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Study sets matching "research designs"

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Study sets matching "research designs"

8 terms
Research Designs
demonstration
comparison
true experiment
non- experiment
involves a single treatment or condition; can never be an exp
involves at least two treatments or conditions; can be an exp…
involves random assignment of Pts, manipulation of the causal…
may have manipulation of the causal variable, but never invol…
demonstration
involves a single treatment or condition; can never be an exp
comparison
involves at least two treatments or conditions; can be an exp…
29 terms
Research Designs
system 1 thinking
system 2 thinking
heuristic
research design
using gut hunches, also called intuitive thinking, quick and…
takes mental effort, also called analytical thinking, slow an…
mental shortcut that helps us streamline our thinking and mak…
systematic techniques developed by scientists in psychology a…
system 1 thinking
using gut hunches, also called intuitive thinking, quick and…
system 2 thinking
takes mental effort, also called analytical thinking, slow an…
20 terms
Research Designs
Descriptive Research
Cross-sectional study
Cohort study
Case control study
Non- manipulative, can be qualitative or quantitative
observational/ descriptive- estimate prevalence of disease or…
Also known as longitudinal observational design- a group (coh…
Compares individuals who have a disease with individuals who…
Descriptive Research
Non- manipulative, can be qualitative or quantitative
Cross-sectional study
observational/ descriptive- estimate prevalence of disease or…
23 terms
Research Designs
Longitudinal Study
Third Variable Problem
Confound
Construct Validity
...
A problem that occurs when the researcher cannot directly man…
Anything that affects a dependent variable and that may unint…
the extent to which variables measure what they are supposed…
Longitudinal Study
...
Third Variable Problem
A problem that occurs when the researcher cannot directly man…
Research Designs
Purpose
Major difference between qualitative a…
Strongest qualitative research design
RCT
To identify the best research design to fit the question bein…
- Quantitative IDENTIFIES, DEFINES and MEASURES factors that…
RCT - because participants are assigned to their groups throu…
Assigns people who have agreed to participate in the study in…
Purpose
To identify the best research design to fit the question bein…
Major difference between qualitative a…
- Quantitative IDENTIFIES, DEFINES and MEASURES factors that…
37 terms
research DESIGNS
Historical Design
Good and Scates
Historical Design
Historical Research
may be defined as the "branch of knowledge concerned with pas…
search for knowledge and the truth
Any integrated narrative or descriptive past events or facts…
Is a systematic and critical inquiry of the whole truth of pa…
Historical Design
may be defined as the "branch of knowledge concerned with pas…
Good and Scates
search for knowledge and the truth
12 terms
Research Designs
General Research Designs
Correlational Design
Correlation Coefficient
Experimental Design
Correlational and Experimental
Researchers gather information on individuals, generally in n…
a number that describes how two measures, or variables, are a…
Permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers…
General Research Designs
Correlational and Experimental
Correlational Design
Researchers gather information on individuals, generally in n…
11 terms
Research Designs
Confounds
Correlation
Dependent variable
Experimenter expectations
Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences…
Measures the association between two variables, or how they g…
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate…
When the experimenter's bias influence the outcome of a study.
Confounds
Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences…
Correlation
Measures the association between two variables, or how they g…
38 terms
Research Designs
0
X
R
MR
observation
experimental treatment
random assignment
matched on extraneous variables and randomly assigned
0
observation
X
experimental treatment
Research Design
ethical
ethical
practical
theoretical
PET? Teacher thinks non-participant observation would distrac…
PET? Students disclose personal information that potentially…
PET? conducting group interviews with students around their a…
PET? Information about why students feel it necessary to wear…
ethical
PET? Teacher thinks non-participant observation would distrac…
ethical
PET? Students disclose personal information that potentially…
122 terms
Research Designs
Internal validity
External validity
Predictive validity (criterion validity)
Concurrent validity
- Degree to which a design rules out the influence of extrane…
- Generalization to real world... - Inferential generality: Can…
A test predicts future performance on related task.
A new test correlates with an established test of known valid…
Internal validity
- Degree to which a design rules out the influence of extrane…
External validity
- Generalization to real world... - Inferential generality: Can…
9 terms
Research Designs
Experimental
Correlational
Ethnography
Phenomenological
incorporates control, random, and intervention... -strongest res…
relationship of 1 or more variables without knowing the reason
collection and analysis of data in a group. Good way to under…
events and trends from human perspective-understand a lived e…
Experimental
incorporates control, random, and intervention... -strongest res…
Correlational
relationship of 1 or more variables without knowing the reason
Research Designs
Validity
Reliability
Facilitated Communication
Heuristics
Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure
If the study can produce consistent results
A revolutionary treatment for autism. Experimenter sat next t…
Mental shortcuts or rules of thumb. ... Reduce the cognitive ene…
Validity
Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure
Reliability
If the study can produce consistent results
16 terms
Research Designs
Group Designs
Between-subject designs (group design)
Within-subject designs (group design)
Mixed designs (group design)
one or more groups of subjects exposed to the IVs
compare performance of separate groups of subjects
performance of the same subjects compared in different condit…
include both within and between-subject designs
Group Designs
one or more groups of subjects exposed to the IVs
Between-subject designs (group design)
compare performance of separate groups of subjects
15 terms
Research designs
External validity
Internal validity
Naturalistic observations
Advantages/Disadvantages of Naturalist…
The extent that our findings generalize to real world settings.
Extent to which we can draw cause and effect conclusions. Har…
Observing people in their natural settings
High in internal validity, low in external validity
External validity
The extent that our findings generalize to real world settings.
Internal validity
Extent to which we can draw cause and effect conclusions. Har…
25 terms
research designs
RCTs (Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis
Cohort Studies
Case-Control Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies... Case Series... Ca…
ALWAYS PROSPECTIVE
Used if Outcome is COMMON... Has forward directionality ( clini…
Used if Outcome is RARE, have to wait a long time for... outcome…
Has non-directionality... timing: retrospective studies
RCTs (Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis
ALWAYS PROSPECTIVE
Cohort Studies
Used if Outcome is COMMON... Has forward directionality ( clini…
23 terms
research designs
Baseline Phase-
Descriptive Function-
Predictive function-
Stability of Performance-
observing and recording behavior for several days before the
data describes the existing level of performance or the ... exte…
data serve as basis for predicting the level of... performance f…
stable rate of behavior... is characterized by the absence of a…
Baseline Phase-
observing and recording behavior for several days before the
Descriptive Function-
data describes the existing level of performance or the ... exte…
16 terms
Research Designs
General Structure Design
Action Research Design
Case Study Design
Casual Design
ensure that the evidence obtained enables you to effectively…
follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an explorator…
an in-depth study of a particular research problem rather tha…
understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements…
General Structure Design
ensure that the evidence obtained enables you to effectively…
Action Research Design
follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an explorator…
21 terms
Research Designs
Quantitative
Qualitative
Mixed methods
Prospective study
-relies on numerical data
-relies on patient input
-mixture of qualitative and quantitative
-we have our question and we move forward... -can measure effect…
Quantitative
-relies on numerical data
Qualitative
-relies on patient input
53 terms
Research Designs
N-of-1 study
Cohort (follow up) study
Case control (trohoc) study
cross-sectional study
...
...
...
...
N-of-1 study
...
Cohort (follow up) study
...
8 terms
Research Designs
Self-Report Methodologies
Interviews/Questionnaires
Diary Study
Naturalistic Observation
three common procedures that developmentalists use to gather…
ask a series of question pertaining to such aspects of develo…
were participants write answers to specified questions in a d…
observing people in their common, everyday surroundings... Pro:…
Self-Report Methodologies
three common procedures that developmentalists use to gather…
Interviews/Questionnaires
ask a series of question pertaining to such aspects of develo…
14 terms
Research Designs
Descriptive Research
Correlational Research
Experimental
Control Group Design
-Naturalistic Observation (ex: Jane Goodall's systematic stud…
...
Control Group Design... Single-Subject Design
Most common type--control group and treatment group... -Comparat…
Descriptive Research
-Naturalistic Observation (ex: Jane Goodall's systematic stud…
Correlational Research
...
8 terms
Research Designs
Descriptive Research
Correlational Research
Experimental Research
Independent Variables
aims to observe and record behavior.
The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between…
A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors…
A manipulated, influential experimental factor.
Descriptive Research
aims to observe and record behavior.
Correlational Research
The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between…
11 terms
Research designs
Correlation
Dependent variable
Experimenter expectations
Independent variable
Measures the association between two variables or how they go…
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate…
When the experimenters expectations influence the outcome of…
The variable the researcher manipulates and controls in an ex…
Correlation
Measures the association between two variables or how they go…
Dependent variable
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate…
37 terms
Research Designs
Withdrawal Design
Alternating Treatments (ATD) or Multie…
Multiple Baseline Design
Changing Criterion Design
A-B-A-B: strongest of the designs; permits 2 reversals of the…
Alternating conditions to demonstrate a functional relation.…
intervention is not withdrawn; systematically introduced acro…
Changes in criterion to advance applied in step-wise fashion.…
Withdrawal Design
A-B-A-B: strongest of the designs; permits 2 reversals of the…
Alternating Treatments (ATD) or Multie…
Alternating conditions to demonstrate a functional relation.…
14 terms
Research Designs
Pre-experimental
pretest/postest
one shot case study
static group comparison
pretest/posttest, one shot case study, static group comparison
oxo
xo
xo o
Pre-experimental
pretest/posttest, one shot case study, static group comparison
pretest/postest
oxo
14 terms
Research Designs
Cross sectional definition
cross sectional cons
cross sectional pros
longitudinal definition
subjects are members of two or more age groups, most common d…
cannot disentangle factors of age and cohort
efficient design, data for young and older groups collected a…
used to study age-related changes in how people think, feel,…
Cross sectional definition
subjects are members of two or more age groups, most common d…
cross sectional cons
cannot disentangle factors of age and cohort
9 terms
Research Designs
Experiment of Research Designs
Is the Control Group exposed to the in…
Is the Experimental Group exposed to t…
Advantages of an Experiment
1. Pretest everyone.... 2. Divide participants up into two group…
No.
Yes.
1. Some intriguing results have been found. ... (Asch, Milgram)…
Experiment of Research Designs
1. Pretest everyone.... 2. Divide participants up into two group…
Is the Control Group exposed to the in…
No.
11 terms
Research Designs
Confounds
Correlation
Dependent variable
Experimenter expectations
Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences…
Measures the association between two variables, or how they g…
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate…
When the experimenter's expectations influence the outcome of…
Confounds
Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences…
Correlation
Measures the association between two variables, or how they g…
42 terms
research designs
a blueprint for conducting that maximi…
T or F ... a design is a broad approach/g…
the overall blueprint, guide and struc…
example of design
research design
true
design
ranch style home (all structured the same)
a blueprint for conducting that maximi…
research design
T or F ... a design is a broad approach/g…
true
22 terms
Research Designs
methodological studies
Question about the ability to predict…
Intervention studies
Outcome studies
Question about methods of study
Diagnostic, prognostic, clinical prediction rulesq
Question about efficacy/effectiveness of intervention
Question about person-level outcome measures
methodological studies
Question about methods of study
Question about the ability to predict…
Diagnostic, prognostic, clinical prediction rulesq
8 terms
Research Designs
Experiment of research designs
Types of Surveys
(Types of) Experiments
Observation Stuides
1. Pretest everyone.... 2. Divide participants up into two group…
Interviews- face to face, info seeking conversations.... Questio…
Control: group you leave alone. (not exposed to independent v…
Participant observation- research both observes and becomes a…
Experiment of research designs
1. Pretest everyone.... 2. Divide participants up into two group…
Types of Surveys
Interviews- face to face, info seeking conversations.... Questio…
22 terms
Research Designs
True experimental design
True experiment participants
True experiment results
True experimental limitations
Quantatitive; The randomized control trial and gold standard…
participant characteristics equally distributed across both g…
you can learn the MOST about causal relationships, and it str…
you don't learn much about high or low performers, only avera…
True experimental design
Quantatitive; The randomized control trial and gold standard…
True experiment participants
participant characteristics equally distributed across both g…
40 terms
Research Designs
True or False: the research design is…
1st step in identifying which research…
Elements to a Research Design
What are Research Paradigms?
- true
- establish a clinical question (i.e. your PICO) ... * diagnosis…
- paradigm/philosophical approach ... - design format ... - # of gr…
- quantitative ... - qualitative
True or False: the research design is…
- true
1st step in identifying which research…
- establish a clinical question (i.e. your PICO) ... * diagnosis…
9 terms
Research Designs
group design
between-subject design
within-subject design
mixed design
one or more groups of subjects exposed to the IVs
compare performance of separate groups of subjects
performance of same subjects in different conditions
include both within and between-subject design
group design
one or more groups of subjects exposed to the IVs
between-subject design
compare performance of separate groups of subjects
24 terms
Research Designs
Provide a description of a phenomenon…
What do teachers think about magnet sc…
Used to compare 2 or more levels of an…
Ex. Relationship b/t gender and grades…
Descriptive, Non-Experimental
Descriptive, Non-Experimental
Comparative, Non-Experimental
Comparative, Non-Experimental
Provide a description of a phenomenon…
Descriptive, Non-Experimental
What do teachers think about magnet sc…
Descriptive, Non-Experimental
17 terms
Research designs
no manipulation, studies are easy to d…
what are some examples of descriptive…
1 patient... has a longitudinal component…
measurement done at one point in time…
descriptive research
case report, case series, observational study, cross-sectiona…
case report
cross sectional
no manipulation, studies are easy to d…
descriptive research
what are some examples of descriptive…
case report, case series, observational study, cross-sectiona…
34 terms
Research Designs
What is Science?
What is Research?
The Scientific Method
What is a Research Design?
is a body of knowledge, & a way of acquiring knowledge that's…
is posing a question about something that we don't know about…
is a systematic way of collecting information of a topic, rel…
it is an analytic approach used to evaluate a research questi…
What is Science?
is a body of knowledge, & a way of acquiring knowledge that's…
What is Research?
is posing a question about something that we don't know about…
34 terms
Research Designs
Research Designs:... What are examples of…
Research Designs:... What are experimenta…
What are the key uses of non experimen…
Descriptive Research:... Case Studies
Descriptive, correlational, epidemiological
True experimental, within subjects experiment, quasi experime…
Describes co-occurence of events, generate hypothesis, compar…
to develop a clinical knowledge base
Research Designs:... What are examples of…
Descriptive, correlational, epidemiological
Research Designs:... What are experimenta…
True experimental, within subjects experiment, quasi experime…
107 terms
Single Case Research Designs
ABAB design type
ABAB research question
ABAB behavior type
ABAB minimum behavior
sequential introduction and withdrawal
demonstration
reversible
one
ABAB design type
sequential introduction and withdrawal
ABAB research question
demonstration
44 terms
Research Design
how to come up with the research quest…
define variable
IV
DV
research topic --> the research problem --> the research ques…
property used to differentiate members of a group
predictor variable/treatment - operationalized by how they ar…
outcome variable/response/effect - operationalized by measure…
how to come up with the research quest…
research topic --> the research problem --> the research ques…
define variable
property used to differentiate members of a group
38 terms
Research Design
Threats to Internal Validity
Threats to External Validity
Threats to Construct Validity
Threats to Statistical Conclusion Vali…
History... Maturation... Testing... Instrumentation... Statistical Regres…
Sample Characteristics... Stimulus Characteristics... Contextual Ch…
Attention and Contact with the Clients... Single Operation/Narro…
Low Statistical Power... Variability in the Procedures... Subject H…
Threats to Internal Validity
History... Maturation... Testing... Instrumentation... Statistical Regres…
Threats to External Validity
Sample Characteristics... Stimulus Characteristics... Contextual Ch…
8 terms
Research Methods - Research Designs
concepts and techniques that INTEGRATE…
the means to structure a research proj…
NO control group, NO manipulation of i…
manipulation of IV
research design
research design
NON-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS (OBSERVATIONAL)
PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS (OBSERVATIONAL)
concepts and techniques that INTEGRATE…
research design
the means to structure a research proj…
research design
14 terms
research design
stages of research process
research design
types of research
descriptive
Identify a Research Problem; Determine existing knowledge; Id…
"blue print" of a study: 6 types: descriptive, correlational,…
Quantitative - Qualitative-Mixed-method... Basic - Applied; Clin…
describes populations;... Developmental and Normative Studies... Qu…
stages of research process
Identify a Research Problem; Determine existing knowledge; Id…
research design
"blue print" of a study: 6 types: descriptive, correlational,…
14 terms
Research Design
theory
causation
correlations
temporal precedence
explain why things happen rather than just describe or predict
correlations,temporal precedence,elimination of alternative e…
if one happens the other will to (need to be strong percentage)
the cause has to occur first in time (if x then y)
theory
explain why things happen rather than just describe or predict
causation
correlations,temporal precedence,elimination of alternative e…
11 terms
Research Design
paradigm
positivism
post-positivism
subjectivist
mental models or frames (standard way of thinking or doing so…
(rational+empirical) science or knowledge creation should be…
argues that one can make reasonable inference by mixing obser…
extreme, subjective minds rather than objective reality
paradigm
mental models or frames (standard way of thinking or doing so…
positivism
(rational+empirical) science or knowledge creation should be…
10 terms
Research Design
Quantitative research is about
Qualitative research is about
Primary research is
Secondary research is
Facts and figures
Thought & feelings
carried out by you
carried out by someone else
Quantitative research is about
Facts and figures
Qualitative research is about
Thought & feelings
5 terms
Research Design
B
B
B
D
1. A research design is best described as a:... a. model showing…
2. A disadvantage of using homogeneity as a strategy to contr…
3. A study analyzing the effect of exercise on diet control i…
4. A study has internal validity if:... Select one:... a. its findi…
B
1. A research design is best described as a:... a. model showing…
B
2. A disadvantage of using homogeneity as a strategy to contr…
29 terms
Research Design
type of design used
2 research questions
explain convergent parallel mixed meth…
why is it quasiexperimental?
quasi-experimental convergent parallel
1. is there a significant difference MCPSS middle school soci…
collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same ti…
2 subgroups - MCPSS teachers in 2012 and 2016 are not randoml…
type of design used
quasi-experimental convergent parallel
2 research questions
1. is there a significant difference MCPSS middle school soci…
94 terms
Research Design
Typical Research Process
step 1:
step 2:
step 3:
The typical quantitative study involves a series of steps, on…
research questions and hypotheses
operationalize and choose measures
choose a research design
Typical Research Process
The typical quantitative study involves a series of steps, on…
step 1:
research questions and hypotheses
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