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Random Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Quota Sampling

Systematic Sampling

Everyone in the target population must have an equal chance o…

Sub-groups are identified. Sub-groups in the sample must be i…

Sub-groups are identified. Once identified, selection within…

A list of names in the target population is available to the…

Random Sampling

Everyone in the target population must have an equal chance o…

Stratified Random Sampling

Sub-groups are identified. Sub-groups in the sample must be i…

What is content anaylsis

Give one fact about content analysis

What is indirect observation

Give three advantages of content analy…

A statistical technique used to quantify and qualify the cont…

Can quantify qualitative data through coding units

Instead of direct observation of people can analyse their com…

Little or no contact with people so data is more ethical ... En…

What is content anaylsis

A statistical technique used to quantify and qualify the cont…

Give one fact about content analysis

Can quantify qualitative data through coding units

What is correlation

How is data collected for correlations

What is used to then analyse this daya

What is positive correlation

A statistical method for analysing data when there are two se…

Observations... Self reports

Correlations

The variables move in the same direction

What is correlation

A statistical method for analysing data when there are two se…

How is data collected for correlations

Observations... Self reports

sampling error

descriptive statistics

distribution

central tendency

The difference between the observations in a population and i…

Measures that help us summarize the data

A set of scores

Representation of a typical score in a distribution

sampling error

The difference between the observations in a population and i…

descriptive statistics

Measures that help us summarize the data

Analysis of covariance

between-participants designs

between-subjects variable

ceiling effect

a statistical procedure in which group means are compared aft…

groups are produced by random assignment, and the different g…

type of independent variable where different participants rec…

situation where participants' pretest scores on the dependent…

Analysis of covariance

a statistical procedure in which group means are compared aft…

between-participants designs

groups are produced by random assignment, and the different g…

Measures of central tendency... Mean, med…

Measures of dispersion... Range, standard…

Inferential statistics... These tell you…

Chi-squared

these give an average figure to represent a whole data set. W…

these show the variance or spread in a data set. When compari…

used when looking for a relationship, with ordinal or interva…

looking for a difference, with nominal data (just counting ho…

Measures of central tendency... Mean, med…

these give an average figure to represent a whole data set. W…

Measures of dispersion... Range, standard…

these show the variance or spread in a data set. When compari…

Sample constructs

Developing measures from constructs

Habituation

Habituation example

None are directly measurable, but must be inferred from the m…

(1) Researchers know what to measure because they know the li…

A gradual decrease in responding to repeated stimuli... - Ex. If…

You hear a loud bang from neighbor's yard & immediately draws…

Sample constructs

None are directly measurable, but must be inferred from the m…

Developing measures from constructs

(1) Researchers know what to measure because they know the li…

The extent to which the process of res…

Comparing the results from a variety o…

Anything that is not in numerical form

Data that is measured in numbers or qu…

What is reflexivity?

What is triangulation?

What is qualitative data?

What is quantitative data?

The extent to which the process of res…

What is reflexivity?

Comparing the results from a variety o…

What is triangulation?

What is it?

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Involves turning qualitative data into quantitative data

Work out IV- e.g. how positively Mcdonald's new menu is regar…

Give them a small sample to test it out on. Are the statement…

Look for inter-rater reliability between samples. E.g. make s…

What is it?

Involves turning qualitative data into quantitative data

Step 1

Work out IV- e.g. how positively Mcdonald's new menu is regar…

What is the Strength and Weakness of u…

What is the Strength and Weakness of u…

What is the Strength and Weakness of u…

What is the Strength and Weakness of u…

Strength: Makes use of all numbers in final calculation.... Weak…

Strength: Not affected by extreme values.... Weakness: Time cons…

Strength: Useful with data in categories (not numerical).... Wea…

Strength: Easy to calculate.... Weakness: Doesn't take into acco…

What is the Strength and Weakness of u…

Strength: Makes use of all numbers in final calculation.... Weak…

What is the Strength and Weakness of u…

Strength: Not affected by extreme values.... Weakness: Time cons…

Corkin et al 1997

Berridge and Kringelbach 2009

Fisher 2004

Martinez and Kesner 1991

The case study of H.M... Aim; to investigate the case of HM... Proc…

Aim; Dopamine release in response to pleasure... Method: fMRI sc…

Aim; being in love similar to being addicted.... Procedure; Scan…

Aim; ACh in memory formation.... Procedure: Using rats running m…

Corkin et al 1997

The case study of H.M... Aim; to investigate the case of HM... Proc…

Berridge and Kringelbach 2009

Aim; Dopamine release in response to pleasure... Method: fMRI sc…

Deck and Blackwell 2007

Barlett 1932

Rosenzweig and Bennett 1972

Loftus and Palmer 1974

Aim; intelligence is affected through student's mindsets. ... Me…

The war of Ghost... Aim; memory is reconstructive and influence…

Aim; environment (social) had an effect on the development of…

Aim; To see whether changing a verb had an effect on estimati…

Deck and Blackwell 2007

Aim; intelligence is affected through student's mindsets. ... Me…

Barlett 1932

The war of Ghost... Aim; memory is reconstructive and influence…

Longitudinal Designs

Cross-Sectional Design

Generation/Cohort Effects

Cohort-Sequential Design

data that is collected for a long period of time

a developmental design where multiple samples of participants…

a confound that can occur in cross-sectional designs due to d…

a developmental design where multiple samples of participants…

Longitudinal Designs

data that is collected for a long period of time

Cross-Sectional Design

a developmental design where multiple samples of participants…

HM case study

Changes in the brain of experienced Lo…

Is schizophrenia genetic? (Heston,1966)

Schachter and singer showed the effect…

At the age of 27, HM underwent surgery to remove the medial t…

London taxi drivers must undertake special training that take…

Heston looked at the incident of schizophrenia in children wh…

He hypothesized that both physiological arousal (a state of r…

HM case study

At the age of 27, HM underwent surgery to remove the medial t…

Changes in the brain of experienced Lo…

London taxi drivers must undertake special training that take…

Claim (thesis statement)

Support (Sub claim)

Warrant

Backing

what the author is trying to prove

additional info used to convince the audience of the claim

underlying assumption about the support;how did you get to th…

support for; can sometimes your warrant be written/implied

Claim (thesis statement)

what the author is trying to prove

Support (Sub claim)

additional info used to convince the audience of the claim

Meta-analysis

Effect size

Strength

Strength

A researcher looks at the findings from a number of different…

A measure of the strength of the relationship between two var…

Reviewing the results from a group of studies rather than fro…

Often, studies in a review produce contradictory results (e.g…

Meta-analysis

A researcher looks at the findings from a number of different…

Effect size

A measure of the strength of the relationship between two var…

Content analysis

Example of a content analysis

How to carry content analysis out

Strength

The analysis of the content of something, usually in which be…

For example, a researcher might study the gender content of m…

A researcher observes people through the artefacts they produ…

Has high ecological validity because it is based on observati…

Content analysis

The analysis of the content of something, usually in which be…

Example of a content analysis

For example, a researcher might study the gender content of m…

Scientific Approach

problem definition

problem importance

hypothesis defin.

problem, hypothesis, facts, analysis, solution

something that needs to be corrected

solving the right problem

tentative explanation for an observation that can be tested.

Scientific Approach

problem, hypothesis, facts, analysis, solution

problem definition

something that needs to be corrected

vulnerable population

descriptive statistics

effect size

error variance

children, prisoners, people who have impaired decisional capa…

numbers that summarize and describe the behavior of participa…

effect size the strength of the relationship between two or m…

the portion of the total variance in a set of data that remai…

vulnerable population

children, prisoners, people who have impaired decisional capa…

descriptive statistics

numbers that summarize and describe the behavior of participa…

Operationalize

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

The process of strictly defining variables into measurable fa…

Named groups or categories. Can have 2 or more categories. Si…

Still categorical but now the categories are ordered. Can hav…

Variables can be measured along a continuum and have a numeri…

Operationalize

The process of strictly defining variables into measurable fa…

Nominal

Named groups or categories. Can have 2 or more categories. Si…

Epistemology

Methodology

Positivism

Hypothesis

The theory of knowledge, especially with regards to its metho…

Specific ways to gain knowledge

an epistemological perspective that makes use of the scientif…

A specific statement, derived from a theory, about the relati…

Epistemology

The theory of knowledge, especially with regards to its metho…

Methodology

Specific ways to gain knowledge

Analysis

In testing hypotheses about population…

Inferential Statistical Procedures

When choosing a statistical test what…

-Purpose of most experiments: to test one or most hypotheses…

design of their studies

-infer characteristics about the entire population... -Inference…

-Number of groups or samples is considered... -Whether it is a p…

Analysis

-Purpose of most experiments: to test one or most hypotheses…

In testing hypotheses about population…

design of their studies

Purpose of most experiments is to

In testing hypotheses about population…

Inferential Statistical Procedures are

Inferences are based on

to test one or most hypotheses concerning some characteristic…

analytical ... match

Procedures that infer characteristics about the entire popula…

subset of population, a sample

Purpose of most experiments is to

to test one or most hypotheses concerning some characteristic…

In testing hypotheses about population…

analytical ... match

Grove et al

Brunner

Chartrand & Bargh

David Buss

Statistically significant probabilities of heritability of an…

Large dutch family with same genetic mutation of x chromosome…

"Chameleon Effect" - People who mimicked the body language of…

Men more upset by sexual infidelity; Women more upset by emot…

Grove et al

Statistically significant probabilities of heritability of an…

Brunner

Large dutch family with same genetic mutation of x chromosome…

APA ethical guidelines

theory vs hypothesis

4 goals of research

5 steps of the scientific method

protection from harm... informed consent... anonymity ... confidential…

a hypothesis is a suggested or guessed explanation while a th…

describe... explain... predict... control

ask a question or identify a problem... background research... form…

APA ethical guidelines

protection from harm... informed consent... anonymity ... confidential…

theory vs hypothesis

a hypothesis is a suggested or guessed explanation while a th…

Statistics

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

telling a story with data

variables that are mutually exclusive there is no ranking... can…

relative ranking of the the event or variable. The distance b…

variables are ranked, intervals are equal there is no absolut…

Statistics

telling a story with data

Nominal

variables that are mutually exclusive there is no ranking... can…

Neuropsychology

Case Studies

Critical Thinking

Hypothesis

An area of psychology that studies the relationship among bra…

A research method involving the intensive examination of some…

The processes of assessing claims and making judgments on the…

In scientific research, a specific, testable proposition abou…

Neuropsychology

An area of psychology that studies the relationship among bra…

Case Studies

A research method involving the intensive examination of some…

epistemology

methodology

positivism

karl popper

how we come to know—the theory of knowledge

specific ways to gain knowledge

an epistemological perspective that uses the scientific metho…

- critical rationalism... - positivist leanings—grounded in obse…

epistemology

how we come to know—the theory of knowledge

methodology

specific ways to gain knowledge

The 10 main categories of primary auth…

Opinion

who wirtes an opinion

Example of opinion

Opinions,... Statutes,... Constitutions,... Administrative regulations…

A court's written explanation of how it applied the law to th…

Courts - the jurisdiction. The west majority of opinions are…

in the Bradshaw opinion, the U.S. Supreme Court sent the deat…

The 10 main categories of primary auth…

Opinions,... Statutes,... Constitutions,... Administrative regulations…

Opinion

A court's written explanation of how it applied the law to th…

Analysis of Variance

Variance between groups

Variance within groups

F Ratio

Hypothesis-testing procedure for studies with three or more g…

representing the IV effect

representing the sampling error

BG Variance/ WG Variance. The larger the F Ratio the more lik…

Analysis of Variance

Hypothesis-testing procedure for studies with three or more g…

Variance between groups

representing the IV effect

Science is empirical.

Theory

Characteristics of A Good Theory

Survey

Science is factual it can be proven

is an explanation leads to research.... set of interrelated cons…

- it's simple = fewer constructs... - accounts for data... - leads…

reveals an individuals thoughts feelings action and or tenden…

Science is empirical.

Science is factual it can be proven

Theory

is an explanation leads to research.... set of interrelated cons…

individuals

variable

categorical variable

quantitative variable

are the objects described by a set of data.

characteristic of an individual

places an individual into one of several groups or categories…

takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations make s…

individuals

are the objects described by a set of data.

variable

characteristic of an individual

What is a Content Analysis?

What are the 3 decisions made before a…

What decisions must be made about Samp…

What decision must be made about Codin…

An observational study of people using artefacts, like films,…

-Sampling Method... -Coding Data... -Method of representing data

-What artefact to use?... -Which parts to use?

-What behavioural categories?

What is a Content Analysis?

An observational study of people using artefacts, like films,…

What are the 3 decisions made before a…

-Sampling Method... -Coding Data... -Method of representing data

2 categories of statistical procedures

descriptive statistics

2 types of descriptive statistics

measures of central tendency

1. descriptive statistics ... 2. inferential statistics

describe, organize, and summarize data

1. measures of central tendency ... 2. measures of dispersion

describe the location of the approximate center of the distri…

2 categories of statistical procedures

1. descriptive statistics ... 2. inferential statistics

descriptive statistics

describe, organize, and summarize data

eta^2 (ng^2)

one-way ANOVA

multi-way ANOVA

analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)

The strength of the effects of X (independent variable or fac…

Only one categorical independent variable

more than one, which is two categorical independent variable

In addition to categorical variable there is also metric vari…

eta^2 (ng^2)

The strength of the effects of X (independent variable or fac…

one-way ANOVA

Only one categorical independent variable

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Frequency:

Frequency distribution:

Summarize/organize scores from a... research study

Draw conclusions/make inferences that go beyond the scores fr…

Number of scores with a particular value.

The pattern of frequencies over different values.

Descriptive statistics

Summarize/organize scores from a... research study

Inferential statistics

Draw conclusions/make inferences that go beyond the scores fr…

What is control in a single subject de…

Describe direct replication in a singl…

Describe systematic replication in a s…

Describe the multiple baseline designs

The subject is its own control. The performance during treatm…

Running an additional subject, each additional subject is a r…

May only have one subject but the affect is repeated multiple…

Preferable when we cant do ABAB (because it would be unethica…

What is control in a single subject de…

The subject is its own control. The performance during treatm…

Describe direct replication in a singl…

Running an additional subject, each additional subject is a r…

The scientific method

Hypothesis

Population

Sample

Step by step approach to planning, conducting and reporting r…

Is a testable prediction of the possible relationship between…

Is where the sample may be drawn for a study.

The participants selected from a population and used to test…

The scientific method

Step by step approach to planning, conducting and reporting r…

Hypothesis

Is a testable prediction of the possible relationship between…

Validity

Reliability

Step 1 of the Scientific Method

Step 2 of the Scientific Method

The degree of accuracy with which the findings correspond wit…

Is the consistency of the results across multiple administrat…

Define the problem operationally in a concrete and measurable…

Develop hypotheses about what might occur

Validity

The degree of accuracy with which the findings correspond wit…

Reliability

Is the consistency of the results across multiple administrat…

4 COMMON ERRORS IN RESEARCH

Inaccurate Observation

Overgeneralization

Selective Observation

-Inaccurate Observation... -Overgeneralization... -Selective Observ…

Definition: Failure to accurately observe or pay attention to…

Definition: Reaching a conclusion based upon the observation…

Definition: Paying attention to situations which support our…

4 COMMON ERRORS IN RESEARCH

-Inaccurate Observation... -Overgeneralization... -Selective Observ…

Inaccurate Observation

Definition: Failure to accurately observe or pay attention to…

Observational research

Naturalistic observation

disguised

undisguised

various types of non-experimental research designs wherein tr…

behavior in real life settings

participants are not aware they are being observed

participants know they are being observed

Observational research

various types of non-experimental research designs wherein tr…

Naturalistic observation

behavior in real life settings

Ordinal data treated as interval data

T-Test

ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

Correlation

practitioners can use parametric tests on typically non-param…

a statistical analysis used to assess group differences. 1IV…

used to assess group differences. 1 IV & 1DV; I = nominal wit…

assess associations between variables. 1 IV & 1 DV both are c…

Ordinal data treated as interval data

practitioners can use parametric tests on typically non-param…

T-Test

a statistical analysis used to assess group differences. 1IV…

Research

Research Question or Problem

Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

A careful, systematic, and structured process for solving pro…

Important question or obstacle that is the underlying and dri…

Logical thinking that utilizes one or more general assumption…

Logical argument in which one or more specific premises lead…

Research

A careful, systematic, and structured process for solving pro…

Research Question or Problem

Important question or obstacle that is the underlying and dri…

What is psychology?

What is science?

EMPRICISM

SKEPTICISM

From the Greek words psyche, meaning "mind", and logos meanin…

- Is a system for acquiring knowledge, through observation an…

Claims based on evidence (i.e., data); coming to conclusions…

they refuse to accept any claim w/o evidence; always ask "how…

What is psychology?

From the Greek words psyche, meaning "mind", and logos meanin…

What is science?

- Is a system for acquiring knowledge, through observation an…

Correlations

Experiment

Correlation coefficient

Quantitative

Relationship between two variables

Tests or manipulates the IV

The extent/strength of the relationship between two variables

How old are you?

Correlations

Relationship between two variables

Experiment

Tests or manipulates the IV

Brown & Kulik (1977)

Conway et. al (1994)

Neisse & Harsch (1992)

Talarico & Rubin (2003)

40 white and 40 black people asked questions about 10 events.…

...

Recorded reliability of Challenger disaster. Participants rep…

asked participants to recall events during 9/11 and personal…

Brown & Kulik (1977)

40 white and 40 black people asked questions about 10 events.…

Conway et. al (1994)

...

Hindsight Bias

False Consensus Effect

Critical Thinking

Scientific Method

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree…

not blindly accepting an emotional arguments and conclusions.…

based on gathering observable, empirical, and measurable evid…

Hindsight Bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

False Consensus Effect

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree…