# Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

sample

naturalistic observation

case study

survey

a subset of the population

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

intensive study of a single person, group, incident, or commun…

an information-gathering tool for quantitative data analysis

sample

a subset of the population

naturalistic observation

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

mean

mode

median

nominal

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

the value that appears the most

the middle value

unordered categories (skin colors: black, white, yellow)... - mode

mean

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

mode

the value that appears the most

Hindsight bias

hypothesis

replication

case study

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Repeating the essence of the research, usually with different…

A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is st…

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

hypothesis

replication

case study

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Repeating the essence of the research, usually with different…

A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is st…

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hypothesis

theory

validity

reliability

a specific, testable proposition about something someone wants…

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, an…

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is sup…

Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same in…

hypothesis

a specific, testable proposition about something someone wants…

theory

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, an…

Define descriptive statistics:

What are the two different scales withi…

What type of data is in the categorical…

What type of data is in the numerical s…

**Describes**the data

1. Categorical scale... 2. Numerical scale

1. Nominal (e.g. gender)... 2. Report

**frequency**or**percent**1. Interval, ratio and ordinal... 2. Report

**mean**and *standard…Define descriptive statistics:

**Describes**the data

What are the two different scales withi…

1. Categorical scale... 2. Numerical scale

sample

naturalistic observation

case study

survey

a subset of the population

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

intensive study of a single person, group, incident, or commun…

an information-gathering tool for quantitative data analysis

sample

a subset of the population

naturalistic observation

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

Hindsight Bias

Overconfidence

Theory

Hypothesis

The tendency to believe that, after learning about an outcome,…

The tendency to overestimate one's own abilities, their explan…

An idea that explains events, organizes facts, and makes predi…

A prediction that when tested will either confirm or reject yo…

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe that, after learning about an outcome,…

Overconfidence

The tendency to overestimate one's own abilities, their explan…

Experiment

Naturalistic Observation

Case Study

Correlational Study

Random selection, double blind, and random assignment... -Only ty…

Watching people, observations made without interfering with th…

studies one person/group ... - can't apply variables!! ... Pros: in…

relationship between two variables that already exist ... Pros: c…

Experiment

Random selection, double blind, and random assignment... -Only ty…

Naturalistic Observation

Watching people, observations made without interfering with th…

structuralism

functionalism

gestalt psychology

phychoanalysis

- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - eve…

- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…

- focus on perception and sensation, particularly of patterns…

-theory and therapy based on freud's work: unconcious mind, ps…

structuralism

- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - eve…

functionalism

- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…

Abscissa

Absolute Frequency

Absolute Value (of a Number)

Absolute Zero Point

a) The horizontal axis (or x axis) on a graph. (b) A particula…

The actual number of times a particular value occurs in a "dis…

The value of a number regardless of its sign (positive or nega…

A value on a scale indicating that none of the variable being…

Abscissa

a) The horizontal axis (or x axis) on a graph. (b) A particula…

Absolute Frequency

The actual number of times a particular value occurs in a "dis…

Define the population:

Define the sample:

What do you need in order to generalize…

What does it mean to answer your resear…

The entire group of people you're trying to study

The selection from the population that you actually study

The sample must

**reflect**the populationMeans we can answer the question based on

**just**the**sample**Define the population:

The entire group of people you're trying to study

Define the sample:

The selection from the population that you actually study

Hindsight Bias

Applied Research

Basic Research

Hypothesis

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many other…

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical proble…

-Research that explores questions that are of interest to psyc…

-A statement that expresses a relationship between two variabl…

Hindsight Bias

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many other…

Applied Research

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical proble…

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test,…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examining…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

frequency distribution

class interval frequency distribution

qualitative variable

bar graph

a table in which all of the scores are listed along with the f…

a table in which the scores are grouped into intervals and lis…

a categorical variable for which each value represents a discr…

a graphical representation of a frequency distribution in whic…

frequency distribution

a table in which all of the scores are listed along with the f…

class interval frequency distribution

a table in which the scores are grouped into intervals and lis…

Inferential Statistics

Sample

Inferences

Random Sampling

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the w…

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populati…

Always involve a degree of uncertainty, as we generalise from…

- increases ability to generalise to a population... - reduces ch…

Inferential Statistics

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the w…

Sample

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populati…

mean

mode

median

nominal

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

the value that appears the most

the middle value

unordered categories (skin colors: black, white, yellow)... - mode

mean

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

mode

the value that appears the most

sample

naturalistic observation

case study

survey

a subset of the population

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

intensive study of a single person, group, incident, or commun…

an information-gathering tool for quantitative data analysis

sample

a subset of the population

naturalistic observation

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

What is data analysis?

What is qualitative data?

What is quantitative data?

What are the strengths of qualitative d…

Turning of data into information

Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions

Data that is expressed numerically, which usually scores or me…

-It offers richness and detail, as participants have more lice…

What is data analysis?

Turning of data into information

What is qualitative data?

Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions

Statistic

operational definition

independent variable

extraneous variable

A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sa…

Precise description of how exact procedures used to measure so…

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whos…

In an experiment, a variable other than the IV that might caus…

Statistic

A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sa…

operational definition

Precise description of how exact procedures used to measure so…

measure of central tendency: purpose

3 measures of central tendency

mean

median

provide 1 # that describes a large set of data

mean... median... mode

average of a set of numbers... ∑ = sum... x = individual score... N = t…

middle score in a data set that divides the data set in half s…

measure of central tendency: purpose

provide 1 # that describes a large set of data

3 measures of central tendency

mean... median... mode

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

Descriptive Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Mode

Mean

Sum up data to make it more understandable

A measurement of data that indicates where the middle of the i…

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding t…

Descriptive Statistics

Sum up data to make it more understandable

Measures of Central Tendency

A measurement of data that indicates where the middle of the i…