Study sets matching "research designs"

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Study sets matching "research designs"

20 terms
Research Designs
Descriptive Research
Cross-sectional study
Cohort study
Case control study
Non- manipulative, can be qualitative or quantitative
observational/ descriptive- estimate prevalence of disease or…
Also known as longitudinal observational design- a group (coh…
Compares individuals who have a disease with individuals who…
Descriptive Research
Non- manipulative, can be qualitative or quantitative
Cross-sectional study
observational/ descriptive- estimate prevalence of disease or…
11 terms
Research designs
Correlation
Dependent variable
Experimenter expectations
Independent variable
Measures the association between two variables or how they go…
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate…
When the experimenters expectations influence the outcome of…
The variable the researcher manipulates and controls in an ex…
Correlation
Measures the association between two variables or how they go…
Dependent variable
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate…
Research Designs
Withdrawal Design
Alternating Treatments (ATD) or Multie…
Multiple Baseline Design
Changing Criterion Design
A-B-A-B: strongest of the designs; permits 2 reversals of the…
Alternating conditions to demonstrate a functional relation.…
intervention is not withdrawn; systematically introduced acro…
Changes in criterion to advance applied in step-wise fashion.…
Withdrawal Design
A-B-A-B: strongest of the designs; permits 2 reversals of the…
Alternating Treatments (ATD) or Multie…
Alternating conditions to demonstrate a functional relation.…
Research Designs
Pre-experimental
pretest/postest
one shot case study
static group comparison
pretest/posttest, one shot case study, static group comparison
oxo
xo
xo o
Pre-experimental
pretest/posttest, one shot case study, static group comparison
pretest/postest
oxo
Research Designs
Naturalistic Observation
Case History/Study
survey
correlation
researchers observe behavior under the conditions in which it…
a detailed account of the events in an individuals life or th…
ask people about their behavior, attitudes, or opinions... G: ea…
determine whether to assess the possible cause and effect rel…
Naturalistic Observation
researchers observe behavior under the conditions in which it…
Case History/Study
a detailed account of the events in an individuals life or th…
6 terms
Research Designs
Correlational Designs
Experimental Designs
Quasi-Experiments
Longitudinal Design
Able to figure out if there is a relationship between two fac…
Manipulate independent and look how dependent variable changes
Look at natural differences
Following same group of people for a long period of time... See…
Correlational Designs
Able to figure out if there is a relationship between two fac…
Experimental Designs
Manipulate independent and look how dependent variable changes
37 terms
research DESIGNS
Historical Design
Good and Scates
Historical Design
Historical Research
may be defined as the "branch of knowledge concerned with pas…
search for knowledge and the truth
Any integrated narrative or descriptive past events or facts…
Is a systematic and critical inquiry of the whole truth of pa…
Historical Design
may be defined as the "branch of knowledge concerned with pas…
Good and Scates
search for knowledge and the truth
69 terms
Research Design
mean
median
mode
variablilty
average
the middle number
most frequently occurring score
degree in which the scores vary
mean
average
median
the middle number
12 terms
Research Designs
General Research Designs
Correlational Design
Correlation Coefficient
Experimental Design
Correlational and Experimental
Researchers gather information on individuals, generally in n…
a number that describes how two measures, or variables, are a…
Permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers…
General Research Designs
Correlational and Experimental
Correlational Design
Researchers gather information on individuals, generally in n…
Research Designs
Cross sectional definition
cross sectional cons
cross sectional pros
longitudinal definition
subjects are members of two or more age groups, most common d…
cannot disentangle factors of age and cohort
efficient design, data for young and older groups collected a…
used to study age-related changes in how people think, feel,…
Cross sectional definition
subjects are members of two or more age groups, most common d…
cross sectional cons
cannot disentangle factors of age and cohort
11 terms
Research Designs
Confounds
Correlation
Dependent variable
Experimenter expectations
Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences…
Measures the association between two variables, or how they g…
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate…
When the experimenter's bias influence the outcome of a study.
Confounds
Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences…
Correlation
Measures the association between two variables, or how they g…
Research Designs
systematic observation
naturalistic study
case study
correlation
Blind or double blind.
Good for building theories
Provides lots of details, can study rare things ~~ can't be a…
Does not prove causation, 3rd variable ~~
systematic observation
Blind or double blind.
naturalistic study
Good for building theories
38 terms
Research Designs
0
X
R
MR
observation
experimental treatment
random assignment
matched on extraneous variables and randomly assigned
0
observation
X
experimental treatment
Research Designs
Group Designs
Between-subject designs (group design)
Within-subject designs (group design)
Mixed designs (group design)
one or more groups of subjects exposed to the IVs
compare performance of separate groups of subjects
performance of the same subjects compared in different condit…
include both within and between-subject designs
Group Designs
one or more groups of subjects exposed to the IVs
Between-subject designs (group design)
compare performance of separate groups of subjects
7 terms
Research Designs
Epidemiological
Biological Plausibility
Migration Studies
Cross Sectional Study
: Branch of science that deals with the study of cases, distr…
Does the RW have biological plausibility? Is it logical? Is i…
What about Westernized living that migrant populations assume…
: Cross sectional study measures the prevalence of health out…
Epidemiological
: Branch of science that deals with the study of cases, distr…
Biological Plausibility
Does the RW have biological plausibility? Is it logical? Is i…
122 terms
Research Designs
Internal validity
External validity
Predictive validity (criterion validity)
Concurrent validity
- Degree to which a design rules out the influence of extrane…
- Generalization to real world... - Inferential generality: Can…
A test predicts future performance on related task.
A new test correlates with an established test of known valid…
Internal validity
- Degree to which a design rules out the influence of extrane…
External validity
- Generalization to real world... - Inferential generality: Can…
Research Designs
Validity
Reliability
Facilitated Communication
Heuristics
Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure
If the study can produce consistent results
A revolutionary treatment for autism. Experimenter sat next t…
Mental shortcuts or rules of thumb. ... Reduce the cognitive ene…
Validity
Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure
Reliability
If the study can produce consistent results
15 terms
Research designs
External validity
Internal validity
Naturalistic observations
Advantages/Disadvantages of Naturalist…
The extent that our findings generalize to real world settings.
Extent to which we can draw cause and effect conclusions. Har…
Observing people in their natural settings
High in internal validity, low in external validity
External validity
The extent that our findings generalize to real world settings.
Internal validity
Extent to which we can draw cause and effect conclusions. Har…
research designs
RCTs (Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis
Cohort Studies
Case-Control Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies... Case Series... Ca…
ALWAYS PROSPECTIVE
Used if Outcome is COMMON... Has forward directionality ( clini…
Used if Outcome is RARE, have to wait a long time for... outcome…
Has non-directionality... timing: retrospective studies
RCTs (Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis
ALWAYS PROSPECTIVE
Cohort Studies
Used if Outcome is COMMON... Has forward directionality ( clini…
Research Designs
Experiment of Research Designs
Is the Control Group exposed to the in…
Is the Experimental Group exposed to t…
Advantages of an Experiment
1. Pretest everyone.... 2. Divide participants up into two group…
No.
Yes.
1. Some intriguing results have been found. ... (Asch, Milgram)…
Experiment of Research Designs
1. Pretest everyone.... 2. Divide participants up into two group…
Is the Control Group exposed to the in…
No.
research designs
Baseline Phase-
Descriptive Function-
Predictive function-
Stability of Performance-
observing and recording behavior for several days before the
data describes the existing level of performance or the ... exte…
data serve as basis for predicting the level of... performance f…
stable rate of behavior... is characterized by the absence of a…
Baseline Phase-
observing and recording behavior for several days before the
Descriptive Function-
data describes the existing level of performance or the ... exte…
21 terms
Research Designs
Quantitative
Qualitative
Mixed methods
Prospective study
-relies on numerical data
-relies on patient input
-mixture of qualitative and quantitative
-we have our question and we move forward... -can measure effect…
Quantitative
-relies on numerical data
Qualitative
-relies on patient input
8 terms
Research Designs
demonstration
comparison
true experiment
non- experiment
involves a single treatment or condition; can never be an exp
involves at least two treatments or conditions; can be an exp…
involves random assignment of Pts, manipulation of the causal…
may have manipulation of the causal variable, but never invol…
demonstration
involves a single treatment or condition; can never be an exp
comparison
involves at least two treatments or conditions; can be an exp…
Research Designs
Purpose
Major difference between qualitative a…
Strongest qualitative research design
RCT
To identify the best research design to fit the question bein…
- Quantitative IDENTIFIES, DEFINES and MEASURES factors that…
RCT - because participants are assigned to their groups throu…
Assigns people who have agreed to participate in the study in…
Purpose
To identify the best research design to fit the question bein…
Major difference between qualitative a…
- Quantitative IDENTIFIES, DEFINES and MEASURES factors that…
Research Designs
N-of-1 study
Cohort (follow up) study
Case control (trohoc) study
cross-sectional study
...
...
...
...
N-of-1 study
...
Cohort (follow up) study
...
32 terms
Research Designs
Historical Research
Historical Research uses
Descriptive Research
Descriptive Research: Data collection
involves investigation of a variety of data sources
A. sources of data already available ... Primary sources: origi…
involves collecting data about conditions, attitudes, or char…
typically done through questionnaire survey, interview, or ob…
Historical Research
involves investigation of a variety of data sources
Historical Research uses
A. sources of data already available ... Primary sources: origi…
Research designs
Independent groups design (define)
Independent groups design (advantage)
Independent groups design (disadvantage)
Independent groups design (fix)
Where participants are separated into different groups and he…
-both time and cost efficient BECAUSE only once... -no order eff…
-potential of introducing participant differences apart from…
-use a different design... -eliminated by random allocation so v…
Independent groups design (define)
Where participants are separated into different groups and he…
Independent groups design (advantage)
-both time and cost efficient BECAUSE only once... -no order eff…
Research Design
z score distribution
T score distribution
WISC/WAIS distribution
percentile distribution
M = 0, SD= 1
M= 50, SD= 10
M= 100, SD= 15
median = 50th percentile... 1 SD from median = 35 (upper end 85t…
z score distribution
M = 0, SD= 1
T score distribution
M= 50, SD= 10
6 terms
research designs
correlation (6)
differential (5)
non-experimental
experimental
no manipulation of variables, one group, subjects randomly se…
no manipulation, subjects randomly selected, groups based on…
differential and correlation
quasi-experiment and true experiment
correlation (6)
no manipulation of variables, one group, subjects randomly se…
differential (5)
no manipulation, subjects randomly selected, groups based on…
9 terms
Quantitative Research Designs
What's it called when you test once, t…
Types of Non-experimental Research Des…
What's the design? Relationships and A…
What's the design? Phenom existing in…
Pre-test, Post-test, follow-up
Correlational, Retrospective, Cross-sectional, Prospective, D…
Correlational
Retrospective
What's it called when you test once, t…
Pre-test, Post-test, follow-up
Types of Non-experimental Research Des…
Correlational, Retrospective, Cross-sectional, Prospective, D…
22 terms
Research Designs
methodological studies
Question about the ability to predict…
Intervention studies
Outcome studies
Question about methods of study
Diagnostic, prognostic, clinical prediction rulesq
Question about efficacy/effectiveness of intervention
Question about person-level outcome measures
methodological studies
Question about methods of study
Question about the ability to predict…
Diagnostic, prognostic, clinical prediction rulesq
13 terms
Research Designs
What are the 3 Investigation Designs?
Define Investigation Designs:
Define experimental design:... Brief…
List the advantages of experimental de…
1. Experiment... 2. Quantitative observational- Numerical value…
A research method/design is a particular way of conducting a…
One or more Independent Variables are manipulated and all oth…
Advantages:... -Impact of IV is easily assessed... - Can find the c…
What are the 3 Investigation Designs?
1. Experiment... 2. Quantitative observational- Numerical value…
Define Investigation Designs:
A research method/design is a particular way of conducting a…
Research Designs
Experiment of research designs
Types of Surveys
(Types of) Experiments
Observation Stuides
1. Pretest everyone.... 2. Divide participants up into two group…
Interviews- face to face, info seeking conversations.... Questio…
Control: group you leave alone. (not exposed to independent v…
Participant observation- research both observes and becomes a…
Experiment of research designs
1. Pretest everyone.... 2. Divide participants up into two group…
Types of Surveys
Interviews- face to face, info seeking conversations.... Questio…
40 terms
Research Designs
True or False: the research design is…
1st step in identifying which research…
Elements to a Research Design
What are Research Paradigms?
- true
- establish a clinical question (i.e. your PICO) ... * diagnosis…
- paradigm/philosophical approach ... - design format ... - # of gr…
- quantitative ... - qualitative
True or False: the research design is…
- true
1st step in identifying which research…
- establish a clinical question (i.e. your PICO) ... * diagnosis…
Research Designs
crossover designs
Quasi-experiments
time-series design
Nonexperimental (observational)
people are exposed to more than one experimental condition in…
trials without randomization, involve an intervention but lac…
outcome data are collected over a period of time before and a…
research includes descriptive research—studies that summarize…
crossover designs
people are exposed to more than one experimental condition in…
Quasi-experiments
trials without randomization, involve an intervention but lac…
research designs
a blueprint for conducting that maximi…
T or F ... a design is a broad approach/g…
the overall blueprint, guide and struc…
example of design
research design
true
design
ranch style home (all structured the same)
a blueprint for conducting that maximi…
research design
T or F ... a design is a broad approach/g…
true
15 terms
Research Strategies & Designs
Experimental Research
Correlational Research
Descriptive Research
Group Design
Goes with causal knowledge; participants must be randomly ass…
Cannot answer cause and effect questions because the independ…
Have independent variables and dependent variables but cannot…
Includes one or more groups of participants; can be between s…
Experimental Research
Goes with causal knowledge; participants must be randomly ass…
Correlational Research
Cannot answer cause and effect questions because the independ…
9 terms
Research Designs
group design
between-subject design
within-subject design
mixed design
one or more groups of subjects exposed to the IVs
compare performance of separate groups of subjects
performance of same subjects in different conditions
include both within and between-subject design
group design
one or more groups of subjects exposed to the IVs
between-subject design
compare performance of separate groups of subjects
Research Designs
What are the 2 most common forms of re…
What are the characteristics of the Ob…
What are the 2 experimental methods?
What is developmental change?
Observational... Experimental
Just observing,
Intervention groups... Control groups
Age related change in behaviour caused by, biological, psycho…
What are the 2 most common forms of re…
Observational... Experimental
What are the characteristics of the Ob…
Just observing,
34 terms
Research Designs
What is Science?
What is Research?
The Scientific Method
What is a Research Design?
is a body of knowledge, & a way of acquiring knowledge that's…
is posing a question about something that we don't know about…
is a systematic way of collecting information of a topic, rel…
it is an analytic approach used to evaluate a research questi…
What is Science?
is a body of knowledge, & a way of acquiring knowledge that's…
What is Research?
is posing a question about something that we don't know about…
17 terms
Research designs
no manipulation, studies are easy to d…
what are some examples of descriptive…
1 patient... has a longitudinal component…
measurement done at one point in time…
descriptive research
case report, case series, observational study, cross-sectiona…
case report
cross sectional
no manipulation, studies are easy to d…
descriptive research
what are some examples of descriptive…
case report, case series, observational study, cross-sectiona…
6 terms
Research Designs
What is epidemiology?
Prevalence and incidence.
What are the different types of epidem…
What is the difference between observa…
Study of freq., distrib., determinance of disease in human po…
Incidence - number of new cases who have the disease... Prevalen…
Observational... - Descriptive studies: occurrence of disease is…
Observational - investigator doesn't change or introduce anyt…
What is epidemiology?
Study of freq., distrib., determinance of disease in human po…
Prevalence and incidence.
Incidence - number of new cases who have the disease... Prevalen…
34 terms
Research Designs
Research Designs:... What are examples of…
Research Designs:... What are experimenta…
What are the key uses of non experimen…
Descriptive Research:... Case Studies
Descriptive, correlational, epidemiological
True experimental, within subjects experiment, quasi experime…
Describes co-occurence of events, generate hypothesis, compar…
to develop a clinical knowledge base
Research Designs:... What are examples of…
Descriptive, correlational, epidemiological
Research Designs:... What are experimenta…
True experimental, within subjects experiment, quasi experime…
30 terms
Lecture 5 Research Designs
Types of Research Paradigms
Types of Quantitative designs
Quantitative design characteristics
Qualitative design characteristics
Quantitative... Qualitative
-Experimental... -Quasi-experimental... -Non-experimental/observati…
objective reality; causes and effects can be determined and d…
subjective reality; impossible to distinguish between causes…
Types of Research Paradigms
Quantitative... Qualitative
Types of Quantitative designs
-Experimental... -Quasi-experimental... -Non-experimental/observati…
Single Case Research Designs
ABAB design type
ABAB research question
ABAB behavior type
ABAB minimum behavior
sequential introduction and withdrawal
demonstration
reversible
one
ABAB design type
sequential introduction and withdrawal
ABAB research question
demonstration
8 terms
Research Methods - Research Designs
concepts and techniques that INTEGRATE…
the means to structure a research proj…
NO control group, NO manipulation of i…
manipulation of IV
research design
research design
NON-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS (OBSERVATIONAL)
PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS (OBSERVATIONAL)
concepts and techniques that INTEGRATE…
research design
the means to structure a research proj…
research design
19 terms
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Confounds
Correlation
Positive correlation
Negative Correlation
Factors that undermine the ability to draw casual inferences…
Measures the association between two variables, or how they g…
Correlation coefficient (r) is positive and dots extend from…
Correlation coefficient (r) is negative and dots extend from…
Confounds
Factors that undermine the ability to draw casual inferences…
Correlation
Measures the association between two variables, or how they g…
10 terms
Research and Design
aerodynamics
CO2
drag
limitations
The study of forces and the resulting motion of objects throu…
Carbon Dioxide
Resistance of the air (technically a fluid) against the forwa…
constraints
aerodynamics
The study of forces and the resulting motion of objects throu…
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
21 terms
Research designs
Independent groups design
Random groups design
Matched groups design
Natural groups design
different individuals participate in each condition
participants are randomly assigned to different conditions (g…
participants assigned to different conditions based on a matc…
participants are assigned to different conditions but levels…
Independent groups design
different individuals participate in each condition
Random groups design
participants are randomly assigned to different conditions (g…
10 terms
Research and Design
aerodynamics
CO2
drag
limitations
The study of forces and the resulting motion of objects throu…
Carbon Dioxide
Resistance of the air (technically a fluid) against the forwa…
constraints
aerodynamics
The study of forces and the resulting motion of objects throu…
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
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