# Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

Hindsight Bias

Applied Research

Basic Research

Hypothesis

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many other…

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical proble…

-Research that explores questions that are of interest to psyc…

-A statement that expresses a relationship between two variabl…

Hindsight Bias

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many other…

Applied Research

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical proble…

structuralism

functionalism

gestalt psychology

phychoanalysis

- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - eve…

- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…

- focus on perception and sensation, particularly of patterns…

-theory and therapy based on freud's work: unconcious mind, ps…

structuralism

- focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind... - eve…

functionalism

- how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play... -…

mean

mode

median

nominal

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

the value that appears the most

the middle value

unordered categories (skin colors: black, white, yellow)... - mode

mean

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

mode

the value that appears the most

hypothesis

theory

validity

reliability

a specific, testable proposition about something someone wants…

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, an…

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is sup…

Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same in…

hypothesis

a specific, testable proposition about something someone wants…

theory

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, an…

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test,…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examining…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

Descriptive Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Mode

Mean

Sum up data to make it more understandable

A measurement of data that indicates where the middle of the i…

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding t…

Descriptive Statistics

Sum up data to make it more understandable

Measures of Central Tendency

A measurement of data that indicates where the middle of the i…

Cluster Anal

Effect Size

Prob Sampling

Rdm Err

Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhaus…

Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…

Each element in target pop has known chance of being selected…

Unpredictable err; includes

**sampling err**(inaccuracy of samp…Cluster Anal

Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhaus…

Effect Size

Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…

Inferential Statistics

Sample

Inferences

Random Sampling

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the w…

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populati…

Always involve a degree of uncertainty, as we generalise from…

- increases ability to generalise to a population... - reduces ch…

Inferential Statistics

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the w…

Sample

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populati…

What is data analysis?

What is qualitative data?

What is quantitative data?

What are the strengths of qualitative d…

Turning of data into information

Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions

Data that is expressed numerically, which usually scores or me…

-It offers richness and detail, as participants have more lice…

What is data analysis?

Turning of data into information

What is qualitative data?

Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test,…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examining…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participants…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we wo…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we wo…

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

Scientific Method

Empirical Investigation

Theory

Hypothesis

A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesi…

An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…

A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations ... •no…

A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a st…

Scientific Method

A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesi…

Empirical Investigation

An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…

Tenacity

Authority

Pure reason

Priori method

Belief-based explanations.

Believing something because someone in authority says it's tru…

Believing something because it logically must be that way.

Gaining conclusions from deduction rather than empirical evide…

Tenacity

Belief-based explanations.

Authority

Believing something because someone in authority says it's tru…

Step 1. ... Purpose Statement

Three types of variables:

Independent

Dependent

The process of ______________reporting research begins with bl…

Independent... Dependent.... Control.

Those variables that are meant to be later selected by the res…

Those variables that are affected or changed as a result of th…

Step 1. ... Purpose Statement

The process of ______________reporting research begins with bl…

Three types of variables:

Independent... Dependent.... Control.

scientific method

Empirical data

operational definition

Tuskegee syphilis study

step-by-step process of systematically addressing a research q…

observable or measurable behaviors

explains variables in enough detail to allow replication of th…

1932 black men believed they were receiving treatment for dise…

scientific method

step-by-step process of systematically addressing a research q…

Empirical data

observable or measurable behaviors

research process

initial observation

generate theory

generate hypothesis

1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothes…

describe variables --> anything that changes or varies

-theory: possible explanations of a behavior... -explain theory t…

hypothesis: tentative statement, predicting what might happen…

research process

1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothes…

initial observation

describe variables --> anything that changes or varies

Descriptive Methods

Observational techniques

Naturalistic observation

Participant observation

Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of b…

Directly observing the behavior of interest

A descriptive research method in which the behavior of interes…

A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes pa…

Descriptive Methods

Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of b…

Observational techniques

Directly observing the behavior of interest

Addition Rule

Alternative Hypothesis

Autocorrelation

Bayes' Theorem

Rule 1: When two events, A and B, are mutually exclusive, the…

- defines the expected results of a study

In statistics, the autocorrelation of a random process is the…

Use Bayes' Theorem to find the conditional probability of an e…

Addition Rule

Rule 1: When two events, A and B, are mutually exclusive, the…

Alternative Hypothesis

- defines the expected results of a study

Parametrics

Nonparametrics

Population

Sample

Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…

Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…

Group of people

Subset of the population

Parametrics

Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…

Nonparametrics

Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…

descriptive statistics

frequency distribution

frequency histogram

central tendency

used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set of…

a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a p…

a graph showing how many of the cases in a batch of data score…

a measure of what value the individual scores tend to center on

descriptive statistics

used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set of…

frequency distribution

a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a p…

Empirical research

variables

Data

Experimentation

research based on observations; entails systematic description…

measurable aspects of an event that change under different cir…

findings recorded from observing and systematically measuring…

systematically changing one variable while holding others cons…

Empirical research

research based on observations; entails systematic description…

variables

measurable aspects of an event that change under different cir…