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Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

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Study sets matching "research methods statistics"

72 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
What determines whether a field of stu…
What approach must science take when r…
Empirical Approach?
What is the independent variable?
Method, NOT content
Empirical.
Relies on direct observation and experimentation.
The thing that gets manipulated by the researcher. What deter…
What determines whether a field of stu…
Method, NOT content
What approach must science take when r…
Empirical.
43 terms
Research Methods/Research Statistics
Hindsight bias
Critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
54 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Vocabulary
hypothesis
theory
validity
reliability
a specific, testable proposition about something someone want…
set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, a…
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is su…
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same i…
hypothesis
a specific, testable proposition about something someone want…
theory
set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, a…
47 terms
EPPP-Research Methods and Statistics
Under null hypothesis significance tes…
If one could confirm the presence of a…
Final grades in a class with grade inf…
In a symmetrical distribution of exam…
The data would occur relatively infrequently, given the speci…
An alternative explanation for the relevant cause-effect rela…
Negative skew, positive skew... Negative skew results when score…
M = 91, SD = 8.5... The solution requires a z-score conversion.…
Under null hypothesis significance tes…
The data would occur relatively infrequently, given the speci…
If one could confirm the presence of a…
An alternative explanation for the relevant cause-effect rela…
43 terms
Research Methods/Research Statistics
Hindsight bias
Critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
32 terms
APSY Research Methods and Statistics
Hindsight Bias
Applied Research
Basic Research
Hypothesis
-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many othe…
-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical probl…
-Research that explores questions that are of interest to psy…
-A statement that expresses a relationship between two variab…
Hindsight Bias
-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many othe…
Applied Research
-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical probl…
46 terms
Research Methods - Statistics
What is data analysis?
What is qualitative data?
What is quantitative data?
What are the strengths of qualitative…
Turning of data into information
Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions
Data that is expressed numerically, which usually scores or m…
It offers richness and detail, as participants have more lice…
What is data analysis?
Turning of data into information
What is qualitative data?
Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions
97 terms
7 - Research Methods and Statistics
Cluster Anal
Effect Size
Prob Sampling
Rdm Err
Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhau…
Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…
Each element in target pop has known chance of being selected…
Unpredictable err; includes sampling err (inaccuracy of sam…
Cluster Anal
Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhau…
Effect Size
Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…
12 terms
TEXAS Research Methods & Statistics
Step 1. ... Purpose Statement
Three types of variables:
Independent
Dependent
The process of ______________reporting research begins with b…
Independent... Dependent.... Control.
Those variables that are meant to be later selected by the re…
Those variables that are affected or changed as a result of t…
Step 1. ... Purpose Statement
The process of ______________reporting research begins with b…
Three types of variables:
Independent... Dependent.... Control.
22 terms
Statistics and Research Methods
General prediction upon which a hypoth…
A clear but tentative explanation for…
Parsimonious (as simple as possible).
The Hypothetico-Deductive Method.
Define a Theory.
Define a Hypothesis.
Hypotheses must be: Falsifiable, Testable, Precisely stated,…
What does this illustrate?
General prediction upon which a hypoth…
Define a Theory.
A clear but tentative explanation for…
Define a Hypothesis.
114 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Terms
Pearson Correlation
Point Biserial
Spearman's Rho
Phi Coefficient
Interval - t test
Interval & Nominal(dichotomous) - t test
Ordinal - Chi Square test
Nominal - Chi Square test
Pearson Correlation
Interval - t test
Point Biserial
Interval & Nominal(dichotomous) - t test
135 terms
EPPP - Research Methods and Statistics
Cluster Sampling
This is an extension of Classical Test…
Criterion Contamination
Null hypothesis posits this
Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…
Generalizability Theory
Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test…
No effect in the population. For example, in a study examinin…
Cluster Sampling
Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…
This is an extension of Classical Test…
Generalizability Theory
28 terms
Research Methods & Statistics
Descriptive Methods
Observational techniques
Naturalistic observation
Participant observation
Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of…
Directly observing the behavior of interest
A descriptive research method in which the behavior of intere…
A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes p…
Descriptive Methods
Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of…
Observational techniques
Directly observing the behavior of interest
93 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
protocol analysis
behavioral sampling
Random sampling
Stratified random sampling
a method of operationalizing internal processes in which the…
a method of operationalizing behavior in which frequency and…
* every member of a population is equally likely to be select…
population is divided into strata for which individuals are r…
protocol analysis
a method of operationalizing internal processes in which the…
behavioral sampling
a method of operationalizing behavior in which frequency and…
43 terms
Research Methods/ Statistics
Case study
Control group
Correlation coefficient
Correlational research
An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatm…
A statistical measure (from -1 to +1) of the extent to which…
A research strategy that identifies the relationships between…
Case study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…
Control group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatm…
30 terms
Research Methods: Descriptive Statistics
Parametrics
Nonparametrics
Population
Sample
Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…
Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…
Group of people
Subset of the population
Parametrics
Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…
Nonparametrics
Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…
75 terms
Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology
Analysis
Data
Deduction
Descriptive research
Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.
Relatively uninterpreted information received through human s…
Logical argument using rules to derive a conclusion from prem…
Research that explores the measurement of phenomena without t…
Analysis
Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.
Data
Relatively uninterpreted information received through human s…
16 terms
Research Methods Statistics
Axis that shows frequency
The incorrect rejection of the null hy…
The measure of a relationship between…
A pictorial representation of a relati…
Y axis
Type 1 Error
Correlation
Scatterplot
Axis that shows frequency
Y axis
The incorrect rejection of the null hy…
Type 1 Error
32 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Descriptive statistics
Inferential statistics
Mean
Median
do what they say they do- summarize quantitative information…
involves analysis of data to determine whether or not the res…
Average of a set of numbers in a distribution
number in the middle of the distribution... more useful in desc…
Descriptive statistics
do what they say they do- summarize quantitative information…
Inferential statistics
involves analysis of data to determine whether or not the res…
24 terms
Psychological Research Methods and Statistics
sample
naturalistic observation
case study
survery
the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…
a research method in which the psychologist observes the subj…
an in-depth research method that involves an intensive invest…
a research method in which information is obtained by asking…
sample
the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…
naturalistic observation
a research method in which the psychologist observes the subj…
135 terms
EPPP - Research Methods and Statistics
Cluster Sampling
This is an extension of Classical Test…
Criterion Contamination
Null hypothesis posits this
Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…
Generalizability Theory
Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test…
No effect in the population. For example, in a study examinin…
Cluster Sampling
Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…
This is an extension of Classical Test…
Generalizability Theory
8 terms
Research Methods: Statistics
mean
median
mode
normal distribution
The "average", where you add up all the numbers and then divi…
The "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median…
The value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, t…
About 68% of values drawn from a normal distribution are with…
mean
The "average", where you add up all the numbers and then divi…
median
The "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median…
59 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Final
Validity
Construct Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or…
The degree to which selected measure actually measures the va…
The degree to which a study establishes that a factor causes…
The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized…
Validity
Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or…
Construct Validity
The degree to which selected measure actually measures the va…
10 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Tenacity
Authority
Pure reason
Priori method
Belief-based explanations.
Believing something because someone in authority says it's tr…
Believing something because it logically must be that way.
Gaining conclusions from deduction rather than empirical evid…
Tenacity
Belief-based explanations.
Authority
Believing something because someone in authority says it's tr…
31 terms
Research Methods: Inferential Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Sample
Inferences
Random Sampling
Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the…
A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populat…
Always involve a degree of uncertainty, as we generalise from…
- increases ability to generalise to a population... - reduces c…
Inferential Statistics
Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the…
Sample
A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populat…
32 terms
Research methods and statistics
informed consent
Scatterplot
standard deviation
descriptive statistics
idea that research participants are entitled to know and agre…
a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship b…
a measure of variability that describes an average distance o…
the listing and summarizing of data in a practical way
informed consent
idea that research participants are entitled to know and agre…
Scatterplot
a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship b…
54 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Hindsight Bias
Overconfidence
The Barnum Effect
Applied Research
The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…
We tend to think we know more than we do because it makes us…
The tendency for people to accept very general or vague chara…
Has clear, practical applications you can use... Ex: research of…
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…
Overconfidence
We tend to think we know more than we do because it makes us…
39 terms
research methods/ statistics review
research process
initial observation
generate theory
generate hypothesis
1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothe…
describe variables --> anything that changes or varies
-theory: possible explanations of a behavior... -explain theory…
hypothesis: tentative statement, predicting what might happen…
research process
1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothe…
initial observation
describe variables --> anything that changes or varies
24 terms
Research Methods Statistics Appendicies
descriptive statistics
frequency distribution
frequency histogram
central tendency
used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set o…
a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a…
a graph showing how many of the cases in a batch of data scor…
a measure of what value the individual scores tend to center on
descriptive statistics
used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set o…
frequency distribution
a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a…
33 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Scientific Method
Empirical Investigation
Theory
Hypothesis
A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothes…
An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…
A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations ... •n…
A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a s…
Scientific Method
A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothes…
Empirical Investigation
An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…
43 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Final
Scientific Method
Hypothesis
Attitudes of Students
Criteria for Scientific Evidence
An approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating…
Prediction, statement, a statement about an expected relation…
Objective... Skeptical... Uncertain... Cautious ... Ethical
Empirical... Objective... Systematic... Controlled... Confirmation of fin…
Scientific Method
An approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating…
Hypothesis
Prediction, statement, a statement about an expected relation…
31 terms
Research Methods - Inferential Statistics
What are inferential statistics?
What are constraints in inferential st…
What are the 2 important aspects of in…
What is a Population?
- The analysis of a random sample of data taken from a popula…
- Time... - Economics... - Practicality... Can't make statements with…
- Estimation ... - Hypothesis testing (will be seen soon)
- All the individuals in a group you wish to know something a…
What are inferential statistics?
- The analysis of a random sample of data taken from a popula…
What are constraints in inferential st…
- Time... - Economics... - Practicality... Can't make statements with…
115 terms
Statistics, Research Methods
What is the purpose of descriptive sta…
Statistics that tell us whether an eff…
Significance level, or p is...
What type of statistics indicate the s…
To describe and summarise the scores on a variable or the dif…
Inferential Statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Correlation, regression)
the probabiliy that an observed effect arose by chance
Descriptive (size and direction) and also our judgement (impo…
What is the purpose of descriptive sta…
To describe and summarise the scores on a variable or the dif…
Statistics that tell us whether an eff…
Inferential Statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Correlation, regression)
27 terms
Application Methods of Research and Statistics
Belmont Report (1979)
Cognitive Obstacles for Drawing Valid…
Types of Self-report Questions
Open-ended Questions
Respect for Persons: informed consent, special protection for…
Hindsight bias: "I knew it all along" effect. 20/20. HARKING:…
Open-ended: free format.... Close-ended: forced choice or scale…
Free format: respondent provides response. ... Advantage: MAY pr…
Belmont Report (1979)
Respect for Persons: informed consent, special protection for…
Cognitive Obstacles for Drawing Valid…
Hindsight bias: "I knew it all along" effect. 20/20. HARKING:…
33 terms
2 - Research Methods and Statistics
Theory
Hypothesis
Verifiability
Objectivity
a scientific theory is an idea, or a conceptual model, that i…
a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,…
can be tested by others
based on observable phenomena and is uninfluenced by emotions…
Theory
a scientific theory is an idea, or a conceptual model, that i…
Hypothesis
a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,…
24 terms
Statistical Terms for Research Methods
ANOVA
MANOVA
LINEAR REGRESSION
F
-test to see if sample means are stat significant ... -chance or…
-main effects through combination of DVs... -new DV is created a…
-a regression line is a straight line that describes how a re…
F-stat is designed to test if 2 population means are equal (b…
ANOVA
-test to see if sample means are stat significant ... -chance or…
MANOVA
-main effects through combination of DVs... -new DV is created a…
29 terms
Research Methods/Statistics Vocab
Dependent Variable
Independent variable
Case study
Experiment
(statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expressi…
(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of chang…
An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or…
Dependent Variable
(statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expressi…
Independent variable
(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of chang…
55 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Observations
Types of Observation
Theory
Types of Theory
a remark, statement, or comment based on something one has se…
Uncontrolled observation: The situation is set up by nature…
human attempt to describe and explain observation
Descriptive : describes what happens... Explanatory : describes…
Observations
a remark, statement, or comment based on something one has se…
Types of Observation
Uncontrolled observation: The situation is set up by nature…
34 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Theory
Hypothesis
Replication
Independent Variable
Explains observable events but are not as specific as hypothe…
A statement of the results that the experimenter expects... ex.…
A study is conducted again in the same way but using differen…
Factors that are changed or manipulated by the researcher ... ex…
Theory
Explains observable events but are not as specific as hypothe…
Hypothesis
A statement of the results that the experimenter expects... ex.…
34 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Theory
Hypothesis
Replication
Independent Variable
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
A proposed, scientifically testable explanation for an observ…
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with diffe…
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who…
Theory
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
Hypothesis
A proposed, scientifically testable explanation for an observ…
23 terms
Research Methods 3 (statistics)
descriptive statistics
frequency distributions
frequency polygrams
hisgrams
describe a set of data
a visual way of summarizing
line graphs
bar graph
descriptive statistics
describe a set of data
frequency distributions
a visual way of summarizing
29 terms
Research Methods/Statistics Vocabulary
Dependent variable
Independent variable
Case study
Experiment
Whats being measured
What's manipulated
the use of a descriptive research approach to obtain an in-de…
An investigation in which a hypothesis is scientifically tested
Dependent variable
Whats being measured
Independent variable
What's manipulated
33 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Theory
Hypothesis
Replication
Independent Variable
A system of ideas to explain something.... Ex: The Big Bang The…
A statement of the results that the experimenter expects, a p…
To make another of, to have two of, or exact copy.... Ex: The t…
Factors that are changed or manipulated in an experiment.... Ex…
Theory
A system of ideas to explain something.... Ex: The Big Bang The…
Hypothesis
A statement of the results that the experimenter expects, a p…
Research Methods And Statistics
Control of Potential Confounding Varia…
Random Variables
Participant Expectations
Experimenter Bias
Making extra steps to eliminate other causes ... Having a contro…
Can only find the probability; we can calculate expected resu…
Their expectations can alter actual results.
Experimenter's desires for outcome influences the actual outc…
Control of Potential Confounding Varia…
Making extra steps to eliminate other causes ... Having a contro…
Random Variables
Can only find the probability; we can calculate expected resu…
15 terms
Research Methods and Statistics Vocab
Standardization
Operational Definition
Random Sampling
Random Assignment
During an experiment or study, when you treat people as unifo…
Statement about how a researcher will measure certain behavio…
How are member of study selected from the population ... (You ar…
How members are assigned to the part of the experiment that t…
Standardization
During an experiment or study, when you treat people as unifo…
Operational Definition
Statement about how a researcher will measure certain behavio…
34 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Theory
Hypothesis
Replication
Independent Variable
A concept or idea that is testable. Example: If I see that st…
An idea that you test through study and experimentation. Exam…
Repeating a scientific experiment to ensure that the same res…
The variable that's changed or controlled in an experiment. E…
Theory
A concept or idea that is testable. Example: If I see that st…
Hypothesis
An idea that you test through study and experimentation. Exam…
55 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
analysis of variance
antecedent variable
availability sampling
average deviation
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to…
In statistics and social sciences, an antecedent variable is…
Availability sampling is a method of choosing subjects who ar…
The average absolute deviation of a data set is the average o…
analysis of variance
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to…
antecedent variable
In statistics and social sciences, an antecedent variable is…
22 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
Sample
Population
Inferential Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
set of observations drawn from the population of interest
includes all possible observations about which we'd like to k…
use sample data to make general estimates about the larger po…
organize, summarize, and communicate a group of numerical obs…
Sample
set of observations drawn from the population of interest
Population
includes all possible observations about which we'd like to k…
23 terms
Research Methods & Statistics
scatterplot
correlation coefficient (r)
null hypothesis
correlational design
shows how variables are related
expresses how close the points are to the best-fit line (the…
any relationship between variables will be due to chance
- approach when there is no clear IV... - used to identify a rel…
scatterplot
shows how variables are related
correlation coefficient (r)
expresses how close the points are to the best-fit line (the…
13 terms
Research Methods & Ethics - statistics
Frequency distribution
Mode
Mean
Median
A type of descriptive statistic that provides information suc…
The score that appears most frequently; may have more than on…
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding…
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above…
Frequency distribution
A type of descriptive statistic that provides information suc…
Mode
The score that appears most frequently; may have more than on…
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