#### Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

#### Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

What determines whether a field of stu…

What approach must science take when r…

Empirical Approach?

What is the independent variable?

Method, NOT content

Empirical.

Relies on direct observation and experimentation.

The thing that gets manipulated by the researcher. What deter…

What determines whether a field of stu…

Method, NOT content

What approach must science take when r…

Empirical.

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

Under null hypothesis significance tes…

If one could confirm the presence of a…

Final grades in a class with grade inf…

In a symmetrical distribution of exam…

The data would occur relatively infrequently, given the speci…

An alternative explanation for the relevant cause-effect rela…

Negative skew, positive skew... Negative skew results when score…

M = 91, SD = 8.5... The solution requires a z-score conversion.…

Under null hypothesis significance tes…

The data would occur relatively infrequently, given the speci…

If one could confirm the presence of a…

An alternative explanation for the relevant cause-effect rela…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

Inferential Statistics

Sample

Inferences

Random Sampling

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the…

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populat…

Always involve a degree of uncertainty, as we generalise from…

- increases ability to generalise to a population... - reduces c…

Inferential Statistics

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the…

Sample

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populat…

Hindsight Bias

Applied Research

Basic Research

Hypothesis

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many othe…

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical probl…

-Research that explores questions that are of interest to psy…

-A statement that expresses a relationship between two variab…

Hindsight Bias

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many othe…

Applied Research

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical probl…

Cluster Anal

Effect Size

Prob Sampling

Rdm Err

Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhau…

Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…

Each element in target pop has known chance of being selected…

Unpredictable err; includes

**sampling err**(inaccuracy of sam…Cluster Anal

Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhau…

Effect Size

Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we w…

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

Validity

Construct Validity

Internal Validity

External Validity

Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or…

The degree to which selected measure actually measures the va…

The degree to which a study establishes that a factor causes…

The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized…

Validity

Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or…

Construct Validity

The degree to which selected measure actually measures the va…

informed consent

Scatterplot

standard deviation

descriptive statistics

idea that research participants are entitled to know and agre…

a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship b…

a measure of variability that describes an average distance o…

the listing and summarizing of data in a practical way

informed consent

idea that research participants are entitled to know and agre…

Scatterplot

a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship b…

Parametrics

Nonparametrics

Population

Sample

Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…

Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…

Group of people

Subset of the population

Parametrics

Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…

Nonparametrics

Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…

descriptive statistics

frequency distribution

frequency histogram

central tendency

used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set o…

a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a…

a graph showing how many of the cases in a batch of data scor…

a measure of what value the individual scores tend to center on

descriptive statistics

used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set o…

frequency distribution

a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a…

Scientific Method

Empirical Investigation

Theory

Hypothesis

A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothes…

An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…

A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations ... •n…

A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a s…

Scientific Method

A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothes…

Empirical Investigation

An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…

Analysis

Data

Deduction

Descriptive research

Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.

Relatively uninterpreted information received through human s…

Logical argument using rules to derive a conclusion from prem…

Research that explores the measurement of phenomena without t…

Analysis

Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.

Data

Relatively uninterpreted information received through human s…

hypothesis

theory

validity

reliability

a specific, testable proposition about something someone want…

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, a…

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is su…

Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same i…

hypothesis

a specific, testable proposition about something someone want…

theory

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, a…

Confirmation Bias

Frequency Distributions

Experimental Group

Normal Curve/distribution

the tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confi…

a summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various s…

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment,…

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribut…

Confirmation Bias

the tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confi…

Frequency Distributions

a summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various s…

Step 1. ... Purpose Statement

Three types of variables:

Independent

Dependent

The process of ______________reporting research begins with b…

Independent... Dependent.... Control.

Those variables that are meant to be later selected by the re…

Those variables that are affected or changed as a result of t…

Step 1. ... Purpose Statement

The process of ______________reporting research begins with b…

Three types of variables:

Independent... Dependent.... Control.

mean

mode

median

nominal

the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers

the value that appears the most

the middle value

unordered categories (skin colors: black, white, yellow)... - mode

mean

the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers

mode

the value that appears the most

protocol analysis

behavioral sampling

Random sampling

Stratified random sampling

a method of operationalizing internal processes in which the…

a method of operationalizing behavior in which frequency and…

* every member of a population is equally likely to be select…

population is divided into strata for which individuals are r…

protocol analysis

a method of operationalizing internal processes in which the…

behavioral sampling

a method of operationalizing behavior in which frequency and…

Case study

Control group

Correlation coefficient

Correlational research

An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatm…

A statistical measure (from -1 to +1) of the extent to which…

A research strategy that identifies the relationships between…

Case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…

Control group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatm…

Hindsight Bias

Overconfidence

The Barnum Effect

Applied Research

The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…

We tend to think we know more than we do because it makes us…

The tendency for people to accept very general or vague chara…

Has clear, practical applications you can use... Ex: research of…

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…

Overconfidence

We tend to think we know more than we do because it makes us…

What is data analysis?

What is qualitative data?

What is quantitative data?

What are the strengths of qualitative…

Turning of data into information

Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions

Data that is expressed numerically, which usually scores or m…

-It offers richness and detail, as participants have more lic…

What is data analysis?

Turning of data into information

What is qualitative data?

Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions

General prediction upon which a hypoth…

A clear but tentative explanation for…

Parsimonious (as simple as possible).

The Hypothetico-Deductive Method.

Define a Theory.

Define a Hypothesis.

Hypotheses must be: Falsifiable, Testable, Precisely stated,…

What does this illustrate?

General prediction upon which a hypoth…

Define a Theory.

A clear but tentative explanation for…

Define a Hypothesis.

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Mean

Median

do what they say they do- summarize quantitative information…

involves analysis of data to determine whether or not the res…

Average of a set of numbers in a distribution

number in the middle of the distribution... more useful in desc…

Descriptive statistics

do what they say they do- summarize quantitative information…

Inferential statistics

involves analysis of data to determine whether or not the res…

What is the purpose of descriptive sta…

Statistics that tell us whether an eff…

Significance level, or p is...

What type of statistics indicate the s…

To describe and summarise the scores on a variable or the dif…

Inferential Statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Correlation, regression)

the probabiliy that an observed effect arose by chance

Descriptive (size and direction) and also our judgement (impo…

What is the purpose of descriptive sta…

To describe and summarise the scores on a variable or the dif…

Statistics that tell us whether an eff…

Inferential Statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Correlation, regression)

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examinin…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

mean

median

mode

normal distribution

The "average", where you add up all the numbers and then divi…

The "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median…

The value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, t…

About 68% of values drawn from a normal distribution are with…

mean

The "average", where you add up all the numbers and then divi…

median

The "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median…

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examinin…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

Theory

Hypothesis

Verifiability

Objectivity

a scientific theory is an idea, or a conceptual model, that i…

a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,…

can be tested by others

based on observable phenomena and is uninfluenced by emotions…

Theory

a scientific theory is an idea, or a conceptual model, that i…

Hypothesis

a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,…

sample

naturalistic observation

case study

survery

the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…

a research method in which the psychologist observes the subj…

an in-depth research method that involves an intensive invest…

a research method in which information is obtained by asking…

sample

the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…

naturalistic observation

a research method in which the psychologist observes the subj…

Scientific Method

Hypothesis

Attitudes of Students

Criteria for Scientific Evidence

An approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating…

Prediction, statement, a statement about an expected relation…

Objective... Skeptical... Uncertain... Cautious ... Ethical

Empirical... Objective... Systematic... Controlled... Confirmation of fin…

Scientific Method

An approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating…

Hypothesis

Prediction, statement, a statement about an expected relation…

What are the percentages for the Norma…

Statistic vs. Parameter

What does a probability of 5% mean?

Valid

A value taken from a population = parameter... A value taken fro…

There is a 5% probability that the sample statistic was obtai…

a valid measure is one that measures that it is intended to m…

What are the percentages for the Norma…

Statistic vs. Parameter

A value taken from a population = parameter... A value taken fro…

Tenacity

Authority

Pure reason

Priori method

Belief-based explanations.

Believing something because someone in authority says it's tr…

Believing something because it logically must be that way.

Gaining conclusions from deduction rather than empirical evid…

Tenacity

Belief-based explanations.

Authority

Believing something because someone in authority says it's tr…

research process

initial observation

generate theory

generate hypothesis

1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothe…

describe variables --> anything that changes or varies

-theory: possible explanations of a behavior... -explain theory…

hypothesis: tentative statement, predicting what might happen…

research process

1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothe…

initial observation

describe variables --> anything that changes or varies

Descriptive Methods

Observational techniques

Naturalistic observation

Participant observation

Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of…

Directly observing the behavior of interest

A descriptive research method in which the behavior of intere…

A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes p…

Descriptive Methods

Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of…

Observational techniques

Directly observing the behavior of interest

What is pseudoscience?

Why is it good to measure things many…

What is the null hypothesis?

What are the two types of statistics t…

A bad combination of a theory and evidence. Some hypotheses c…

After multiple measurements, we can take the average and this…

The null hypothesis states that there are no real differences…

Tests of difference and tests of correlation: how are two set…

What is pseudoscience?

A bad combination of a theory and evidence. Some hypotheses c…

Why is it good to measure things many…

After multiple measurements, we can take the average and this…

Statistics

2 types of statistics

Descriptive

Inferential

The use of math to describe, summarize and interpret numerica…

Descriptive and inferential

Used to describe and summarize research data

Used to interpret data and infer conclusions from research data

Statistics

The use of math to describe, summarize and interpret numerica…

2 types of statistics

Descriptive and inferential

Theory

Hypothesis

Replication

Independent Variable

presents a concept or idea that it testable. ex.) behavioral…

a specific, testable prediction of what you expect to happen…

the repetition of a research study, usually with different su…

the characteristic of a variable in an experiment that its be…

Theory

presents a concept or idea that it testable. ex.) behavioral…

Hypothesis

a specific, testable prediction of what you expect to happen…

What is the central tendency of a data…

What are three measures of central ten…

How do we know when we have normal dis…

What is another name for a normal dist…

it is where most of the data are clustered

Mean, Median, Mode

The mean, median and mode are not significantly different

Bell curve

What is the central tendency of a data…

it is where most of the data are clustered

What are three measures of central ten…

Mean, Median, Mode

Hypothesis

Operationalize

Replication

Hindsight Bias

A testable prediction often implied by a theory

Defining research variables to make the experiment replicable

Repeating the essence of a study, usually with different part…

The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…

Hypothesis

A testable prediction often implied by a theory

Operationalize

Defining research variables to make the experiment replicable

sample

naturalistic observation

case study

survey

the small group of participants, out of the total number avai…

research method in which the psychologist observes the subjec…

research method that involves an intensive investigation of o…

research method in which information is obtained by asking ma…

sample

the small group of participants, out of the total number avai…

naturalistic observation

research method in which the psychologist observes the subjec…

Overconfidence

Hindsight Bias

Naturalistic Observation

Observer Effect

The tendancy to be more confident than correct

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

Research method that involves observing participants in their…

The tendency of people/animals to behave abnormally when they…

Overconfidence

The tendancy to be more confident than correct

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

Dependent Variable

Independent Variable

Case Study

Experiment

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response…

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who…

An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or…

Dependent Variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response…

Independent Variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who…

Case Study

Correlation

Naturalistic Observation

Survey

One person studied for long period of time to learn something…

the extent to which 2 factors vary together... *ranges from -1 t…

*observe and record behavior in naturally occurring situation…

PRO: large sample and easy to make... CON: not always honest/sel…

Case Study

One person studied for long period of time to learn something…

Correlation

the extent to which 2 factors vary together... *ranges from -1 t…

structuralism

functionalism

gestalt psychology

phychoanalysis

- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - ev…

- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…

- focus on perception and sensation, particularly of patterns…

-theory and therapy based on freud's work: unconcious mind, p…

structuralism

- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - ev…

functionalism

- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…

Independent t-test

Paired t-test

Bivariate Correlation

Chi-Squared

IV: dichotomous... DV: continuous

IV: none... DV: two paired continuous variables

IV and DV: continuous

IV and DV: categorial

Independent t-test

IV: dichotomous... DV: continuous

Paired t-test

IV: none... DV: two paired continuous variables

hindsight bias

critical thinking

Operational definition

replication

the tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in…

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with diffe…

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one w…

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

Observations

Types of Observation

Theory

Types of Theory

a remark, statement, or comment based on something one has se…

Uncontrolled observation: The situation is set up by nature…

human attempt to describe and explain observation

Descriptive : describes what happens... Explanatory : describes…

Observations

a remark, statement, or comment based on something one has se…

Types of Observation

Uncontrolled observation: The situation is set up by nature…