# Study sets matching "research methods chapter 8"

Internal Validity

History

HISTORY=

maturation

A type of evaluation in your experiment; it asks whether your…

a threat to internal validity; refers to events that occur bet…

DISTRACTION (big or small)

a threat to internal validity' refers to changes in participan…

Internal Validity

A type of evaluation in your experiment; it asks whether your…

History

a threat to internal validity; refers to events that occur bet…

Survey research

Omnibus survey

Split-ballot design

Satisfice

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of ind…

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differen…

Unique questions or other modifications in a survey administer…

When survey respondents reduce the effort required to answer a…

Survey research

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of ind…

Omnibus survey

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differen…

Statistic

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Data cleaning

A numerical description of some feature of a variable or varia…

Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relationsh…

Statistics used to estimate how likely it is that a statistica…

The process of checking data for errors after the data have be…

Statistic

A numerical description of some feature of a variable or varia…

Descriptive statistics

Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relationsh…

de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011)…

When is an outlier most likely to be pr…

The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908), shows tha…

Professor Fofana wonders if there is an…

Large

when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on bo…

curvilinear

It is very unlikely that this association was found in the sam…

de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011)…

Large

When is an outlier most likely to be pr…

when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on bo…

Generalizability

Sampling Frame

Unit of Analysis

Random Sampling

Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peop…

A realistic version of your population; the ones you can ident…

Sampling units

A sample in which everyone in your sampling frame has an equal…

Generalizability

Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peop…

Sampling Frame

A realistic version of your population; the ones you can ident…

Probability Sampling

Sampling Frame

Sampling Distribution

Bias

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world version…

Range of sample statistic will be obtain if we select many sam…

those selected are not typical or representative

Probability Sampling

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

Sampling Frame

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world version…

Correlational and experimental research:

Steps for hypothesis testing:

Inferential statistics

Sampling distribution:

Meant to investigate relationships between or among 2 or more…

1. Develop hypothesis... 2. Set alpha (usually .05 or .01)... 3. Cal…

use sample data to draw inferences about the true state of aff…

all the possible values of a statistic... - For example: the samp…

Correlational and experimental research:

Meant to investigate relationships between or among 2 or more…

Steps for hypothesis testing:

1. Develop hypothesis... 2. Set alpha (usually .05 or .01)... 3. Cal…

What is an association claim?

Bivariate Associations

scatterplot... bar graph

Line that fits to the data

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the se…

correlation coefficient

**r**describes relationship... difference…by minimizing the sum of squared residuals

What is an association claim?

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Bivariate Associations

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the se…

Observation

Record Analysis

Physical Condition Analysis

Process (Activity) Analysis

The full range of monitoring behavioral and non behavioral act…

The extraction of data from current or historical records, eit…

The recording of observations of current conditions resulting…

Observation by a time study of stages in a process, evaluated…

Observation

The full range of monitoring behavioral and non behavioral act…

Record Analysis

The extraction of data from current or historical records, eit…

survey research

why is survey research the most popular…

versatility

effciency

involves the collection of information from a sample of indivi…

-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these fe…

-survey methods are versatile... -not the ideal method for testi…

surveys also are popular bc data can be collected from many pe…

survey research

involves the collection of information from a sample of indivi…

why is survey research the most popular…

-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these fe…

Threats to Internal Validity

Protecting Internal Validity

External Validity

Treats to External Validity

-History... -Maturation... -Testing... -Practice Effect... -Reactive Measu…

-Experimental Control... -Standard Protocol

-Ability to generalize to the population... -Population, environm…

-interation of testing and treatment... -Interaction of selection…

Threats to Internal Validity

-History... -Maturation... -Testing... -Practice Effect... -Reactive Measu…

Protecting Internal Validity

-Experimental Control... -Standard Protocol

Factorial Designs ... Main effect

Factorial Designs ... Interaction effect

Factorial Designs ... Order interaction

Identifying Research Designs ... Repeated…

Looking at the significant main effect for each IV separately.…

Looking at the effects of IV's together. ... Ex: They sound signi…

Involves the joint effects of more then two independent variab…

One group of participants is measured on different levels of i…

Factorial Designs ... Main effect

Looking at the significant main effect for each IV separately.…

Factorial Designs ... Interaction effect

Looking at the effects of IV's together. ... Ex: They sound signi…

blinding

block randomization

control group

crossover randomization

experimental approach in which information that may lead to in…

design approach that groups experimental units together usuall…

participant group in which the independent variable is deliver…

experimental design strategy that requires all participants be…

blinding

experimental approach in which information that may lead to in…

block randomization

design approach that groups experimental units together usuall…

Correlation

Bivariate Correlation (Association)

How can we examine Bivariate Correlatio…

Scatterplot

Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary t…

An association that involves exactly two variables. Two variab…

Make a scatterplot or graph.

-When we have two continuous variables, scatterplots provide a…

Correlation

Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary t…

Bivariate Correlation (Association)

An association that involves exactly two variables. Two variab…

Complete observer, complete participant

1. sponsor... 2. letter... 3. phone call... 4. m…

Prompt participants to elaborate on res…

Write everything down during it and if…

Field Research

Best to use a four step process to gain access to participants

Probe

Guide lines during and after and interview

Complete observer, complete participant

Field Research

1. sponsor... 2. letter... 3. phone call... 4. m…

Best to use a four step process to gain access to participants

Non-Experimental research

Correlational research

Non-Experimental research methods inclu…

The Hermeneutic approach to understandi…

Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulate…

all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relatio…

Observational, archival, case study, and survey

attempts to discover reasons for behavior, rather than causes.…

Non-Experimental research

Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulate…

Correlational research

all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relatio…

Reporting research methods

Structure of an APA-style paper

Title page

Abstract

APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations

Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussio…

Title of the article, the authors' names, and the author' affi…

Short summary of study, about 150 words ... -Purpose of study... -De…

Reporting research methods

APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations

Structure of an APA-style paper

Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussio…

Selecting observations

Is often not possible to collect inform…

Bias

All members of the population have an e…

Sampling is the process of:

Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessar…

When a research chooses a sample that is not typical of a larg…

A basic principle of probability sampling is that a sample wil…

Selecting observations

Sampling is the process of:

Is often not possible to collect inform…

Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessar…

survey research design

survey

open-ended item

partially open-ended item

use of a survey, administered either in written form or orally…

series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to m…

question or statement in a survey that allows the respondent t…

question or statement in a survey that includes a few restrict…

survey research design

use of a survey, administered either in written form or orally…

survey

series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to m…

Survey Method

Errors in Survey Research

Survey Instruments

Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires

purpose is to develop generalizations about the population

poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the popu…

paper-and-pencil questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, tele…

advantages: low cost, avoidance of potential interviewer bias,…

Survey Method

purpose is to develop generalizations about the population

Errors in Survey Research

poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the popu…

Bivariate Correlation(association)

Construct Validity

Statistical Significane

Statistical Validity

an association that involves exactly two variables

how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably

The conclusion a researcher reaches regarding how likely it is…

How strong is the relationship... is the correlation staticticall…

Bivariate Correlation(association)

an association that involves exactly two variables

Construct Validity

how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably

Sampling

Population

Sample

Sample Elements

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to b…

A subset of elements drawn from the population.

Individual members of the sample.

Sampling

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

Population

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to b…

Bivariate Correlations

Mean

T-Test

Effect Size

An association that involves exactly two variables

Average

A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables

Bivariate Correlations

An association that involves exactly two variables

Mean

Average

Covariation

Temporal precedence

Extraneous variables

Internal validity

a condition where two measures vary together

when the cause happens before the effect

undesirable variables that influence the relationship between…

the confidence of the cause and effect of a relationship in a…

Covariation

a condition where two measures vary together

Temporal precedence

when the cause happens before the effect