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Construct Validity

Content Validity

Continuous Variable

Criterion-related Validity

Extent to which an instrument of test measures an intended hy…

Extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…

Variable that takes on an infinite number of different values…

Extent to which an instrument or test measures a particular c…

Construct Validity

Extent to which an instrument of test measures an intended hy…

Content Validity

Extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…

survey research

versatile

efficiency

generalizability

research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…

well-designed surveys can enhance our understanding of just a…

data can be collected at a relatively LOW COST and, depending…

uses of probability sampling from LARGE POPULATIONS

survey research

research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…

versatile

well-designed surveys can enhance our understanding of just a…

Cold-deck imputation

Cross-sectional survey

Deductive imputation

Hot-deck imputation

In chapter 8, what is the method for minimizing the effect of…

In chapter 8, in this type of survey, data of a sample or cro…

In chapter 8,what is a method for minimizing the effect of mi…

In chapter 8, what is a method for minimizing the effect of m…

Cold-deck imputation

In chapter 8, what is the method for minimizing the effect of…

Cross-sectional survey

In chapter 8, in this type of survey, data of a sample or cro…

bivariate correlation

curvilinear association

directionality problem

effect size

An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…

An association between two variables which is not a straight…

A situation in which it is unclear which variable in an assoc…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.

bivariate correlation

An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…

curvilinear association

An association between two variables which is not a straight…

bias

consistency

control

control group

a distortion in the data-analysis results

data are collected from each subject in ths tudy in exactly t…

measures used to hold uniform or constant the conditions unde…

the group in an experimental investigation that does not rece…

bias

a distortion in the data-analysis results

consistency

data are collected from each subject in ths tudy in exactly t…

Criteria for Causality

Characteristics of Survey Research

Advantage of Survey Research

Disadvantages of Survey Research

1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…

Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…

Ability to provide detailed and precise information about a h…

Limit ability to make causal claims... • Ex. Low internal validi…

Criteria for Causality

1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…

Characteristics of Survey Research

Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…

The nurse is critiquing an experimenta…

Which of the following statements abou…

The nurse researcher is evaluating a c…

factorial design

random sampling, control of intervention , control group

-effect cannot occur unless the cause first occurs ... - greater…

large sample... sample representing all elements of the populati…

two or more levels of treatment

The nurse is critiquing an experimenta…

random sampling, control of intervention , control group

Which of the following statements abou…

-effect cannot occur unless the cause first occurs ... - greater…

Research Design

Design Validity

Nonexperimental Designs

Cross-sectional design

A blueprint for conducting a study

Strengths increase the probability that the study findings ar…

- Descriptive and correlational designs... - The focus is on exa…

Examines a group of subjects simultaneously in various stages…

Research Design

A blueprint for conducting a study

Design Validity

Strengths increase the probability that the study findings ar…

Action Research

Practical Action Research

Participatory Action Research

Clinical Significance

Focus on obtaining info that will change conditions in a part…

Focuses on the application aspect of conducting a study in th…

(Collaborative) is similar in nature to the practical action…

Interested in what professional counselors can use in the sco…

Action Research

Focus on obtaining info that will change conditions in a part…

Practical Action Research

Focuses on the application aspect of conducting a study in th…

construct validity

content validity

continuous variable

criterion-related variable

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended hy…

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…

variable that takes on an infinite number of different values…

extent to which an instrument or test measures a particular c…

construct validity

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended hy…

content validity

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…

construct validity

content validity

continuous variable

criterion-related validity

extent to which an instrument or test measure an intended hyp…

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…

variable that takes on an infinite number of different values…

extend to which an instrument or test measures a particular c…

construct validity

extent to which an instrument or test measure an intended hyp…

content validity

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…

Bivariate Correlation

Mean

T Test

Effect Size

An association that involves exactly two variables

An arithmethic average; a measure of central tendency compute…

A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…

The magnitude of the relationship between two or more variables

Bivariate Correlation

An association that involves exactly two variables

Mean

An arithmethic average; a measure of central tendency compute…

Correlational Research

Minimum Sample Size

Do correlational studies have to focus…

Can correlational studies indicate cas…

Involves collecting data to determine whether, and to what de…

30 participants (usually); 30 in each subgroup if analyzing m…

No, correlational studies typically investigate a number of v…

No, they can lead to casual-comparative studies or experiment…

Correlational Research

Involves collecting data to determine whether, and to what de…

Minimum Sample Size

30 participants (usually); 30 in each subgroup if analyzing m…

Theory

Descriptive theory

Middle-ranged theories

Conceptual model

An abstract generalization that explains how phenomena are in…

Accounts for band thoroughly describes a phenomenon. Inductiv…

Attempt to explain phenomena like stress,confort, and health…

Deals with abstractions that are assembled because of their r…

Theory

An abstract generalization that explains how phenomena are in…

Descriptive theory

Accounts for band thoroughly describes a phenomenon. Inductiv…

Survey research

Omnibus survey

Split-ballot design

Satisfice

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differe…

Unique questions or other modifications in a survey administe…

When survey respondents reduce the effort required to answer…

Survey research

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…

Omnibus survey

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differe…

Conceptual framework (model)

Conceptual map (Schematic model)

Descriptive theory

Framework

Interrelated concepts or abstractions assembled together in a…

A schematic representation of a theory that graphically repre…

A broad characterization that thoroughly accounts for a pheno…

The conceptual underpinnings of a study. p.50,135,142-144,381

Conceptual framework (model)

Interrelated concepts or abstractions assembled together in a…

Conceptual map (Schematic model)

A schematic representation of a theory that graphically repre…

Bivariate Correlation

Mean

T-test

Effect Size

Association that involves exactly two variables

Arithmetic Average; used in bar graphs instead of scatter plots

Statistic to test whether the difference between means is sta…

Describes the strength of an association

Bivariate Correlation

Association that involves exactly two variables

Mean

Arithmetic Average; used in bar graphs instead of scatter plots

Reasons for Collecting Primary Data

Quantitive VS. Qualitative

The most popular way to gather data

The pros and cons of [Survey]

- need to describe situation , process, purchase variables... -…

= bulk of surveys are quantitative (numbers based) - results…

Survey

P:... -It can accommodate large sample size... - reduce the error i…

Reasons for Collecting Primary Data

- need to describe situation , process, purchase variables... -…

Quantitive VS. Qualitative

= bulk of surveys are quantitative (numbers based) - results…

Quantitative Research

Research Design

Control

Independent Variable

The investigation or a phenomena that leads themselves to a p…

The plan or blueprint of a study

The process of holding constant extraneous influence on the v…

Can be manipulated

Quantitative Research

The investigation or a phenomena that leads themselves to a p…

Research Design

The plan or blueprint of a study

Define Classical Theory

Define Descriptive Theory

What is a Grand Theory (or Macro-Theor…

What does high-quality research require?

A broad abstract generalization to SYSTEMATICALLY explains re…

A theory that THOROUGHLY describes a single phenomenon, based…

A theory that attempts to explain large segments of human exp…

Conceptual Integration: That means reasearchers must identify…

Define Classical Theory

A broad abstract generalization to SYSTEMATICALLY explains re…

Define Descriptive Theory

A theory that THOROUGHLY describes a single phenomenon, based…

sampling

central limit theorem

normally distributed

population

a scientific technique that allows a researcher to learn some…

the theoretical basis upon which the science of sampling is b…

a condition describing data that exist in a normal distribution

the entire set of individuals or groups that is relevant to a…

sampling

a scientific technique that allows a researcher to learn some…

central limit theorem

the theoretical basis upon which the science of sampling is b…

all-possible-orders design

between-subjects design

block randomization

block-randomization design

(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…

an experimental design in which different participants are as…

an experimental procedure in which researchers conduct a roun…

a within-subjects design in which every participant is expose…

all-possible-orders design

(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…

between-subjects design

an experimental design in which different participants are as…

What are three kinds of variables in r…

Researcher puts poster in bathroom to…

Qualitative research is _________ and…

What does qualitative research not have?

- Independent: variables manipulated by the researcher... - Dep…

Independent: whether or not the poster on the wall, manipulat…

- explorative... - what... - how

- doesn't have hypothesis which is a prediction ... - qualitativ…

What are three kinds of variables in r…

- Independent: variables manipulated by the researcher... - Dep…

Researcher puts poster in bathroom to…

Independent: whether or not the poster on the wall, manipulat…

what is a theory?

classical theory

descriptive theory

grand theory

an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenom…

an abstract generalization that systematically explains relat…

theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich…

attempts to explain large aspects of human experiences

what is a theory?

an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenom…

classical theory

an abstract generalization that systematically explains relat…

Measurement

Properties

Objective properties

Subjective properties

determining a description or the amount of some property of a…

the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…

physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, nu…

cannot be directly observed because they are mental construct…

Measurement

determining a description or the amount of some property of a…

Properties

the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…

Positivism

Post-positivism

Constructivism

Critical Paradigm

the belief that knowledge should be derived from scientific o…

the truth can only be approximated because of inherent error…

A philosophy of learning based on the premise that people con…

A philosophy paradigm that centers on researchers taking a pr…

Positivism

the belief that knowledge should be derived from scientific o…

Post-positivism

the truth can only be approximated because of inherent error…

correlation analysis

dummy variable

regression analysis

regression coefficient

strength and direction of a relation between two interval-lev…

if a variable applies value is 1 if it doesn't apply the valu…

estimates the size of the effect of the independent variable…

the term b represents the slop of the line

correlation analysis

strength and direction of a relation between two interval-lev…

dummy variable

if a variable applies value is 1 if it doesn't apply the valu…

Conceptual framework

Conceptual map

Conceptual model

Descriptive theory

in a study that has its roots in a specified conceptual model…

a schematic representation of a theory or conceptual model th…

interrelated concepts or abstractions assembled together in a…

a broad characterization that thoroughly accounts for a pheno…

Conceptual framework

in a study that has its roots in a specified conceptual model…

Conceptual map

a schematic representation of a theory or conceptual model th…

Content Analysis

External Validity

Example of content analysis

Narrative Discourse

Primarily a quantitative method of describing and categorizin…

Refers to the accuracy of applying the findings from one stud…

Kubrin wanted to examine the ways that rap music represents l…

Narrative discourse occurs when one communicator has greater…

Content Analysis

Primarily a quantitative method of describing and categorizin…

External Validity

Refers to the accuracy of applying the findings from one stud…

Generalizability

Sampling Frame

Unit of Analysis

Random Sampling

Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peo…

A realistic version of your population; the ones you can iden…

Sampling units

A sample in which everyone in your sampling frame has an equa…

Generalizability

Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peo…

Sampling Frame

A realistic version of your population; the ones you can iden…

Participants

Informants

Purposive

Key informants

Individuals in a qualitative study; informants

Individuals in a qualitative study; participants

Sampling method to recruit specific persons who could provide…

Individuals who have intimate knowledge of a subject

Participants

Individuals in a qualitative study; informants

Informants

Individuals in a qualitative study; participants

construct validity

content validity

continuous variable

criterion-related variable

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended hy…

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…

variable that takes on an infinite number of different values…

extent to which an instrument or test measures a particular c…

construct validity

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended hy…

content validity

extent to which an instrument or test measures an intended co…

Measurement

Properties

Objective properties

Subjective properties

determining a description or amount of some property of an ob…

the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…

observable and tangible; age, income, store last visited etc.

unobservable and intangible, and they must be translated onto…

Measurement

determining a description or amount of some property of an ob…

Properties

the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…

What is an association claim?

Bivariate Associations

scatterplot... bar graph

Line that fits to the data

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the s…

correlation coefficient **r** describes relationship... differenc…

by minimizing the sum of squared residuals

What is an association claim?

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Bivariate Associations

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the s…

questionairre

questionairre design steps

unstructured questions

structured questions

a formal framework consists of a set of questions and scales…

1. confirm research objectives... 2. select appropriate data col…

open-ended questions formatted to allow respondents to reply…

closed-ended questions that require the respondent to choose…

questionairre

a formal framework consists of a set of questions and scales…

questionairre design steps

1. confirm research objectives... 2. select appropriate data col…

measurement

properties

objective properties

subjective properties

determining a description or amount of some property of an ob…

the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…

Physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, nu…

Unobservable and intangible, and they must be translated onto…

measurement

determining a description or amount of some property of an ob…

properties

the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…

survey research

why is survey research the most popula…

versatility

effciency

involves the collection of information from a sample of indiv…

-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these f…

-survey methods are versatile... -not the ideal method for test…

surveys also are popular bc data can be collected from many p…

survey research

involves the collection of information from a sample of indiv…

why is survey research the most popula…

-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these f…

measurement

scaling

4 Characteristics of Data

description

applying rules and assigning values to characteristics of obj…

a continuum where measurement values are located

description, order, distance, origin

data is only descriptive

measurement

applying rules and assigning values to characteristics of obj…

scaling

a continuum where measurement values are located

Probability Sampling

Sampling Frame

Sampling Distribution

Bias

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…

Range of sample statistic will be obtain if we select many sa…

those selected are not typical or representative

Probability Sampling

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

Sampling Frame

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…

Correlation

Bivariate Correlation (Association)

How can we examine Bivariate Correlati…

Scatterplot

Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…

An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…

Make a scatterplot or graph.

-When we have two continuous variables, scatterplots provide…

Correlation

Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…

Bivariate Correlation (Association)

An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…

bivariate correlation (p.204)

mean (p.208)

t test (p.209)

effect size (p.210)

An association that involves exactly two variables.

An arithmetic average; a measure of central tendency computed…

A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.

bivariate correlation (p.204)

An association that involves exactly two variables.

mean (p.208)

An arithmetic average; a measure of central tendency computed…

Which type of team involves a group of…

Which type of team involves a group of…

Which type of team involves a group of…

The process of identifying a problem (…

Multidisciplinary team

Interdisciplinary Team

Transdisciplinary Team

Diagnosis

Which type of team involves a group of…

Multidisciplinary team

Which type of team involves a group of…

Interdisciplinary Team

properties

objective properties

subjective properties

scale development

the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…

physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, nu…

properties that cannot be directly observed because they are…

designing questions and response formats to measure the subje…

properties

the specific features or characteristics of an object that ca…

objective properties

physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, nu…

Questionnaire

Unstructured Questions

Structured questions

Sensitive Questions

A formal framework consisting of a set of questions and scale…

Open-ended questions formatted to allow respondents to reply…

Closed-ended questions that require the respondents to choose…

Include income, sexual beliefs or behaviors, medical conditio…

Questionnaire

A formal framework consisting of a set of questions and scale…

Unstructured Questions

Open-ended questions formatted to allow respondents to reply…

Causality

Casual Experimentation Research Parts

Concomitant variation

Time order of occurrence condition

Causality When the occurrence of X increases the probability…

Field Experiments... Laboratory Experiments

is the extent to which a cause, X, and an effect, Y, occur to…

States that the causing event must occur either before or sim…

Causality

Causality When the occurrence of X increases the probability…

Casual Experimentation Research Parts

Field Experiments... Laboratory Experiments

Bivariate Correlation(association)

Construct Validity

Statistical Significane

Statistical Validity

an association that involves exactly two variables

how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably

The conclusion a researcher reaches regarding how likely it i…

How strong is the relationship... is the correlation statictical…

Bivariate Correlation(association)

an association that involves exactly two variables

Construct Validity

how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably

Bivariate correlation/association

Bar graph

Construct, Statistical, Internal and E…

Construct validity

What is an association that involves exactly two variables?

If you are interested in a categorical variable, which scale…

What are the four types of validity for association claims?

What validity answers the question How well was each variable…

Bivariate correlation/association

What is an association that involves exactly two variables?

Bar graph

If you are interested in a categorical variable, which scale…

Criterion Variable

Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design

Dependent Variable

Factor

The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…

A research design in which two variables are measured at two…

The response measured in a study, typically a measure of part…

(1) In experimental analysis, an independent variable. (2) In…

Criterion Variable

The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…

Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design

A research design in which two variables are measured at two…

Sampling

Population

Sample

Sample Elements

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to…

A subset of elements drawn from the population.

Individual members of the sample.

Sampling

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

Population

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to…

blinding

block randomization

control group

crossover randomization

experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…

design approach that groups experimental units together usual…

participant group in which the independent variable is delive…

experimental design strategy that requires all participants b…

blinding

experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…

block randomization

design approach that groups experimental units together usual…