance
Focus on obtaining info that will change conditions in a part…
Focuses on the application aspect of conducting a study in th…
(Collaborative) is similar in nature to the practical action…
Interested in what professional counselors can use in the sco…
Action Research
Focus on obtaining info that will change conditions in a part…
Practical Action Research
Focuses on the application aspect of conducting a study in th…
31 terms
Chapter 8: Survey Research
survey research
versatile
efficiency
generalizability
research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…
well-designed surveys can enhance our understanding of just a…
data can be collected at a relatively LOW COST and, depending…
uses of probability sampling from LARGE POPULATIONS
survey research
research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…
versatile
well-designed surveys can enhance our understanding of just a…
43 terms
Research Chapter 8
Researchers face numerous conceptual,…
Refers to the accuracy and consistency…
Reliability refers to the accuracy and…
____ in qualitative research encompass…
quantitative, qualitative
Reliability
Validity
Trustworthiness
Researchers face numerous conceptual,…
quantitative, qualitative
Refers to the accuracy and consistency…
Reliability
chapter 8 research
construct validity
content validity
continuous variable
criterion-related validity
extent to which an instrument or test measure an intended hyp…
extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…
variable that takes on an infinite number of different values…
extend to which an instrument or test measures a particular c…
construct validity
extent to which an instrument or test measure an intended hyp…
content validity
extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…
12 terms
Research Chapter 8
Bivariate Correlation
Mean
T Test
Effect Size
An association that involves exactly two variables
An arithmethic average; a measure of central tendency compute…
A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…
The magnitude of the relationship between two or more variables
Bivariate Correlation
An association that involves exactly two variables
Mean
An arithmethic average; a measure of central tendency compute…
18 terms
Chapter 8 research
Theory
Descriptive theory
Middle-ranged theories
Conceptual model
An abstract generalization that explains how phenomena are in…
Accounts for band thoroughly describes a phenomenon. Inductiv…
Attempt to explain phenomena like stress,confort, and health…
Deals with abstractions that are assembled because of their r…
Theory
An abstract generalization that explains how phenomena are in…
Descriptive theory
Accounts for band thoroughly describes a phenomenon. Inductiv…
Nursing Research Chapter 8
Grand theories
Middle range theories
Statistical models
Schematic method
purport to explain large segments of the human experience
theoreis that explain a portion of the human experience
mathematic equations that express the nature ad magnitude of…
represents a phenomenon of interest in a diagram
Grand theories
purport to explain large segments of the human experience
Middle range theories
theoreis that explain a portion of the human experience
Research Methods Chapter 8
all-possible-orders design
between-subjects design
block randomization
block-randomization design
(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…
an experimental design in which different participants are as…
an experimental procedure in which researchers conduct a roun…
a within-subjects design in which every participant is expose…
all-possible-orders design
(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…
between-subjects design
an experimental design in which different participants are as…
21 terms
chapter 8: research
what is a theory?
classical theory
descriptive theory
grand theory
an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenom…
an abstract generalization that systematically explains relat…
theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich…
attempts to explain large aspects of human experiences
what is a theory?
an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenom…
classical theory
an abstract generalization that systematically explains relat…
37 terms
CHAPTER 8: SURVEY RESEARCH
Need analysis
Summative evaluation
Formative evaluation
Evaluation research
Research to identify specific problems experienced by a targe…
Conducted after a program or product is completed to learn it…
Conducted while a program or product is in the process of bei…
Surveys are used to assess the performance of specific progra…
Need analysis
Research to identify specific problems experienced by a targe…
Summative evaluation
Conducted after a program or product is completed to learn it…
29 terms
Research - Chapter 8
Define Classical Theory
Define Descriptive Theory
What is a Grand Theory (or Macro-Theor…
What does high-quality research require?
A broad abstract generalization to SYSTEMATICALLY explains re…
A theory that THOROUGHLY describes a single phenomenon, based…
A theory that attempts to explain large segments of human exp…
Conceptual Integration: That means reasearchers must identify…
Define Classical Theory
A broad abstract generalization to SYSTEMATICALLY explains re…
Define Descriptive Theory
A theory that THOROUGHLY describes a single phenomenon, based…
19 terms
Chapter 8 - Quanitative Research
Quantitative Research
Research Design
Control
Independent Variable
The investigation or a phenomena that leads themselves to a p…
The plan or blueprint of a study
The process of holding constant extraneous influence on the v…
Can be manipulated
Quantitative Research
The investigation or a phenomena that leads themselves to a p…
Research Design
The plan or blueprint of a study
Business Research Methods Chapter 8
Observation
Record Analysis
Physical Condition Analysis
Process (Activity) Analysis
The full range of monitoring behavioral and non behavioral ac…
The extraction of data from current or historical records, ei…
The recording of observations of current conditions resulting…
Observation by a time study of stages in a process, evaluated…
Observation
The full range of monitoring behavioral and non behavioral ac…
Record Analysis
The extraction of data from current or historical records, ei…
51 terms
Educational Research Chapter 8: Correlational Research
Correlational Research
Minimum Sample Size
Do correlational studies have to focus…
Can correlational studies indicate cas…
Involves collecting data to determine whether, and to what de…
30 participants (usually); 30 in each subgroup if analyzing m…
No, correlational studies typically investigate a number of v…
No, they can lead to casual-comparative studies or experiment…
Correlational Research
Involves collecting data to determine whether, and to what de…
Minimum Sample Size
30 participants (usually); 30 in each subgroup if analyzing m…
10 terms
Research Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Conceptual framework
Conceptual map
Conceptual model
Descriptive theory
in a study that has its roots in a specified conceptual model…
a schematic representation of a theory or conceptual model th…
interrelated concepts or abstractions assembled together in a…
a broad characterization that thoroughly accounts for a pheno…
Conceptual framework
in a study that has its roots in a specified conceptual model…
Conceptual map
a schematic representation of a theory or conceptual model th…
32 terms
Theory and Research Chapter 8
Participants
Informants
Purposive
Key informants
Individuals in a qualitative study; informants
Individuals in a qualitative study; participants
Sampling method to recruit specific persons who could provide…
Individuals who have intimate knowledge of a subject
Participants
Individuals in a qualitative study; informants
Informants
Individuals in a qualitative study; participants
23 terms
Chapter 8 - Research
What are three kinds of variables in r…
Researcher puts poster in bathroom to…
Qualitative research is _________ and…
What does qualitative research not have?
- Independent: variables manipulated by the researcher... - Dep…
Independent: whether or not the poster on the wall, manipulat…
- explorative... - what... - how
- doesn't have hypothesis which is a prediction ... - qualitativ…
What are three kinds of variables in r…
- Independent: variables manipulated by the researcher... - Dep…
Researcher puts poster in bathroom to…
Independent: whether or not the poster on the wall, manipulat…
48 terms
Marketing Research Chapter 8
Measurement
Properties
Objective properties
Subjective properties
determining a description or the amount of some property of a…
the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…
physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, nu…
cannot be directly observed because they are mental construct…
Measurement
determining a description or the amount of some property of a…
Properties
the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…
Research Methods Chapter 8
Probability Sampling
Sampling Frame
Sampling Distribution
Bias
Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization
List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…
Range of sample statistic will be obtain if we select many sa…
those selected are not typical or representative
Probability Sampling
Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization
Sampling Frame
List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…
Chapter 8-Bivariate Correlational Research
bivariate correlation (p.204)
mean (p.208)
t test (p.209)
effect size (p.210)
An association that involves exactly two variables.
An arithmetic average; a measure of central tendency computed…
A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…
The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.
bivariate correlation (p.204)
An association that involves exactly two variables.
mean (p.208)
An arithmetic average; a measure of central tendency computed…
51 terms
Marketing Research - Chapter 8
Cuasality
Conditions for Causality
Concomitant Variation
Experiment
when the occurrence of X increases the probability of the occ…
1. Concomitant variation... 2. Time order of occurrence of varia…
a condition for inferring causality that requires that a caus…
the process of manipulating one or more independent variables…
Cuasality
when the occurrence of X increases the probability of the occ…
Conditions for Causality
1. Concomitant variation... 2. Time order of occurrence of varia…
10 terms
Chapter 8: Survey Research
Respondent
Questionnaire
Open-Ended Questions
Closed-Ended Questions
A person who provides data for analysis by responding to a su…
A document containing questions and other types of items desi…
Questions to which respondents are asked to provide their own…
Questions to which the respondent is asked to select an answe…
Respondent
A person who provides data for analysis by responding to a su…
Questionnaire
A document containing questions and other types of items desi…
22 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
blinding
block randomization
control group
crossover randomization
experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…
design approach that groups experimental units together usual…
participant group in which the independent variable is delive…
experimental design strategy that requires all participants b…
blinding
experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…
block randomization
design approach that groups experimental units together usual…
17 terms
Market Research Chapter 8
questionairre
questionairre design steps
unstructured questions
structured questions
a formal framework consists of a set of questions and scales…
1. confirm research objectives... 2. select appropriate data col…
open-ended questions formatted to allow respondents to reply…
closed-ended questions that require the respondent to choose…
questionairre
a formal framework consists of a set of questions and scales…
questionairre design steps
1. confirm research objectives... 2. select appropriate data col…
Chapter 8 mkting research
measurement
properties
objective properties
subjective properties
determining a description or amount of some property of an ob…
the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…
Physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, nu…
Unobservable and intangible, and they must be translated onto…
measurement
determining a description or amount of some property of an ob…
properties
the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…
17 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Non-Experimental research
Correlational research
Non-Experimental research methods incl…
The Hermeneutic approach to understand…
Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulat…
all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relati…
Observational, archival, case study, and survey
attempts to discover reasons for behavior, rather than causes…
Non-Experimental research
Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulat…
Correlational research
all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relati…
70 terms
Chapter 8 Marketing Research
measurement
scaling
4 Characteristics of Data
description
applying rules and assigning values to characteristics of obj…
a continuum where measurement values are located
description, order, distance, origin
data is only descriptive
measurement
applying rules and assigning values to characteristics of obj…
scaling
a continuum where measurement values are located
45 terms
MKTG Research Chapter 8
Measurement
Properties
Objective Properties
Subjective Properties
Determining how much of a property is possessed by an object.…
Specific features or characteristics of an object that can be…
Physically verifiable characteristics such as age, gender, or…
Cannot be directly observed because they are mental construct…
Measurement
Determining how much of a property is possessed by an object.…
Properties
Specific features or characteristics of an object that can be…
20 terms
Research Methods- Chapter 8
Reporting research methods
Structure of an APA-style paper
Title page
Abstract
APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations
Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussi…
Title of the article, the authors' names, and the author' aff…
Short summary of study, about 150 words ... -Purpose of study... -D…
Reporting research methods
APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations
Structure of an APA-style paper
Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussi…
6 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Threats to Internal Validity
Protecting Internal Validity
External Validity
Treats to External Validity
-History... -Maturation... -Testing... -Practice Effect... -Reactive Meas…
-Experimental Control... -Standard Protocol
-Ability to generalize to the population... -Population, environ…
-interation of testing and treatment... -Interaction of selectio…
Threats to Internal Validity
-History... -Maturation... -Testing... -Practice Effect... -Reactive Meas…
Protecting Internal Validity
-Experimental Control... -Standard Protocol
11 terms
MKT Research Chapter 8
observation research
open observation
disguised observation
garbologists
systematic process of recording patterns of occurrences or be…
process of monitoring people who know they are being watched
process of monitoring people who do not know they are being w…
researchers who sort through peoples garbage to analyze house…
observation research
systematic process of recording patterns of occurrences or be…
open observation
process of monitoring people who know they are being watched
Chapter 8: Experimental Research
experimental design
stimulus
placebo
pretest-posttest control group experim…
design in which the independent variable is controlled, manip…
independent variable that is controlled by the researcher
a simulated treatment of the control groups that is designed…
design with two or more randomly selected groups in which the…
experimental design
design in which the independent variable is controlled, manip…
stimulus
independent variable that is controlled by the researcher
34 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Correlation
Bivariate Correlation (Association)
How can we examine Bivariate Correlati…
Scatterplot
Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…
An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…
Make a scatterplot or graph.
-When we have two continuous variables, scatterplots provide…
Correlation
Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…
Bivariate Correlation (Association)
An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…
28 terms
CJ Research Chapter 8
Physical Settings
Social Settings
Behavior
Events
What does a particular place look like?... What characteristics…
How do people interact with one another at a particular place…
How do people behave in general?... What do cops do on patrol?
What happens during an event?... What happens during a felony c…
Physical Settings
What does a particular place look like?... What characteristics…
Social Settings
How do people interact with one another at a particular place…
75 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Selecting observations
Is often not possible to collect infor…
Bias
All members of the population have an…
Sampling is the process of:
Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessa…
When a research chooses a sample that is not typical of a lar…
A basic principle of probability sampling is that a sample wi…
Selecting observations
Sampling is the process of:
Is often not possible to collect infor…
Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessa…
8 terms
Social Research Chapter 8
Experimental Group
Control Group
Double-Blind Experiment
Randomization
a group of subjects to whom an experimental stimulus is admin…
Does not receive the experimental stimulus.... For Example: Exa…
An experimental design in which neither the subjects nor the…
A technique for assigning experimental subjects to experiment…
Experimental Group
a group of subjects to whom an experimental stimulus is admin…
Control Group
Does not receive the experimental stimulus.... For Example: Exa…
21 terms
Research Methods I Chapter 8
Criterion Variable
Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design
Dependent Variable
Factor
The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…
A research design in which two variables are measured at two…
The response measured in a study, typically a measure of part…
(1) In experimental analysis, an independent variable. (2) In…
Criterion Variable
The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…
Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design
A research design in which two variables are measured at two…
Marketing Research: Chapter 8
Questionnaire
Unstructured Questions
Structured Questions
Sensitive Questions
A formal framework consisting of a set of questions and scale…
Open-ended questions formatted to allow respondents to reply…
Closed-ended questions that require the respondent to choose…
Include income, sexual beliefs or behaviors, medical conditio…
Questionnaire
A formal framework consisting of a set of questions and scale…
Unstructured Questions
Open-ended questions formatted to allow respondents to reply…
30 terms
chapter 8 research methods
survey research design
survey
open-ended item
partially open-ended item
use of a survey, administered either in written form or orall…
series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to…
question or statement in a survey that allows the respondent…
question or statement in a survey that includes a few restric…
survey research design
use of a survey, administered either in written form or orall…
survey
series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to…
46 terms
Chapter 8 - Market Research
properties
objective properties
subjective properties
scale development
the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…
physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, nu…
properties that cannot be directly observed because they are…
designing questions and response formats to measure the subje…
properties
the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…
objective properties
physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, nu…
Research Methods- Chapter 8
Between
Within
Assignment Bias
Equivalent groups
A separate group of Participants for every level of IV
The same group of participants for ever level of IV
Levels may differ on some extraneous variable that is an indi…
To minimize assignment bias
Between
A separate group of Participants for every level of IV
Within
The same group of participants for ever level of IV
56 terms
MKT Research Chapter 8
Causality
Casual Experimentation Research Parts
Concomitant variation
Time order of occurrence condition
Causality When the occurrence of X increases the probability…
Field Experiments... Laboratory Experiments
is the extent to which a cause, X, and an effect, Y, occur to…
States that the causing event must occur either before or sim…
Causality
Causality When the occurrence of X increases the probability…
Casual Experimentation Research Parts
Field Experiments... Laboratory Experiments
16 terms
Marketing Research Chapter 8
Questionnaire
Unstructured Questions
Structured questions
Sensitive Questions
A formal framework consisting of a set of questions and scale…
Open-ended questions formatted to allow respondents to reply…
Closed-ended questions that require the respondents to choose…
Include income, sexual beliefs or behaviors, medical conditio…
Questionnaire
A formal framework consisting of a set of questions and scale…
Unstructured Questions
Open-ended questions formatted to allow respondents to reply…
13 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Bivariate Correlation(association)
Construct Validity
Statistical Significane
Statistical Validity
an association that involves exactly two variables
how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably
The conclusion a researcher reaches regarding how likely it i…
How strong is the relationship... is the correlation statictical…
Bivariate Correlation(association)
an association that involves exactly two variables
Construct Validity
how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably
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