#### Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

#### Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

What determines whether a field of stud…

What approach must science take when re…

Empirical Approach?

What is the independent variable?

Method, NOT content

Empirical.

Relies on direct observation and experimentation.

The thing that gets manipulated by the researcher. What determ…

What determines whether a field of stud…

Method, NOT content

What approach must science take when re…

Empirical.

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

structuralism

functionalism

gestalt psychology

phychoanalysis

- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - eve…

- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…

- focus on perception and sensation, particularly of patterns…

-theory and therapy based on freud's work: unconcious mind, ps…

structuralism

- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - eve…

functionalism

- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…

Hindsight Bias

Applied Research

Basic Research

Hypothesis

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many other…

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical proble…

-Research that explores questions that are of interest to psyc…

-A statement that expresses a relationship between two variabl…

Hindsight Bias

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many other…

Applied Research

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical proble…

mean

mode

median

nominal

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

the value that appears the most

the middle value

unordered categories (skin colors: black, white, yellow)... - mode

mean

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

mode

the value that appears the most

hypothesis

theory

validity

reliability

a specific, testable proposition about something someone wants…

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, an…

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is sup…

Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same in…

hypothesis

a specific, testable proposition about something someone wants…

theory

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, an…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

Cluster Anal

Effect Size

Prob Sampling

Rdm Err

Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhaus…

Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…

Each element in target pop has known chance of being selected…

Unpredictable err; includes

**sampling err**(inaccuracy of samp…Cluster Anal

Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhaus…

Effect Size

Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…

Inferential Statistics

Sample

Inferences

Random Sampling

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the w…

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populati…

Always involve a degree of uncertainty, as we generalise from…

- increases ability to generalise to a population... - reduces ch…

Inferential Statistics

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the w…

Sample

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populati…

Descriptive Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Mode

Mean

Sum up data to make it more understandable

A measurement of data that indicates where the middle of the i…

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding t…

Descriptive Statistics

Sum up data to make it more understandable

Measures of Central Tendency

A measurement of data that indicates where the middle of the i…

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test,…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examining…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test,…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examining…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we wo…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we wo…

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

Validity

Construct Validity

Internal Validity

External Validity

Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or j…

The degree to which selected measure actually measures the var…

The degree to which a study establishes that a factor causes a…

The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized…

Validity

Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or j…

Construct Validity

The degree to which selected measure actually measures the var…

informed consent

Scatterplot

standard deviation

descriptive statistics

idea that research participants are entitled to know and agree…

a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship be…

a measure of variability that describes an average distance of…

the listing and summarizing of data in a practical way

informed consent

idea that research participants are entitled to know and agree…

Scatterplot

a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship be…

research process

initial observation

generate theory

generate hypothesis

1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothes…

describe variables --> anything that changes or varies

-theory: possible explanations of a behavior... -explain theory t…

hypothesis: tentative statement, predicting what might happen…

research process

1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothes…

initial observation

describe variables --> anything that changes or varies

Parametrics

Nonparametrics

Population

Sample

Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…

Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…

Group of people

Subset of the population

Parametrics

Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…

Nonparametrics

Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…

Scientific Method

Empirical Investigation

Theory

Hypothesis

A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesi…

An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…

A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations ... •no…

A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a st…

Scientific Method

A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesi…

Empirical Investigation

An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…

Analysis

Data

Deduction

Descriptive research

Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.

Relatively uninterpreted information received through human se…

Logical argument using rules to derive a conclusion from premi…

Research that explores the measurement of phenomena without te…

Analysis

Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.

Data

Relatively uninterpreted information received through human se…

descriptive statistics

frequency distribution

frequency histogram

central tendency

used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set of…

a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a p…

a graph showing how many of the cases in a batch of data score…

a measure of what value the individual scores tend to center on

descriptive statistics

used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set of…

frequency distribution

a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a p…

Hindsight bias

Overconfidence bias

Theory

Hypothesis

I knew it all along

thinking we know more than we do

explanation that involves principles and organizes and predict…

allows to test and reject our theory

Hindsight bias

I knew it all along

Overconfidence bias

thinking we know more than we do

scientific method

Empirical data

operational definition

Tuskegee syphilis study

step-by-step process of systematically addressing a research q…

observable or measurable behaviors

explains variables in enough detail to allow replication of th…

1932 black men believed they were receiving treatment for dise…

scientific method

step-by-step process of systematically addressing a research q…

Empirical data

observable or measurable behaviors