# Study sets matching "research designs"

Study sets

Classes

Users

What is Evidence-Based Practice

What are the ASHA steps to research?

Aspects of framing a question (PICO)?

Aspects of finding evidence?

The use of CURRENT best evidence in deciding on care.

1. Frame Question... 2. Find Evidence... 3. Assess evidence... 4. Make…

-population... -intervention... -comparison... -outcome

-search literature... -summarize available research

What is Evidence-Based Practice

The use of CURRENT best evidence in deciding on care.

What are the ASHA steps to research?

1. Frame Question... 2. Find Evidence... 3. Assess evidence... 4. Make…

crossover designs

Quasi-experiments

time-series design

Nonexperimental (observational)

people are exposed to more than one experimental condition in…

trials without randomization, involve an intervention but lack…

outcome data are collected over a period of time before and af…

research includes descriptive research—studies that summarize…

crossover designs

people are exposed to more than one experimental condition in…

Quasi-experiments

trials without randomization, involve an intervention but lack…

If you have one group, how do you compa…

Quasi-Experimental

How RCT addresses Efficacy

How Quasi-Experimental addresses effect…

Compare to baseline! Pre vs. Post. (or you can do repeated mea…

Quasi - something is lacking (control condition or randomizati…

- is it beneficial, worth using?... able to do so bc you can limi…

works under less than perfect conditions despite not being in…

If you have one group, how do you compa…

Compare to baseline! Pre vs. Post. (or you can do repeated mea…

Quasi-Experimental

Quasi - something is lacking (control condition or randomizati…

Causal (C) / Effect (E) inference... 1. C…

One-group Posttest Only... X O... 1. No __ co…

One-group Pretest-Posttest Design... OXO…

Nonequivalent Comparison Group Designs…

1. covary... 2. precede... 3. implausible... 4. design comp/ matching

control; another varible

pretest-post

1. existing/nonrandom... 2. pt differences... 3. no RA... 4. SELF-selec…

Causal (C) / Effect (E) inference... 1. C…

1. covary... 2. precede... 3. implausible... 4. design comp/ matching

One-group Posttest Only... X O... 1. No __ co…

control; another varible

What are the 2 most common forms of res…

What are the characteristics of the Obs…

What are the 2 experimental methods?

What is developmental change?

Observational... Experimental

Just observing,

Intervention groups... Control groups

Age related change in behaviour caused by, biological, psychol…

What are the 2 most common forms of res…

Observational... Experimental

What are the characteristics of the Obs…

Just observing,

Explanatory Theory

Predicitive Explanation

Probabilistic Explanation

Theoretical Explanation

When X occurs, Y occurs. Y (result) is explained by the combin…

Assertion of causal relationship between events or trends X ca…

It is not necessary to explain/predict a phenomena with 100% a…

Accumulation of explanations and predictions about a phenomenon

Explanatory Theory

When X occurs, Y occurs. Y (result) is explained by the combin…

Predicitive Explanation

Assertion of causal relationship between events or trends X ca…

The Empirical Research Cycle

LOGIC for experimental and control grou…

Secondary research Systematic reviews

Secondary research Meta-analysis

statement of the problem.... design of research study.... measuremen…

If the 2 groups are identical except for the variation created…

covers of the entire literature (at least as much as possible)…

a statistic method to pool effect estimates from individual st…

The Empirical Research Cycle

statement of the problem.... design of research study.... measuremen…

LOGIC for experimental and control grou…

If the 2 groups are identical except for the variation created…

Correlation design

Longitudinal design

Advantages/Disadvantages to Longitudina…

Cross-Sectional Design

look at relations as they exist in the real world can be posit…

the same individual(s) are tested repeatedly

Advantages: stability/continuity Disadvantages: expensive, coh…

children of different ages are tested

Correlation design

look at relations as they exist in the real world can be posit…

Longitudinal design

the same individual(s) are tested repeatedly

basic research

applied research

translational research

quantitative methods

directed towards obtaining knowledge for its own sake

research directed towards solving an immediate practical probl…

applies basic research findings to clinically relevant issues

- objective, measurable data (numbers, %)... - analyzed statistic…

basic research

directed towards obtaining knowledge for its own sake

applied research

research directed towards solving an immediate practical probl…

Descriptive study

non-experimental designs

Two types of non-experimental designs

Correlation study

measures single variable

involves the measurement of two or more variables

-correlation study... -quasi-experiment

measurement of two or more continuous variables

Descriptive study

measures single variable

non-experimental designs

involves the measurement of two or more variables

Research design

Research Design: Exploratory

Research Design: Conclusive

Research Design: Descriptive

Research design: a framework of blueprint for conducting the m…

Exploratory: One type of research design that has as its prima…

Conclusive: Research designed to assist the decision maker in…

Descriptive: A type of conclusive research that has as its maj…

Research design

Research design: a framework of blueprint for conducting the m…

Research Design: Exploratory

Exploratory: One type of research design that has as its prima…

Confounds

Correlation

Dependent variable

Experimenter expectations

Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences f…

Measures the association between two variables, or how they go…

The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate i…

When the experimenter's expectations influence the outcome of…

Confounds

Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences f…

Correlation

Measures the association between two variables, or how they go…

Correlational research

Operational definitions

Double-blind procedure

Narrative analysis

variables as they naturally occur in people and compute the de…

how researchers specifically measure a concept

bot participant and experimenter don't know which condition th…

the study of stories and personal accounts of people, groups a…

Correlational research

variables as they naturally occur in people and compute the de…

Operational definitions

how researchers specifically measure a concept

case series

Observational medical research

Experimental (interventional) medical r…

Basic vs Applied medical research

Its purpose is to describe the clinical characteristics of a p…

does not involve a treatment provided by the researcher, measu…

treatment is given. Hypothesis-testing (hypothesis is the trea…

Bench to Bedside... -basic research... -applied research... -translatio…

case series

Its purpose is to describe the clinical characteristics of a p…

Observational medical research

does not involve a treatment provided by the researcher, measu…

Soorten research design

Deductie

Inductie

Dependent variable

Experimenteel... Longitudinal... Cross Selectional... Case Study... Etnogr…

Logisch beredeneren door uitsluiting

Systematisch de werkelijkheid observeren en daaruit regelmatig…

Uitkomst (Y)

Soorten research design

Experimenteel... Longitudinal... Cross Selectional... Case Study... Etnogr…

Deductie

Logisch beredeneren door uitsluiting

there types of research designs

two types of experimental design

factors of controlled experiment

factors of quasi

experimental, quantitative observational, qualitative observat…

controlled experiment and quasi experiment

control group does not receive treatment or independent variab…

not random allocated due to pre existing characteristics

there types of research designs

experimental, quantitative observational, qualitative observat…

two types of experimental design

controlled experiment and quasi experiment

Design 4: pretest posttest control grou…

Design 5: Solomon four-group

Design 6: posttest only control group

Design 1: One-shot case study

R O X O ... R O __ O

R O X O ... R O __ O... R __ X O... R __ __ O

R X O ... R __ O

__ X O

Design 4: pretest posttest control grou…

R O X O ... R O __ O

Design 5: Solomon four-group

R O X O ... R O __ O... R __ X O... R __ __ O

Cohort

Cohort Effect

Subculture

Socio-economic Status

a group of subjects unified by a common characteristic such as…

effects of cultural and historical change on accuracy of longi…

a group of people with beliefs and customs that differ from th…

measure of a family's social position and economic well-being…

Cohort

a group of subjects unified by a common characteristic such as…

Cohort Effect

effects of cultural and historical change on accuracy of longi…

Randomized control trial (RCT)

single subject design

Clinical control trials

repeated measures

group design, manipulating, randomized, btw groups, prospectiv…

individual, analytical, experimental design, manipulative, non…

quasi experimental designs, analytical, non-randomized, manipu…

quasi experimental design, analytical, group, manipulative, no…

Randomized control trial (RCT)

group design, manipulating, randomized, btw groups, prospectiv…

single subject design

individual, analytical, experimental design, manipulative, non…

6 Type of Experimental Designs

3 Things that must be present in an Exp…

Rule of 6 in True Experimental Designs

Solomon Four Group

1. Two-group pretest-posttest... 2. Two-group posttest... 3. Soloman…

- randomization... - control... - manipulation of the IV

- large and diverse # of subjects... - strict inclusion criteria…

Experimental design ... - used to reduce the threat of testing... -…

6 Type of Experimental Designs

1. Two-group pretest-posttest... 2. Two-group posttest... 3. Soloman…

3 Things that must be present in an Exp…

- randomization... - control... - manipulation of the IV

Survey

Statistical

Context Analysis

Historical

Mostly closed-ended questions asked of a larger sample

Statistical analysis of an existing data source

Coding test for frequency of words, symbols, etc.

Analyzing changes over time, correlation of trends/events

Survey

Mostly closed-ended questions asked of a larger sample

Statistical

Statistical analysis of an existing data source

Independent groups design

Random groups design

Matched groups design

Natural groups design

different individuals participate in each condition

participants are randomly assigned to different conditions (gr…

participants assigned to different conditions based on a match…

participants are assigned to different conditions but levels o…

Independent groups design

different individuals participate in each condition

Random groups design

participants are randomly assigned to different conditions (gr…

Correlational Design

Correlation

Positive Correlation

Negative Correlation

tests the relationship between two variables; does not prove c…

the strength of a relationship; can be positive or negative; c…

if one variable increases so does the other; if one variable d…

if one variable increases the other variable decreases and vic…

Correlational Design

tests the relationship between two variables; does not prove c…

Correlation

the strength of a relationship; can be positive or negative; c…

Regression Analysis

Cohort Studies

Cross-sectional Studies

Case-control Studies

Liner, parabolic, logarithmic, or other relationship

Subjects are sorted into 2 groups based on risk factors. (smok…

Attempt to categorize patients into different groups at a sing…

Identifying subjects then looking backwards to assess if subje…

Regression Analysis

Liner, parabolic, logarithmic, or other relationship

Cohort Studies

Subjects are sorted into 2 groups based on risk factors. (smok…

**correlational research**

**correlational research**

**correlational research**

**correlational research**

describes strength of relationship b/w two or more characteris…

correctional coefficient is used to describe degree of associa…

higher the coefficient, the stronger the association

correlation does NOT equal causation

**correlational research**

describes strength of relationship b/w two or more characteris…

**correlational research**

correctional coefficient is used to describe degree of associa…