How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "research methods chapter 8"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "research methods chapter 8"

14 terms
research methods chapter 8
bivariate correlation
curvilinear association
directionality problem
effect size
An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…
An association between two variables which is not a straight…
A situation in which it is unclear which variable in an assoc…
The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.
bivariate correlation
An association that involves exactly two variables. Also call…
curvilinear association
An association between two variables which is not a straight…
23 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Criteria for Causality
Characteristics of Survey Research
Advantage of Survey Research
Disadvantages of Survey Research
1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…
Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…
Ability to provide detailed and precise information about a h…
Limit ability to make causal claims... • Ex. Low internal validi…
Criteria for Causality
1. A statistical correlation between the two variables.... 2. Th…
Characteristics of Survey Research
Large Scale probability sampling... • While this is ideal there…
36 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Survey research
Omnibus survey
Split-ballot design
Satisfice
Research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…
A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differe…
Unique questions or other modifications in a survey administe…
When survey respondents reduce the effort required to answer…
Survey research
Research in which information is obtained from a sample of in…
Omnibus survey
A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to differe…
25 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
all-possible-orders design
between-subjects design
block randomization
block-randomization design
(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…
an experimental design in which different participants are as…
an experimental procedure in which researchers conduct a roun…
a within-subjects design in which every participant is expose…
all-possible-orders design
(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…
between-subjects design
an experimental design in which different participants are as…
24 terms
Chapter 8 Research Methods
Generalizability
Sampling Frame
Unit of Analysis
Random Sampling
Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peo…
A realistic version of your population; the ones you can iden…
Sampling units
A sample in which everyone in your sampling frame has an equa…
Generalizability
Ensuring that a researcher's findings will apply to other peo…
Sampling Frame
A realistic version of your population; the ones you can iden…
20 terms
Chapter 8: Research Methods
What is an association claim?
Bivariate Associations
scatterplot... bar graph
Line that fits to the data
When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated
Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the s…
correlation coefficient r describes relationship... differenc…
by minimizing the sum of squared residuals
What is an association claim?
When both variables are measured, as opposed to manipulated
Bivariate Associations
Researchers measure the first variable and then measure the s…
25 terms
Chapter 8- Research Methods
de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011…
When is an outlier most likely to be p…
The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908), shows th…
Professor Fofana wonders if there is a…
Large
when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on b…
curvilinear
It is very unlikely that this association was found in the sa…
de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011…
Large
When is an outlier most likely to be p…
when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on b…
15 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Probability Sampling
Sampling Frame
Sampling Distribution
Bias
Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization
List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…
Range of sample statistic will be obtain if we select many sa…
those selected are not typical or representative
Probability Sampling
Two elements in Sampling ... 1. Representation ... 2.Generalization
Sampling Frame
List of elements in the population... Serve as real world versio…
26 terms
research methods chapter 8
survey research
why is survey research the most popula…
versatility
effciency
involves the collection of information from a sample of indiv…
-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these f…
-survey methods are versatile... -not the ideal method for test…
surveys also are popular bc data can be collected from many p…
survey research
involves the collection of information from a sample of indiv…
why is survey research the most popula…
-versatility... -efficiency... -generalizability ... -each of these f…
34 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Correlation
Bivariate Correlation (Association)
How can we examine Bivariate Correlati…
Scatterplot
Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…
An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…
Make a scatterplot or graph.
-When we have two continuous variables, scatterplots provide…
Correlation
Covariance represents the degree to which two variables vary…
Bivariate Correlation (Association)
An association that involves exactly two variables. Two varia…
12 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Bivariate correlation
Mean
t test
Effect size
Association that involves exactly two variables
average - measure of central tendency
Statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance o…
Magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables
Bivariate correlation
Association that involves exactly two variables
Mean
average - measure of central tendency
13 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Bivariate Correlation(association)
Construct Validity
Statistical Significane
Statistical Validity
an association that involves exactly two variables
how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably
The conclusion a researcher reaches regarding how likely it i…
How strong is the relationship... is the correlation statictical…
Bivariate Correlation(association)
an association that involves exactly two variables
Construct Validity
how well was each variable measured ... was each measured reliably
30 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Sampling
Population
Sample
Sample Elements
Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…
The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to…
A subset of elements drawn from the population.
Individual members of the sample.
Sampling
Is the process of selecting a set of elements (e.g., people),…
Population
The set of individuals or other entities to which we wish to…
21 terms
Research Methods I Chapter 8
Criterion Variable
Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design
Dependent Variable
Factor
The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…
A research design in which two variables are measured at two…
The response measured in a study, typically a measure of part…
(1) In experimental analysis, an independent variable. (2) In…
Criterion Variable
The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the de…
Cross-lagged Panel Correlation Design
A research design in which two variables are measured at two…
16 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Correlational and experimental research:
Steps for hypothesis testing:
Inferential statistics
Sampling distribution:
Meant to investigate relationships between or among 2 or more…
1. Develop hypothesis... 2. Set alpha (usually .05 or .01)... 3. Ca…
use sample data to draw inferences about the true state of af…
all the possible values of a statistic... - For example: the sam…
Correlational and experimental research:
Meant to investigate relationships between or among 2 or more…
Steps for hypothesis testing:
1. Develop hypothesis... 2. Set alpha (usually .05 or .01)... 3. Ca…
22 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
blinding
block randomization
control group
crossover randomization
experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…
design approach that groups experimental units together usual…
participant group in which the independent variable is delive…
experimental design strategy that requires all participants b…
blinding
experimental approach in which information that may lead to i…
block randomization
design approach that groups experimental units together usual…
8 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Factorial Designs ... Main effect
Factorial Designs ... Interaction effect
Factorial Designs ... Order interaction
Identifying Research Designs ... Repeated…
Looking at the significant main effect for each IV separately…
Looking at the effects of IV's together. ... Ex: They sound sign…
Involves the joint effects of more then two independent varia…
One group of participants is measured on different levels of…
Factorial Designs ... Main effect
Looking at the significant main effect for each IV separately…
Factorial Designs ... Interaction effect
Looking at the effects of IV's together. ... Ex: They sound sign…
25 terms
Research methods chapter 8
goals of analytic epidemiology
association
risk difference
relative risk
Establish whether a significant association exists between a…
Examines whether the risk associated with a particular diseas…
proportion of the unexposed group with the disease compared t…
proportion of the subjects with the disease who have been exp…
goals of analytic epidemiology
Establish whether a significant association exists between a…
association
Examines whether the risk associated with a particular diseas…
17 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Non-Experimental research
Correlational research
Non-Experimental research methods incl…
The Hermeneutic approach to understand…
Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulat…
all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relati…
Observational, archival, case study, and survey
attempts to discover reasons for behavior, rather than causes…
Non-Experimental research
Has two main characteristics: no attempt is made to manipulat…
Correlational research
all research is correlational in that it seeks to find relati…
20 terms
Research Methods- Chapter 8
Reporting research methods
Structure of an APA-style paper
Title page
Abstract
APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations
Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussi…
Title of the article, the authors' names, and the author' aff…
Short summary of study, about 150 words ... -Purpose of study... -D…
Reporting research methods
APA-style papers, oral presentations, poster presentations
Structure of an APA-style paper
Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussi…
75 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Selecting observations
Is often not possible to collect infor…
Bias
All members of the population have an…
Sampling is the process of:
Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessa…
When a research chooses a sample that is not typical of a lar…
A basic principle of probability sampling is that a sample wi…
Selecting observations
Sampling is the process of:
Is often not possible to collect infor…
Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessa…
30 terms
chapter 8 research methods
survey research design
survey
open-ended item
partially open-ended item
use of a survey, administered either in written form or orall…
series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to…
question or statement in a survey that allows the respondent…
question or statement in a survey that includes a few restric…
survey research design
use of a survey, administered either in written form or orall…
survey
series of questions called items, used in a questionnaire to…
17 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Survey Method
Errors in Survey Research
Survey Instruments
Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires
purpose is to develop generalizations about the population
poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the pop…
paper-and-pencil questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, tel…
advantages: low cost, avoidance of potential interviewer bias…
Survey Method
purpose is to develop generalizations about the population
Errors in Survey Research
poor measurement, nonresponse, inadequate coverage of the pop…
12 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Bivariate Correlations
Mean
T-Test
Effect Size
An association that involves exactly two variables
Average
A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…
The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables
Bivariate Correlations
An association that involves exactly two variables
Mean
Average
13 terms
Research Methods- Chapter 8
Between
Within
Assignment Bias
Equivalent groups
A separate group of Participants for every level of IV
The same group of participants for ever level of IV
Levels may differ on some extraneous variable that is an indi…
To minimize assignment bias
Between
A separate group of Participants for every level of IV
Within
The same group of participants for ever level of IV
25 terms
Research Methods in Psychology chapter 8
Which of the following is the essentia…
The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908), shows th…
de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011…
To look at the relationship between re…
a
b
c
c
Which of the following is the essentia…
a
The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908), shows th…
b
18 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
One shot case study
One group pretest post test design
Static group comparison
Validity issues
a single group of subjects measure on a dependent variable fo…
a pretest is added for the experimental group but lacks a con…
includes experimental and control groups but no pretest ... ex:…
there is a possibility that the findings may not be "real"
One shot case study
a single group of subjects measure on a dependent variable fo…
One group pretest post test design
a pretest is added for the experimental group but lacks a con…
26 terms
Research methods chapter 8
sampling
central limit theorem
normally distributed
population
a scientific technique that allows a researcher to learn some…
the theoretical basis upon which the science of sampling is b…
a condition describing data that exist in a normal distribution
the entire set of individuals or groups that is relevant to a…
sampling
a scientific technique that allows a researcher to learn some…
central limit theorem
the theoretical basis upon which the science of sampling is b…
22 terms
research methods chapter 8
nonequivalent-control group designs
before-and-after designs
individual matching
aggregate matching
Experimental and comparison... groups that are designated before…
Give a pre-test and a post-test but have no comparison group.…
a way to form a control group by having... members who are simil…
More realistic than matching based on... individual cases. • Con…
nonequivalent-control group designs
Experimental and comparison... groups that are designated before…
before-and-after designs
Give a pre-test and a post-test but have no comparison group.…
12 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Bivariate Correlation
Mean
t Test
Effect Size
An association that involves exactly two variables.
An arithmethic average; a measure of central tendency compute…
A statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance…
The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.
Bivariate Correlation
An association that involves exactly two variables.
Mean
An arithmethic average; a measure of central tendency compute…
24 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
all-possible-orders design
between-subjects design
block randomization
block-randomization design
(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…
an experimental design in which different participants are as…
an experimental procedure in which researchers conduct a roun…
a within-subjects design in which every participant is expose…
all-possible-orders design
(also called complete counterbalancing) a within-subjects des…
between-subjects design
an experimental design in which different participants are as…
30 terms
Chapter 8 Research Methods
prettest-posttest designs are particul…
if you are using a laptop computer to…
Morris is conducting a study to determ…
Lyndal is conducting a study in which…
history
instrumentation
selection and poor generalization
maturation
prettest-posttest designs are particul…
history
if you are using a laptop computer to…
instrumentation
research methods chapter 8
experiment
treatment
experimental group
control group
a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a…
...
group in experiment which receives the stimulus
group that does not receive the stimulus
experiment
a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a…
treatment
...
36 terms
Research Methods - Chapter 8
Internal Validity
Confound
Threats to internal validity
One-group pretest-posttest design
the extent to which we can say that one variable caused a cha…
A variable that varies systematically with the variables of i…
Confounds that must be controlled so that a cause-effect rela…
nonexperimental design in which all participants are tested p…
Internal Validity
the extent to which we can say that one variable caused a cha…
Confound
A variable that varies systematically with the variables of i…
41 terms
Chapter 8: Research Methods
Statistic
Descriptive statistics
Inferential statistics
Data cleaning
A numerical description of some feature of a variable or vari…
Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relations…
Statistics used to estimate how likely it is that a statistic…
The process of checking data for errors after the data have b…
Statistic
A numerical description of some feature of a variable or vari…
Descriptive statistics
Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relations…
Research Methods - Chapter 8
Bivariate correlation
Curvilinear association
Directionality problem
Effect size
An association that involves exactly two variables.
An association between two variables which is not a straight…
A situation in which it is unclear which variable in an assoc…
The magnitude of a relationship between two or more variables.
Bivariate correlation
An association that involves exactly two variables.
Curvilinear association
An association between two variables which is not a straight…
14 terms
Chapter 8 & 9 - Research Methods
1. Help predict... 2. Help *rule out ca…
Bivariate correlations
Multiple correlation
Canonical correlation
What are the 4 reasons to use a correlational design?
This type of correlation is an association that involves exac…
This multivariate technique examines the combined effects of…
This multivariate technique examines the correlation between…
1. Help predict... 2. Help *rule out ca…
What are the 4 reasons to use a correlational design?
Bivariate correlations
This type of correlation is an association that involves exac…
9 terms
chapter 8 research methods
bivariate correlation
Cohen's guidelines for strengths of as…
type of test used when one variable is…
Statistical Validity: 3 quetions?
association involving two variables
small .10, medium .3, large .5 or more
t test
What is the effect size? ... Is it statistically significant? ... C…
bivariate correlation
association involving two variables
Cohen's guidelines for strengths of as…
small .10, medium .3, large .5 or more
13 terms
Research Methods in Psychology, Chapter 8
Multivariate designs
Covariance, temporal precedence, inter…
Longitudinal design
Cross-sectional correlations
Research designs that involve more than two variables
The three causal rules for establishing causation
Research design that measures the same variables in the same…
Correlations that test to see whether two variables, measured…
Multivariate designs
Research designs that involve more than two variables
Covariance, temporal precedence, inter…
The three causal rules for establishing causation
26 terms
Research Methods (Chapter 8)
Behavioral Categories
Observational research
Two methods for devloping behavioral c…
Frequency method
Includes the general and specific classes of behavior to be o…
Correlational design that do no involve manipulating an indep…
1. Make preliminary observations (hypothesis) and become fami…
How many times was the behavior produced? Record the frequenc…
Behavioral Categories
Includes the general and specific classes of behavior to be o…
Observational research
Correlational design that do no involve manipulating an indep…
10 terms
Chapter 8 Research Methods
Bivariate correlations
Mean
Effect Size
Statistical Significance
an association that involves two variables - measure the firs…
arithmetic average
describes strength of an association
conclusion that a researcher reaches regarding how likely it…
Bivariate correlations
an association that involves two variables - measure the firs…
Mean
arithmetic average
23 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8 Vocab
Experimental Control
Confounding Variable
Between-Subjects Design
Random Assignment
The ability to ... 1. manipulate one or more independent variabl…
A factor that covaries with the independent variable in such…
Different participants are assigned to each of the conditions…
A procedure in which each participant has an equal probabilit…
Experimental Control
The ability to ... 1. manipulate one or more independent variabl…
Confounding Variable
A factor that covaries with the independent variable in such…
21 terms
chapter 8 research methods
random assignment
experimental research
experiment
classical experiment
procedure in which each participant or element has an equal c…
type of research most often conducted in the laboratory or ot…
recording of measurements and observations made by defined pr…
researcher controls... selection of treatment/control group base…
random assignment
procedure in which each participant or element has an equal c…
experimental research
type of research most often conducted in the laboratory or ot…
32 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
descriptive statistics
inferential statistics
nominal scale
ordinal scale
describe and summarize information about samples
goes further than descriptive and tell of the relationship
classify, name, and label things with no mathematical qualiti…
when a scale ranks a dimension - order and rank matters ex. r…
descriptive statistics
describe and summarize information about samples
inferential statistics
goes further than descriptive and tell of the relationship
28 terms
Research Methods: Chapter 8
How data is collected
Sampling
Selecting Samples
Probability Sampling
how we collect representative data is fundamental to criminal…
selecting some units of a larger population for further study…
1)want to select samples to represent some larger population…
sampling in which the probability that an element will be inc…
How data is collected
how we collect representative data is fundamental to criminal…
Sampling
selecting some units of a larger population for further study…
9 terms
Chapter 8 Research Methods
pretesting
posttesting
experimental group
control group
The measurement of a dependent variable among subjects
The measurement of a dependent variable among subjects after…
in experimentation, a group of subjects to whom an experiment…
in experimentation, a group of subjects to whom no experiment…
pretesting
The measurement of a dependent variable among subjects
posttesting
The measurement of a dependent variable among subjects after…
9 terms
RESEARCH METHODS CHAPTER 8
factorial design
factorial matrix
main effect
interaction
involves any study with more than one independent variable; d…
a row and a column arrangement that characterizes a factorial…
overall influence of each of the IVs; difference between the…
examine whether the variables combine to form a more complex…
factorial design
involves any study with more than one independent variable; d…
factorial matrix
a row and a column arrangement that characterizes a factorial…
22 terms
Research Methods - Chapter 8
experimental control
between-subject design
random assignment
within-subjects design
the ability to manipulate one or more IV; choose the types of…
design in which there are separate groups of people being com…
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions…
design in which two or more values or levels of the IV are ad…
experimental control
the ability to manipulate one or more IV; choose the types of…
between-subject design
design in which there are separate groups of people being com…
23 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Cluster sampling
convenience sample
data saturation
extreme instance sample
a type of sampling method in which clusters or groups (sebset…
a group of people that is convenient to access
sampling until no new information emerges
consists of sampling units that have characteristics quite di…
Cluster sampling
a type of sampling method in which clusters or groups (sebset…
convenience sample
a group of people that is convenient to access
27 terms
Research Methods Chapter 8
Internal Validity
History
Maturation
Testing
A type of evaluation of your experiment; it asks whether your…
A threat to internal validity; refers to events that occur be…
A threat to internal validity; refers to changes in participa…
A threat to internal validity that occurs because measuring t…
Internal Validity
A type of evaluation of your experiment; it asks whether your…
History
A threat to internal validity; refers to events that occur be…
1 of 10