# Study sets matching "research methods chapter 8"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Internal Validity

History

HISTORY=

maturation

A type of evaluation in your experiment; it asks whether your…

a threat to internal validity; refers to events that occur bet…

DISTRACTION (big or small)

a threat to internal validity' refers to changes in participan…

Internal Validity

A type of evaluation in your experiment; it asks whether your…

History

a threat to internal validity; refers to events that occur bet…

Confounding Variable

How are confounding variables related t…

Posttest Design Only

Pretest/Posttest Design

A variable that varies along with the independent variable> Co…

When the results of an experiment can confidently be attribute…

1. Obtain two equivalent groups of participants.... 2. Introduce…

Makes sure the participants were in fact equivelant at the beg…

Confounding Variable

A variable that varies along with the independent variable> Co…

How are confounding variables related t…

When the results of an experiment can confidently be attribute…

Survey research

Omnibus survey

Split-ballot design

Satisfice

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of ind…

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differen…

Unique questions or other modifications in a survey administer…

When survey respondents reduce the effort required to answer a…

Survey research

Research in which information is obtained from a sample of ind…

Omnibus survey

A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differen…

Bivariate Correlations

Mean

T-Test

Effect Size

An association that involves exactly two variables

Average

A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…

The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables

Bivariate Correlations

An association that involves exactly two variables

Mean

Average

Statistic

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Data cleaning

A numerical description of some feature of a variable or varia…

Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relationsh…

Statistics used to estimate how likely it is that a statistica…

The process of checking data for errors after the data have be…

Statistic

A numerical description of some feature of a variable or varia…

Descriptive statistics

Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relationsh…

Unobtrusive measures

Physical trace analysis

Major types of unobtrusive measures

Advantages of unobtrusive measures

ways of studying groups so that they remain unaware of being s…

indirect signs of human activity

1. Physical trace analysis ... 2. Archival existing data and auto…

1. nonreactivity (more natural behavior)... 2. observational stud…

Unobtrusive measures

ways of studying groups so that they remain unaware of being s…

Physical trace analysis

indirect signs of human activity

experiment

treatment

experimental group

control group

a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a…

...

group in experiment which receives the stimulus

group that does not receive the stimulus

experiment

a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a…

treatment

...

sampling

central limit theorem

normally distributed

population

a scientific technique that allows a researcher to learn somet…

the theoretical basis upon which the science of sampling is ba…

a condition describing data that exist in a normal distribution

the entire set of individuals or groups that is relevant to a…

sampling

a scientific technique that allows a researcher to learn somet…

central limit theorem

the theoretical basis upon which the science of sampling is ba…

Bivariate correlation

An association claim describes

To investigate associations

R has two qualities:

is an association that involves exactly two variables

the relationship found between two measured variables

researchers need to measure the first variable and then measur…

direction and strength.

Bivariate correlation

is an association that involves exactly two variables

An association claim describes

the relationship found between two measured variables

Generalizability

Sampling Frame

Unit of Analysis

Random Sampling

Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peop…

A realistic version of your population; the ones you can ident…

Sampling units

A sample in which everyone in your sampling frame has an equal…

Generalizability

Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peop…

Sampling Frame

A realistic version of your population; the ones you can ident…

A Likert scale (a sum-mated rating scal…

Tests

Achievement tests

Standardized Test

Assesses attitudes toward a topic by presenting a set of state…

A set of standard stimuli presented to individuals in order to…

Measures mastery and proficiency in different areas of knowled…

A test with specified content, prescribed directions for admin…

A Likert scale (a sum-mated rating scal…

Assesses attitudes toward a topic by presenting a set of state…

Tests

A set of standard stimuli presented to individuals in order to…

What is an association claim?

Bivariate Associations

scatterplot... bar graph

Line that fits to the data

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the se…

correlation coefficient

**r**describes relationship... difference…by minimizing the sum of squared residuals

What is an association claim?

When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated

Bivariate Associations

Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the se…

Unobtrusive Measures

Physical Trace Analysis

Archival Records

Content Analysis

Ways of studying groups so that they remain unaware of being s…

Type of unobtrusive measurement that involves the analysis of…

Memoirs, diaries, and historical documents contain much inform…

Systematic, analytic processes aimed at providing practical in…

Unobtrusive Measures

Ways of studying groups so that they remain unaware of being s…

Physical Trace Analysis

Type of unobtrusive measurement that involves the analysis of…

What is the confounding variable?

What is internal validity?

When results of an experiment can confi…

An experiment must be designed and cond…

-another variable that occurs along with the IV... -cannot determ…

-ability to draw conclusions about casual relationships from d…

internal validity

only the IV can be the cause of the results

What is the confounding variable?

-another variable that occurs along with the IV... -cannot determ…

What is internal validity?

-ability to draw conclusions about casual relationships from d…

quantitative conceptualization

qualitative conceptualization

attributes

variable

comes at the end of the problem formulation

variables and indicators tend not to be specified until after…

can be categories or variables but are concepts that make up a…

a concept that compromises more than one attribute or value an…

quantitative conceptualization

comes at the end of the problem formulation

qualitative conceptualization

variables and indicators tend not to be specified until after…

z - test

z score

sampling distribution

standard error of mean

compares sample mean is significantly different than populatio…

compares individual scores with population mean

means based on random samples of a fixed size from population

SD of sampling distribution... can never be as high or low as ind…

z - test

compares sample mean is significantly different than populatio…

z score

compares individual scores with population mean

Two elements in sampling

probability sampling

sample element

population

representation and generalization

we use random selection, there's a known probability/likelihoo…

what are we collecting information about?

theoretically specified group of elements

Two elements in sampling

representation and generalization

probability sampling

we use random selection, there's a known probability/likelihoo…

Probability Sampling

Sampling Frame

Sampling Distribution

Bias

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world version…

Range of sample statistic will be obtain if we select many sam…

those selected are not typical or representative

Probability Sampling

Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization

Sampling Frame

List of elements in the population... Serve as real world version…

Representative Sample

Sample

Sample frame

Element

Means that the sample has the same distribution of the charact…

a group of subjects chosen from the population

a list of all the elements in the population from which the sa…

Refers to the item under study in the population and sample

Representative Sample

Means that the sample has the same distribution of the charact…

Sample

a group of subjects chosen from the population

bivariate correlation (association)

effect size

statistical significance

outlier

an association that involves exactly two variables

describes the strength of an association

the conclusion a researcher reaches regarding how likely it is…

an extreme score, stands far away from the pack

bivariate correlation (association)

an association that involves exactly two variables

effect size

describes the strength of an association

Central tendency

mean

median

mode

mean, median, mode

average of a distribution of scores, most common measure of ce…

midpoint in a distribution

most frequent score in distribution

Central tendency

mean, median, mode

mean

average of a distribution of scores, most common measure of ce…

bivariate correlation

mean

t test

effect size

an association that involves exactly two variables

an arithmetic average; a measure of central tendency computed…

a statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…

the magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables

bivariate correlation

an association that involves exactly two variables

mean

an arithmetic average; a measure of central tendency computed…

Survey Method

Errors in Survey Research

Survey Instruments

Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires

purpose is to develop generalizations about the population

poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the popu…

paper-and-pencil questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, tele…

advantages: low cost, avoidance of potential interviewer bias,…

Survey Method

purpose is to develop generalizations about the population

Errors in Survey Research

poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the popu…

Sampling

Population

Sample

Sample Elements

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to b…

A subset of elements drawn from the population.

Individual members of the sample.

Sampling

Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…

Population

The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to b…