Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

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Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

72 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
What determines whether a field of stu…
What approach must science take when r…
Empirical Approach?
What is the independent variable?
Method, NOT content
Empirical.
Relies on direct observation and experimentation.
The thing that gets manipulated by the researcher. What deter…
What determines whether a field of stu…
Method, NOT content
What approach must science take when r…
Empirical.
Research Methods and Statistics Terms
Pearson Correlation
Point Biserial
Spearman's Rho
Phi Coefficient
Interval - t test
Interval & Nominal(dichotomous) - t test
Ordinal - Chi Square test
Nominal - Chi Square test
Pearson Correlation
Interval - t test
Point Biserial
Interval & Nominal(dichotomous) - t test
43 terms
Research Methods/Research Statistics
Hindsight bias
Critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
47 terms
EPPP-Research Methods and Statistics
Under null hypothesis significance tes…
If one could confirm the presence of a…
Final grades in a class with grade inf…
In a symmetrical distribution of exam…
The data would occur relatively infrequently, given the speci…
An alternative explanation for the relevant cause-effect rela…
Negative skew, positive skew... Negative skew results when score…
M = 91, SD = 8.5... The solution requires a z-score conversion.…
Under null hypothesis significance tes…
The data would occur relatively infrequently, given the speci…
If one could confirm the presence of a…
An alternative explanation for the relevant cause-effect rela…
43 terms
Research Methods/Research Statistics
Hindsight bias
Critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
31 terms
Research Methods: Inferential Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Sample
Inferences
Random Sampling
Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the…
A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populat…
Always involve a degree of uncertainty, as we generalise from…
- increases ability to generalise to a population... - reduces c…
Inferential Statistics
Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the…
Sample
A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populat…
32 terms
APSY Research Methods and Statistics
Hindsight Bias
Applied Research
Basic Research
Hypothesis
-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many othe…
-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical probl…
-Research that explores questions that are of interest to psy…
-A statement that expresses a relationship between two variab…
Hindsight Bias
-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many othe…
Applied Research
-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical probl…
97 terms
7 - Research Methods and Statistics
Cluster Anal
Effect Size
Prob Sampling
Rdm Err
Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhau…
Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…
Each element in target pop has known chance of being selected…
Unpredictable err; includes sampling err (inaccuracy of sam…
Cluster Anal
Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhau…
Effect Size
Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…
Research Methods & Statistics
hindsight bias
critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we w…
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we w…
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
59 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Final
Validity
Construct Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or…
The degree to which selected measure actually measures the va…
The degree to which a study establishes that a factor causes…
The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized…
Validity
Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or…
Construct Validity
The degree to which selected measure actually measures the va…
32 terms
Research methods and statistics
informed consent
Scatterplot
standard deviation
descriptive statistics
idea that research participants are entitled to know and agre…
a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship b…
a measure of variability that describes an average distance o…
the listing and summarizing of data in a practical way
informed consent
idea that research participants are entitled to know and agre…
Scatterplot
a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship b…
30 terms
Research Methods: Descriptive Statistics
Parametrics
Nonparametrics
Population
Sample
Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…
Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…
Group of people
Subset of the population
Parametrics
Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…
Nonparametrics
Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…
16 terms
Research Methods Statistics
Axis that shows frequency
The incorrect rejection of the null hy…
The measure of a relationship between…
A pictorial representation of a relati…
Y axis
Type 1 Error
Correlation
Scatterplot
Axis that shows frequency
Y axis
The incorrect rejection of the null hy…
Type 1 Error
24 terms
Research Methods Statistics Appendicies
descriptive statistics
frequency distribution
frequency histogram
central tendency
used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set o…
a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a…
a graph showing how many of the cases in a batch of data scor…
a measure of what value the individual scores tend to center on
descriptive statistics
used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set o…
frequency distribution
a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a…
33 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Scientific Method
Empirical Investigation
Theory
Hypothesis
A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothes…
An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…
A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations ... •n…
A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a s…
Scientific Method
A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothes…
Empirical Investigation
An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…
75 terms
Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology
Analysis
Data
Deduction
Descriptive research
Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.
Relatively uninterpreted information received through human s…
Logical argument using rules to derive a conclusion from prem…
Research that explores the measurement of phenomena without t…
Analysis
Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.
Data
Relatively uninterpreted information received through human s…
54 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Vocabulary
hypothesis
theory
validity
reliability
a specific, testable proposition about something someone want…
set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, a…
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is su…
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same i…
hypothesis
a specific, testable proposition about something someone want…
theory
set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, a…
43 terms
Research Methods & Statistics
Confirmation Bias
Frequency Distributions
Experimental Group
Normal Curve/distribution
the tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confi…
a summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various s…
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment,…
a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribut…
Confirmation Bias
the tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confi…
Frequency Distributions
a summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various s…
12 terms
TEXAS Research Methods & Statistics
Step 1. ... Purpose Statement
Three types of variables:
Independent
Dependent
The process of ______________reporting research begins with b…
Independent... Dependent.... Control.
Those variables that are meant to be later selected by the re…
Those variables that are affected or changed as a result of t…
Step 1. ... Purpose Statement
The process of ______________reporting research begins with b…
Three types of variables:
Independent... Dependent.... Control.
Research Methods and Statistics
mean
mode
median
nominal
the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers
the value that appears the most
the middle value
unordered categories (skin colors: black, white, yellow)... - mode
mean
the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers
mode
the value that appears the most
Research Methods and Statistics
protocol analysis
behavioral sampling
Random sampling
Stratified random sampling
a method of operationalizing internal processes in which the…
a method of operationalizing behavior in which frequency and…
* every member of a population is equally likely to be select…
population is divided into strata for which individuals are r…
protocol analysis
a method of operationalizing internal processes in which the…
behavioral sampling
a method of operationalizing behavior in which frequency and…
43 terms
Research Methods/ Statistics
Case study
Control group
Correlation coefficient
Correlational research
An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatm…
A statistical measure (from -1 to +1) of the extent to which…
A research strategy that identifies the relationships between…
Case study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…
Control group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatm…
54 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Hindsight Bias
Overconfidence
The Barnum Effect
Applied Research
The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…
We tend to think we know more than we do because it makes us…
The tendency for people to accept very general or vague chara…
Has clear, practical applications you can use... Ex: research of…
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…
Overconfidence
We tend to think we know more than we do because it makes us…
46 terms
Research Methods - Statistics
What is data analysis?
What is qualitative data?
What is quantitative data?
What are the strengths of qualitative…
Turning of data into information
Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions
Data that is expressed numerically, which usually scores or m…
-It offers richness and detail, as participants have more lic…
What is data analysis?
Turning of data into information
What is qualitative data?
Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions
22 terms
Statistics and Research Methods
General prediction upon which a hypoth…
A clear but tentative explanation for…
Parsimonious (as simple as possible).
The Hypothetico-Deductive Method.
Define a Theory.
Define a Hypothesis.
Hypotheses must be: Falsifiable, Testable, Precisely stated,…
What does this illustrate?
General prediction upon which a hypoth…
Define a Theory.
A clear but tentative explanation for…
Define a Hypothesis.
32 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Descriptive statistics
Inferential statistics
Mean
Median
do what they say they do- summarize quantitative information…
involves analysis of data to determine whether or not the res…
Average of a set of numbers in a distribution
number in the middle of the distribution... more useful in desc…
Descriptive statistics
do what they say they do- summarize quantitative information…
Inferential statistics
involves analysis of data to determine whether or not the res…
Statistics, Research Methods
What is the purpose of descriptive sta…
Statistics that tell us whether an eff…
Significance level, or p is...
What type of statistics indicate the s…
To describe and summarise the scores on a variable or the dif…
Inferential Statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Correlation, regression)
the probabiliy that an observed effect arose by chance
Descriptive (size and direction) and also our judgement (impo…
What is the purpose of descriptive sta…
To describe and summarise the scores on a variable or the dif…
Statistics that tell us whether an eff…
Inferential Statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Correlation, regression)
135 terms
EPPP - Research Methods and Statistics
Cluster Sampling
This is an extension of Classical Test…
Criterion Contamination
Null hypothesis posits this
Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…
Generalizability Theory
Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test…
No effect in the population. For example, in a study examinin…
Cluster Sampling
Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…
This is an extension of Classical Test…
Generalizability Theory
Research Methods: Statistics
mean
median
mode
normal distribution
The "average", where you add up all the numbers and then divi…
The "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median…
The value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, t…
About 68% of values drawn from a normal distribution are with…
mean
The "average", where you add up all the numbers and then divi…
median
The "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median…
135 terms
EPPP - Research Methods and Statistics
Cluster Sampling
This is an extension of Classical Test…
Criterion Contamination
Null hypothesis posits this
Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…
Generalizability Theory
Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test…
No effect in the population. For example, in a study examinin…
Cluster Sampling
Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…
This is an extension of Classical Test…
Generalizability Theory
2 - Research Methods and Statistics
Theory
Hypothesis
Verifiability
Objectivity
a scientific theory is an idea, or a conceptual model, that i…
a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,…
can be tested by others
based on observable phenomena and is uninfluenced by emotions…
Theory
a scientific theory is an idea, or a conceptual model, that i…
Hypothesis
a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,…
24 terms
Psychological Research Methods and Statistics
sample
naturalistic observation
case study
survery
the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…
a research method in which the psychologist observes the subj…
an in-depth research method that involves an intensive invest…
a research method in which information is obtained by asking…
sample
the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…
naturalistic observation
a research method in which the psychologist observes the subj…
43 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Final
Scientific Method
Hypothesis
Attitudes of Students
Criteria for Scientific Evidence
An approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating…
Prediction, statement, a statement about an expected relation…
Objective... Skeptical... Uncertain... Cautious ... Ethical
Empirical... Objective... Systematic... Controlled... Confirmation of fin…
Scientific Method
An approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating…
Hypothesis
Prediction, statement, a statement about an expected relation…
8 terms
MCAT Statistics/Research Methods
What are the percentages for the Norma…
Statistic vs. Parameter
What does a probability of 5% mean?
Valid
A value taken from a population = parameter... A value taken fro…
There is a 5% probability that the sample statistic was obtai…
a valid measure is one that measures that it is intended to m…
What are the percentages for the Norma…
Statistic vs. Parameter
A value taken from a population = parameter... A value taken fro…
82 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Tenacity
Authority
Pure reason
Priori method
Belief-based explanations.
Believing something because someone in authority says it's tr…
Believing something because it logically must be that way.
Gaining conclusions from deduction rather than empirical evid…
Tenacity
Belief-based explanations.
Authority
Believing something because someone in authority says it's tr…
research methods/ statistics review
research process
initial observation
generate theory
generate hypothesis
1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothe…
describe variables --> anything that changes or varies
-theory: possible explanations of a behavior... -explain theory…
hypothesis: tentative statement, predicting what might happen…
research process
1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothe…
initial observation
describe variables --> anything that changes or varies
Research Methods & Statistics
Descriptive Methods
Observational techniques
Naturalistic observation
Participant observation
Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of…
Directly observing the behavior of interest
A descriptive research method in which the behavior of intere…
A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes p…
Descriptive Methods
Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of…
Observational techniques
Directly observing the behavior of interest
Research Methods - Statistics
What is pseudoscience?
Why is it good to measure things many…
What is the null hypothesis?
What are the two types of statistics t…
A bad combination of a theory and evidence. Some hypotheses c…
After multiple measurements, we can take the average and this…
The null hypothesis states that there are no real differences…
Tests of difference and tests of correlation: how are two set…
What is pseudoscience?
A bad combination of a theory and evidence. Some hypotheses c…
Why is it good to measure things many…
After multiple measurements, we can take the average and this…
36 terms
Research methods 3 - statistics
Statistics
2 types of statistics
Descriptive
Inferential
The use of math to describe, summarize and interpret numerica…
Descriptive and inferential
Used to describe and summarize research data
Used to interpret data and infer conclusions from research data
Statistics
The use of math to describe, summarize and interpret numerica…
2 types of statistics
Descriptive and inferential
Research Methods and Statistics
Theory
Hypothesis
Replication
Independent Variable
presents a concept or idea that it testable. ex.) behavioral…
a specific, testable prediction of what you expect to happen…
the repetition of a research study, usually with different su…
the characteristic of a variable in an experiment that its be…
Theory
presents a concept or idea that it testable. ex.) behavioral…
Hypothesis
a specific, testable prediction of what you expect to happen…
Introduction to Research Methods and Statistics
What is the central tendency of a data…
What are three measures of central ten…
How do we know when we have normal dis…
What is another name for a normal dist…
it is where most of the data are clustered
Mean, Median, Mode
The mean, median and mode are not significantly different
Bell curve
What is the central tendency of a data…
it is where most of the data are clustered
What are three measures of central ten…
Mean, Median, Mode
32 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Hypothesis
Operationalize
Replication
Hindsight Bias
A testable prediction often implied by a theory
Defining research variables to make the experiment replicable
Repeating the essence of a study, usually with different part…
The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…
Hypothesis
A testable prediction often implied by a theory
Operationalize
Defining research variables to make the experiment replicable
24 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
sample
naturalistic observation
case study
survey
the small group of participants, out of the total number avai…
research method in which the psychologist observes the subjec…
research method that involves an intensive investigation of o…
research method in which information is obtained by asking ma…
sample
the small group of participants, out of the total number avai…
naturalistic observation
research method in which the psychologist observes the subjec…
49 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Vocabulary
Overconfidence
Hindsight Bias
Naturalistic Observation
Observer Effect
The tendancy to be more confident than correct
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
Research method that involves observing participants in their…
The tendency of people/animals to behave abnormally when they…
Overconfidence
The tendancy to be more confident than correct
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
28 terms
Research Methods/ Statistics
Dependent Variable
Independent Variable
Case Study
Experiment
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response…
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who…
An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or…
Dependent Variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response…
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who…
15 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Case Study
Correlation
Naturalistic Observation
Survey
One person studied for long period of time to learn something…
the extent to which 2 factors vary together... *ranges from -1 t…
*observe and record behavior in naturally occurring situation…
PRO: large sample and easy to make... CON: not always honest/sel…
Case Study
One person studied for long period of time to learn something…
Correlation
the extent to which 2 factors vary together... *ranges from -1 t…
41 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
structuralism
functionalism
gestalt psychology
phychoanalysis
- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - ev…
- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…
- focus on perception and sensation, particularly of patterns…
-theory and therapy based on freud's work: unconcious mind, p…
structuralism
- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - ev…
functionalism
- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…
Statistics for Research Methods
Independent t-test
Paired t-test
Bivariate Correlation
Chi-Squared
IV: dichotomous... DV: continuous
IV: none... DV: two paired continuous variables
IV and DV: continuous
IV and DV: categorial
Independent t-test
IV: dichotomous... DV: continuous
Paired t-test
IV: none... DV: two paired continuous variables
Research Methods and Statistics
hindsight bias
critical thinking
Operational definition
replication
the tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one w…
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in…
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with diffe…
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one w…
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
55 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Observations
Types of Observation
Theory
Types of Theory
a remark, statement, or comment based on something one has se…
Uncontrolled observation: The situation is set up by nature…
human attempt to describe and explain observation
Descriptive : describes what happens... Explanatory : describes…
Observations
a remark, statement, or comment based on something one has se…
Types of Observation
Uncontrolled observation: The situation is set up by nature…
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