How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

bivariate correlation

curvilinear association

directionality problem

effect size

An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…

An association between two variables which is not a straight…

A situation in which it is unclear which variable in an assoc…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.

bivariate correlation

An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…

curvilinear association

An association between two variables which is not a straight…

Criteria for Causality

Characteristics of Survey Research

Advantage of Survey Research

Disadvantages of Survey Research

1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…

Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…

Ability to provide detailed and precise information about a h…

Limit ability to make causal claims... • Ex. Low internal validi…

Criteria for Causality

1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…

Characteristics of Survey Research

Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…

Survey research

Omnibus survey

Split-ballot design

Satisfice

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differe…

Unique questions or other modifications in a survey administe…

When survey respondents reduce the effort required to answer…

Survey research

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…

Omnibus survey

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differe…

all-possible-orders design

between-subjects design

block randomization

block-randomization design

(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…

an experimental design in which different participants are as…

an experimental procedure in which researchers conduct a roun…

a within-subjects design in which every participant is expose…

all-possible-orders design

(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…

between-subjects design

an experimental design in which different participants are as…

Generalizability

Sampling Frame

Unit of Analysis

Random Sampling

Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peo…

A realistic version of your population; the ones you can iden…

Sampling units

A sample in which everyone in your sampling frame has an equa…

Generalizability

Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peo…

Sampling Frame

A realistic version of your population; the ones you can iden…

What is an association claim?

Bivariate Associations

scatterplot... bar graph

Line that fits to the data

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the s…

correlation coefficient **r** describes relationship... differenc…

by minimizing the sum of squared residuals

What is an association claim?

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Bivariate Associations

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the s…

de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011…

When is an outlier most likely to be p…

The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908), shows th…

Professor Fofana wonders if there is a…

Large

when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on b…

curvilinear

It is very unlikely that this association was found in the sa…

de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011…

Large

When is an outlier most likely to be p…

when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on b…

Probability Sampling

Sampling Frame

Sampling Distribution

Bias

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…

Range of sample statistic will be obtain if we select many sa…

those selected are not typical or representative

Probability Sampling

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

Sampling Frame

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…

survey research

why is survey research the most popula…

versatility

effciency

involves the collection of information from a sample of indiv…

-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these f…

-survey methods are versatile... -not the ideal method for test…

surveys also are popular bc data can be collected from many p…

survey research

involves the collection of information from a sample of indiv…

why is survey research the most popula…

-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these f…

Correlation

Bivariate Correlation (Association)

How can we examine Bivariate Correlati…

Scatterplot

Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…

An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…

Make a scatterplot or graph.

-When we have two continuous variables, scatterplots provide…

Correlation

Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…

Bivariate Correlation (Association)

An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…

Bivariate correlation

Mean

t test

Effect size

Association that involves exactly two variables

average - measure of central tendency

Statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance o…

Magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables

Bivariate correlation

Association that involves exactly two variables

Mean

average - measure of central tendency

Bivariate Correlation(association)

Construct Validity

Statistical Significane

Statistical Validity

an association that involves exactly two variables

how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably

The conclusion a researcher reaches regarding how likely it i…

How strong is the relationship... is the correlation statictical…

Bivariate Correlation(association)

an association that involves exactly two variables

Construct Validity

how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably

Sampling

Population

Sample

Sample Elements

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to…

A subset of elements drawn from the population.

Individual members of the sample.

Sampling

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

Population

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to…

Criterion Variable

Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design

Dependent Variable

Factor

The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…

A research design in which two variables are measured at two…

The response measured in a study, typically a measure of part…

(1) In experimental analysis, an independent variable. (2) In…

Criterion Variable

The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…

Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design

A research design in which two variables are measured at two…

Correlational and experimental research:

Steps for hypothesis testing:

Inferential statistics

Sampling distribution:

Meant to investigate relationships between or among 2 or more…

1. Develop hypothesis... 2. Set alpha (usually .05 or .01)... 3. Ca…

use sample data to draw inferences about the true state of af…

all the possible values of a statistic... - For example: the sam…

Correlational and experimental research:

Meant to investigate relationships between or among 2 or more…

Steps for hypothesis testing:

1. Develop hypothesis... 2. Set alpha (usually .05 or .01)... 3. Ca…

blinding

block randomization

control group

crossover randomization

experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…

design approach that groups experimental units together usual…

participant group in which the independent variable is delive…

experimental design strategy that requires all participants b…

blinding

experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…

block randomization

design approach that groups experimental units together usual…

Factorial Designs ... Main effect

Factorial Designs ... Interaction effect

Factorial Designs ... Order interaction

Identifying Research Designs ... Repeated…

Looking at the significant main effect for each IV separately…

Looking at the effects of IV's together. ... Ex: They sound sign…

Involves the joint effects of more then two independent varia…

One group of participants is measured on different levels of…

Factorial Designs ... Main effect

Looking at the significant main effect for each IV separately…

Factorial Designs ... Interaction effect

Looking at the effects of IV's together. ... Ex: They sound sign…

goals of analytic epidemiology

association

risk difference

relative risk

Establish whether a significant association exists between a…

Examines whether the risk associated with a particular diseas…

proportion of the unexposed group with the disease compared t…

proportion of the subjects with the disease who have been exp…

goals of analytic epidemiology

Establish whether a significant association exists between a…

association

Examines whether the risk associated with a particular diseas…

Non-Experimental research

Correlational research

Non-Experimental research methods incl…

The Hermeneutic approach to understand…

Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulat…

all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relati…

Observational, archival, case study, and survey

attempts to discover reasons for behavior, rather than causes…

Non-Experimental research

Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulat…

Correlational research

all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relati…

Reporting research methods

Structure of an APA-style paper

Title page

Abstract

APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations

Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussi…

Title of the article, the authors' names, and the author' aff…

Short summary of study, about 150 words ... -Purpose of study... -D…

Reporting research methods

APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations

Structure of an APA-style paper

Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussi…

Selecting observations

Is often not possible to collect infor…

Bias

All members of the population have an…

Sampling is the process of:

Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessa…

When a research chooses a sample that is not typical of a lar…

A basic principle of probability sampling is that a sample wi…

Selecting observations

Sampling is the process of:

Is often not possible to collect infor…

Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessa…

survey research design

survey

open-ended item

partially open-ended item

use of a survey, administered either in written form or orall…

series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to…

question or statement in a survey that allows the respondent…

question or statement in a survey that includes a few restric…

survey research design

use of a survey, administered either in written form or orall…

survey

series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to…

Survey Method

Errors in Survey Research

Survey Instruments

Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires

purpose is to develop generalizations about the population

poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the pop…

paper-and-pencil questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, tel…

advantages: low cost, avoidance of potential interviewer bias…

Survey Method

purpose is to develop generalizations about the population

Errors in Survey Research

poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the pop…

Bivariate Correlations

Mean

T-Test

Effect Size

An association that involves exactly two variables

Average

A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables

Bivariate Correlations

An association that involves exactly two variables

Mean

Average

Between

Within

Assignment Bias

Equivalent groups

A separate group of Participants for every level of IV

The same group of participants for ever level of IV

Levels may differ on some extraneous variable that is an indi…

To minimize assignment bias

Between

A separate group of Participants for every level of IV

Within

The same group of participants for ever level of IV

One shot case study

One group pretest post test design

Static group comparison

Validity issues

a single group of subjects measure on a dependent variable fo…

a pretest is added for the experimental group but lacks a con…

includes experimental and control groups but no pretest ... ex:…

there is a possibility that the findings may not be "real"

One shot case study

a single group of subjects measure on a dependent variable fo…

One group pretest post test design

a pretest is added for the experimental group but lacks a con…

sampling

central limit theorem

normally distributed

population

a scientific technique that allows a researcher to learn some…

the theoretical basis upon which the science of sampling is b…

a condition describing data that exist in a normal distribution

the entire set of individuals or groups that is relevant to a…

sampling

a scientific technique that allows a researcher to learn some…

central limit theorem

the theoretical basis upon which the science of sampling is b…

nonequivalent-control group designs

before-and-after designs

individual matching

aggregate matching

Experimental and comparison... groups that are designated before…

Give a pre-test and a post-test but have no comparison group.…

a way to form a control group by having... members who are simil…

More realistic than matching based on... individual cases. • Con…

nonequivalent-control group designs

Experimental and comparison... groups that are designated before…

before-and-after designs

Give a pre-test and a post-test but have no comparison group.…

Bivariate Correlation

Mean

t Test

Effect Size

An association that involves exactly two variables.

An arithmethic average; a measure of central tendency compute…

A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.

Bivariate Correlation

An association that involves exactly two variables.

Mean

An arithmethic average; a measure of central tendency compute…

all-possible-orders design

between-subjects design

block randomization

block-randomization design

(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…

an experimental design in which different participants are as…

an experimental procedure in which researchers conduct a roun…

a within-subjects design in which every participant is expose…

all-possible-orders design

(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…

between-subjects design

an experimental design in which different participants are as…

prettest-posttest designs are particul…

if you are using a laptop computer to…

Morris is conducting a study to determ…

Lyndal is conducting a study in which…

history

instrumentation

selection and poor generalization

maturation

prettest-posttest designs are particul…

history

if you are using a laptop computer to…

instrumentation

experiment

treatment

experimental group

control group

a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a…

...

group in experiment which receives the stimulus

group that does not receive the stimulus

experiment

a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a…

treatment

...

Internal Validity

Confound

Threats to internal validity

One-group pretest-posttest design

the extent to which we can say that one variable caused a cha…

A variable that varies systematically with the variables of i…

Confounds that must be controlled so that a cause-effect rela…

nonexperimental design in which all participants are tested p…

Internal Validity

the extent to which we can say that one variable caused a cha…

Confound

A variable that varies systematically with the variables of i…

Statistic

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Data cleaning

A numerical description of some feature of a variable or vari…

Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relations…

Statistics used to estimate how likely it is that a statistic…

The process of checking data for errors after the data have b…

Statistic

A numerical description of some feature of a variable or vari…

Descriptive statistics

Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relations…

Bivariate correlation

Curvilinear association

Directionality problem

Effect size

An association that involves exactly two variables.

An association between two variables which is not a straight…

A situation in which it is unclear which variable in an assoc…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.

Bivariate correlation

An association that involves exactly two variables.

Curvilinear association

An association between two variables which is not a straight…

1. Help **predict**... 2. Help *rule out ca…

Bivariate correlations

Multiple correlation

Canonical correlation

What are the 4 reasons to use a correlational design?

This type of correlation is an association that involves exac…

This multivariate technique examines the combined effects of…

This multivariate technique examines the correlation between…

1. Help **predict**... 2. Help *rule out ca…

What are the 4 reasons to use a correlational design?

Bivariate correlations

This type of correlation is an association that involves exac…

bivariate correlation

Cohen's guidelines for strengths of as…

type of test used when one variable is…

Statistical Validity: 3 quetions?

association involving two variables

small .10, medium .3, large .5 or more

t test

What is the effect size? ... Is it statistically significant? ... C…

bivariate correlation

association involving two variables

Cohen's guidelines for strengths of as…

small .10, medium .3, large .5 or more

Multivariate designs

Covariance, temporal precedence, inter…

Longitudinal design

Cross-sectional correlations

Research designs that involve more than two variables

The three causal rules for establishing causation

Research design that measures the same variables in the same…

Correlations that test to see whether two variables, measured…

Multivariate designs

Research designs that involve more than two variables

Covariance, temporal precedence, inter…

The three causal rules for establishing causation

Behavioral Categories

Observational research

Two methods for devloping behavioral c…

Frequency method

Includes the general and specific classes of behavior to be o…

Correlational design that do no involve manipulating an indep…

1. Make preliminary observations (hypothesis) and become fami…

How many times was the behavior produced? Record the frequenc…

Behavioral Categories

Includes the general and specific classes of behavior to be o…

Observational research

Correlational design that do no involve manipulating an indep…

Bivariate correlations

Mean

Effect Size

Statistical Significance

an association that involves two variables - measure the firs…

arithmetic average

describes strength of an association

conclusion that a researcher reaches regarding how likely it…

Bivariate correlations

an association that involves two variables - measure the firs…

Mean

arithmetic average

Experimental Control

Confounding Variable

Between-Subjects Design

Random Assignment

The ability to ... 1. manipulate one or more independent variabl…

A factor that covaries with the independent variable in such…

Different participants are assigned to each of the conditions…

A procedure in which each participant has an equal probabilit…

Experimental Control

The ability to ... 1. manipulate one or more independent variabl…

Confounding Variable

A factor that covaries with the independent variable in such…

random assignment

experimental research

experiment

classical experiment

procedure in which each participant or element has an equal c…

type of research most often conducted in the laboratory or ot…

recording of measurements and observations made by defined pr…

researcher controls... selection of treatment/control group base…

random assignment

procedure in which each participant or element has an equal c…

experimental research

type of research most often conducted in the laboratory or ot…

descriptive statistics

inferential statistics

nominal scale

ordinal scale

describe and summarize information about samples

goes further than descriptive and tell of the relationship

classify, name, and label things with no mathematical qualiti…

when a scale ranks a dimension - order and rank matters ex. r…

descriptive statistics

describe and summarize information about samples

inferential statistics

goes further than descriptive and tell of the relationship

How data is collected

Sampling

Selecting Samples

Probability Sampling

how we collect representative data is fundamental to criminal…

selecting some units of a larger population for further study…

1)want to select samples to represent some larger population…

sampling in which the probability that an element will be inc…

How data is collected

how we collect representative data is fundamental to criminal…

Sampling

selecting some units of a larger population for further study…

pretesting

posttesting

experimental group

control group

The measurement of a dependent variable among subjects

The measurement of a dependent variable among subjects after…

in experimentation, a group of subjects to whom an experiment…

in experimentation, a group of subjects to whom no experiment…

pretesting

The measurement of a dependent variable among subjects

posttesting

The measurement of a dependent variable among subjects after…

factorial design

factorial matrix

main effect

interaction

involves any study with more than one independent variable; d…

a row and a column arrangement that characterizes a factorial…

overall influence of each of the IVs; difference between the…

examine whether the variables combine to form a more complex…

factorial design

involves any study with more than one independent variable; d…

factorial matrix

a row and a column arrangement that characterizes a factorial…

experimental control

between-subject design

random assignment

within-subjects design

the ability to manipulate one or more IV; choose the types of…

design in which there are separate groups of people being com…

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions…

design in which two or more values or levels of the IV are ad…

experimental control

the ability to manipulate one or more IV; choose the types of…

between-subject design

design in which there are separate groups of people being com…

Cluster sampling

convenience sample

data saturation

extreme instance sample

a type of sampling method in which clusters or groups (sebset…

a group of people that is convenient to access

sampling until no new information emerges

consists of sampling units that have characteristics quite di…

Cluster sampling

a type of sampling method in which clusters or groups (sebset…

convenience sample

a group of people that is convenient to access

Internal Validity

History

Maturation

Testing

A type of evaluation of your experiment; it asks whether your…

A threat to internal validity; refers to events that occur be…

A threat to internal validity; refers to changes in participa…

A threat to internal validity that occurs because measuring t…

Internal Validity

A type of evaluation of your experiment; it asks whether your…

History

A threat to internal validity; refers to events that occur be…