#### Study sets matching "research methods chapter 8"

#### Study sets matching "research methods chapter 8"

bivariate correlation

curvilinear association

directionality problem

effect size

An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…

An association between two variables which is not a straight…

A situation in which it is unclear which variable in an assoc…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.

bivariate correlation

An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…

curvilinear association

An association between two variables which is not a straight…

Criteria for Causality

Characteristics of Survey Research

Advantage of Survey Research

Disadvantages of Survey Research

1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…

Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…

Ability to provide detailed and precise information about a h…

Limit ability to make causal claims... • Ex. Low internal validi…

Criteria for Causality

1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…

Characteristics of Survey Research

Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…

Survey research

Omnibus survey

Split-ballot design

Satisfice

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differe…

Unique questions or other modifications in a survey administe…

When survey respondents reduce the effort required to answer…

Survey research

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…

Omnibus survey

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differe…

all-possible-orders design

between-subjects design

block randomization

block-randomization design

(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…

an experimental design in which different participants are as…

an experimental procedure in which researchers conduct a roun…

a within-subjects design in which every participant is expose…

all-possible-orders design

(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…

between-subjects design

an experimental design in which different participants are as…

de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011…

When is an outlier most likely to be p…

The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908), shows th…

Professor Fofana wonders if there is a…

Large

when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on b…

curvilinear

It is very unlikely that this association was found in the sa…

de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011…

Large

When is an outlier most likely to be p…

when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on b…

Observation

Record Analysis

Physical Condition Analysis

Process (Activity) Analysis

The full range of monitoring behavioral and non behavioral ac…

The extraction of data from current or historical records, ei…

The recording of observations of current conditions resulting…

Observation by a time study of stages in a process, evaluated…

Observation

The full range of monitoring behavioral and non behavioral ac…

Record Analysis

The extraction of data from current or historical records, ei…

Probability Sampling

Sampling Frame

Sampling Distribution

Bias

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…

Range of sample statistic will be obtain if we select many sa…

those selected are not typical or representative

Probability Sampling

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

Sampling Frame

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…

What is an association claim?

Bivariate Associations

scatterplot... bar graph

Line that fits to the data

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the s…

correlation coefficient

**r**describes relationship... differenc…by minimizing the sum of squared residuals

What is an association claim?

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Bivariate Associations

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the s…

survey research

why is survey research the most popula…

versatility

effciency

involves the collection of information from a sample of indiv…

-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these f…

-survey methods are versatile... -not the ideal method for test…

surveys also are popular bc data can be collected from many p…

survey research

involves the collection of information from a sample of indiv…

why is survey research the most popula…

-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these f…

Factorial Designs ... Main effect

Factorial Designs ... Interaction effect

Factorial Designs ... Order interaction

Identifying Research Designs ... Repeated…

Looking at the significant main effect for each IV separately…

Looking at the effects of IV's together. ... Ex: They sound sign…

Involves the joint effects of more then two independent varia…

One group of participants is measured on different levels of…

Factorial Designs ... Main effect

Looking at the significant main effect for each IV separately…

Factorial Designs ... Interaction effect

Looking at the effects of IV's together. ... Ex: They sound sign…

blinding

block randomization

control group

crossover randomization

experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…

design approach that groups experimental units together usual…

participant group in which the independent variable is delive…

experimental design strategy that requires all participants b…

blinding

experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…

block randomization

design approach that groups experimental units together usual…

Threats to Internal Validity

Protecting Internal Validity

External Validity

Treats to External Validity

-History... -Maturation... -Testing... -Practice Effect... -Reactive Meas…

-Experimental Control... -Standard Protocol

-Ability to generalize to the population... -Population, environ…

-interation of testing and treatment... -Interaction of selectio…

Threats to Internal Validity

-History... -Maturation... -Testing... -Practice Effect... -Reactive Meas…

Protecting Internal Validity

-Experimental Control... -Standard Protocol

Correlation

Bivariate Correlation (Association)

How can we examine Bivariate Correlati…

Scatterplot

Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…

An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…

Make a scatterplot or graph.

-When we have two continuous variables, scatterplots provide…

Correlation

Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…

Bivariate Correlation (Association)

An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…

Bivariate Correlations

Mean

T-Test

Effect Size

An association that involves exactly two variables

Average

A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables

Bivariate Correlations

An association that involves exactly two variables

Mean

Average

Criterion Variable

Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design

Dependent Variable

Factor

The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…

A research design in which two variables are measured at two…

The response measured in a study, typically a measure of part…

(1) In experimental analysis, an independent variable. (2) In…

Criterion Variable

The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…

Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design

A research design in which two variables are measured at two…

Non-Experimental research

Correlational research

Non-Experimental research methods incl…

The Hermeneutic approach to understand…

Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulat…

all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relati…

Observational, archival, case study, and survey

attempts to discover reasons for behavior, rather than causes…

Non-Experimental research

Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulat…

Correlational research

all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relati…

Selecting observations

Is often not possible to collect infor…

Bias

All members of the population have an…

Sampling is the process of:

Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessa…

When a research chooses a sample that is not typical of a lar…

A basic principle of probability sampling is that a sample wi…

Selecting observations

Sampling is the process of:

Is often not possible to collect infor…

Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessa…

Bivariate correlation

Mean

t test

Effect size

Association that involves exactly two variables

average - measure of central tendency

Statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance o…

Magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables

Bivariate correlation

Association that involves exactly two variables

Mean

average - measure of central tendency

Reporting research methods

Structure of an APA-style paper

Title page

Abstract

APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations

Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussi…

Title of the article, the authors' names, and the author' aff…

Short summary of study, about 150 words ... -Purpose of study... -D…

Reporting research methods

APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations

Structure of an APA-style paper

Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussi…

survey research design

survey

open-ended item

partially open-ended item

use of a survey, administered either in written form or orall…

series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to…

question or statement in a survey that allows the respondent…

question or statement in a survey that includes a few restric…

survey research design

use of a survey, administered either in written form or orall…

survey

series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to…

Survey Method

Errors in Survey Research

Survey Instruments

Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires

purpose is to develop generalizations about the population

poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the pop…

paper-and-pencil questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, tel…

advantages: low cost, avoidance of potential interviewer bias…

Survey Method

purpose is to develop generalizations about the population

Errors in Survey Research

poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the pop…

Bivariate Correlation(association)

Construct Validity

Statistical Significane

Statistical Validity

an association that involves exactly two variables

how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably

The conclusion a researcher reaches regarding how likely it i…

How strong is the relationship... is the correlation statictical…

Bivariate Correlation(association)

an association that involves exactly two variables

Construct Validity

how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably

Sampling

Population

Sample

Sample Elements

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to…

A subset of elements drawn from the population.

Individual members of the sample.

Sampling

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

Population

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to…

goals of analytic epidemiology

association

risk difference

relative risk

Establish whether a significant association exists between a…

Examines whether the risk associated with a particular diseas…

proportion of the unexposed group with the disease compared t…

proportion of the subjects with the disease who have been exp…

goals of analytic epidemiology

Establish whether a significant association exists between a…

association

Examines whether the risk associated with a particular diseas…