How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

What determines whether a field of stu…

What approach must science take when r…

Empirical Approach?

What is the independent variable?

Method, NOT content

Empirical.

Relies on direct observation and experimentation.

The thing that gets manipulated by the researcher. What deter…

What determines whether a field of stu…

Method, NOT content

What approach must science take when r…

Empirical.

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

hypothesis

theory

validity

reliability

a specific, testable proposition about something someone want…

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, a…

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is su…

Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same i…

hypothesis

a specific, testable proposition about something someone want…

theory

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, a…

Under null hypothesis significance tes…

If one could confirm the presence of a…

Final grades in a class with grade inf…

In a symmetrical distribution of exam…

The data would occur relatively infrequently, given the speci…

An alternative explanation for the relevant cause-effect rela…

Negative skew, positive skew... Negative skew results when score…

M = 91, SD = 8.5... The solution requires a z-score conversion.…

Under null hypothesis significance tes…

The data would occur relatively infrequently, given the speci…

If one could confirm the presence of a…

An alternative explanation for the relevant cause-effect rela…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

Hindsight Bias

Applied Research

Basic Research

Hypothesis

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many othe…

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical probl…

-Research that explores questions that are of interest to psy…

-A statement that expresses a relationship between two variab…

Hindsight Bias

-Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many othe…

Applied Research

-Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical probl…

What is data analysis?

What is qualitative data?

What is quantitative data?

What are the strengths of qualitative…

Turning of data into information

Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions

Data that is expressed numerically, which usually scores or m…

It offers richness and detail, as participants have more lice…

What is data analysis?

Turning of data into information

What is qualitative data?

Data that is expressed in words, like descriptions

Cluster Anal

Effect Size

Prob Sampling

Rdm Err

Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhau…

Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…

Each element in target pop has known chance of being selected…

Unpredictable err; includes **sampling err** (inaccuracy of sam…

Cluster Anal

Grp people/objects into smaller # of mutually exclusive/exhau…

Effect Size

Meas of mag of rel btwn IVs/DVs to interpret rel significance…

Step 1. ... Purpose Statement

Three types of variables:

Independent

Dependent

The process of ______________reporting research begins with b…

Independent... Dependent.... Control.

Those variables that are meant to be later selected by the re…

Those variables that are affected or changed as a result of t…

Step 1. ... Purpose Statement

The process of ______________reporting research begins with b…

Three types of variables:

Independent... Dependent.... Control.

General prediction upon which a hypoth…

A clear but tentative explanation for…

Parsimonious (as simple as possible).

The Hypothetico-Deductive Method.

Define a Theory.

Define a Hypothesis.

Hypotheses must be: Falsifiable, Testable, Precisely stated,…

What does this illustrate?

General prediction upon which a hypoth…

Define a Theory.

A clear but tentative explanation for…

Define a Hypothesis.

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examinin…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

Descriptive Methods

Observational techniques

Naturalistic observation

Participant observation

Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of…

Directly observing the behavior of interest

A descriptive research method in which the behavior of intere…

A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes p…

Descriptive Methods

Purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of…

Observational techniques

Directly observing the behavior of interest

protocol analysis

behavioral sampling

Random sampling

Stratified random sampling

a method of operationalizing internal processes in which the…

a method of operationalizing behavior in which frequency and…

* every member of a population is equally likely to be select…

population is divided into strata for which individuals are r…

protocol analysis

a method of operationalizing internal processes in which the…

behavioral sampling

a method of operationalizing behavior in which frequency and…

Case study

Control group

Correlation coefficient

Correlational research

An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatm…

A statistical measure (from -1 to +1) of the extent to which…

A research strategy that identifies the relationships between…

Case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…

Control group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatm…

Parametrics

Nonparametrics

Population

Sample

Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…

Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…

Group of people

Subset of the population

Parametrics

Type of Data:... Either interval or ratio data. Assumes that the…

Nonparametrics

Type of Data:... Data that are either counted (nominal scale) or…

Analysis

Data

Deduction

Descriptive research

Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.

Relatively uninterpreted information received through human s…

Logical argument using rules to derive a conclusion from prem…

Research that explores the measurement of phenomena without t…

Analysis

Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect.

Data

Relatively uninterpreted information received through human s…

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Mean

Median

do what they say they do- summarize quantitative information…

involves analysis of data to determine whether or not the res…

Average of a set of numbers in a distribution

number in the middle of the distribution... more useful in desc…

Descriptive statistics

do what they say they do- summarize quantitative information…

Inferential statistics

involves analysis of data to determine whether or not the res…

sample

naturalistic observation

case study

survery

the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…

a research method in which the psychologist observes the subj…

an in-depth research method that involves an intensive invest…

a research method in which information is obtained by asking…

sample

the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…

naturalistic observation

a research method in which the psychologist observes the subj…

Cluster Sampling

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Criterion Contamination

Null hypothesis posits this

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…

Generalizability Theory

Occurs when a rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test…

No effect in the population. For example, in a study examinin…

Cluster Sampling

Randomly selecting a naturally occurring group of participant…

This is an extension of Classical Test…

Generalizability Theory

mean

median

mode

normal distribution

The "average", where you add up all the numbers and then divi…

The "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median…

The value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, t…

About 68% of values drawn from a normal distribution are with…

mean

The "average", where you add up all the numbers and then divi…

median

The "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median…

Validity

Construct Validity

Internal Validity

External Validity

Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or…

The degree to which selected measure actually measures the va…

The degree to which a study establishes that a factor causes…

The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized…

Validity

Extent inferences based on study results are well-founded or…

Construct Validity

The degree to which selected measure actually measures the va…

Tenacity

Authority

Pure reason

Priori method

Belief-based explanations.

Believing something because someone in authority says it's tr…

Believing something because it logically must be that way.

Gaining conclusions from deduction rather than empirical evid…

Tenacity

Belief-based explanations.

Authority

Believing something because someone in authority says it's tr…

Inferential Statistics

Sample

Inferences

Random Sampling

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the…

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populat…

Always involve a degree of uncertainty, as we generalise from…

- increases ability to generalise to a population... - reduces c…

Inferential Statistics

Analysing sampled data in order to draw inferences about the…

Sample

A randomly chosen subset of the items/subjects in the populat…

informed consent

Scatterplot

standard deviation

descriptive statistics

idea that research participants are entitled to know and agre…

a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship b…

a measure of variability that describes an average distance o…

the listing and summarizing of data in a practical way

informed consent

idea that research participants are entitled to know and agre…

Scatterplot

a graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship b…

Hindsight Bias

Overconfidence

The Barnum Effect

Applied Research

The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…

We tend to think we know more than we do because it makes us…

The tendency for people to accept very general or vague chara…

Has clear, practical applications you can use... Ex: research of…

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you…

Overconfidence

We tend to think we know more than we do because it makes us…

research process

initial observation

generate theory

generate hypothesis

1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothe…

describe variables --> anything that changes or varies

-theory: possible explanations of a behavior... -explain theory…

hypothesis: tentative statement, predicting what might happen…

research process

1. initial observation... 2. generate theory... 3. generate hypothe…

initial observation

describe variables --> anything that changes or varies

descriptive statistics

frequency distribution

frequency histogram

central tendency

used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set o…

a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a…

a graph showing how many of the cases in a batch of data scor…

a measure of what value the individual scores tend to center on

descriptive statistics

used for organizing and summarizing the properties of a set o…

frequency distribution

a table that gives a visual picture of the observations on a…

Scientific Method

Empirical Investigation

Theory

Hypothesis

A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothes…

An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…

A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations ... •n…

A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a s…

Scientific Method

A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothes…

Empirical Investigation

An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and…

Scientific Method

Hypothesis

Attitudes of Students

Criteria for Scientific Evidence

An approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating…

Prediction, statement, a statement about an expected relation…

Objective... Skeptical... Uncertain... Cautious ... Ethical

Empirical... Objective... Systematic... Controlled... Confirmation of fin…

Scientific Method

An approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating…

Hypothesis

Prediction, statement, a statement about an expected relation…

What are inferential statistics?

What are constraints in inferential st…

What are the 2 important aspects of in…

What is a Population?

- The analysis of a random sample of data taken from a popula…

- Time... - Economics... - Practicality... Can't make statements with…

- Estimation ... - Hypothesis testing (will be seen soon)

- All the individuals in a group you wish to know something a…

What are inferential statistics?

- The analysis of a random sample of data taken from a popula…

What are constraints in inferential st…

- Time... - Economics... - Practicality... Can't make statements with…

What is the purpose of descriptive sta…

Statistics that tell us whether an eff…

Significance level, or p is...

What type of statistics indicate the s…

To describe and summarise the scores on a variable or the dif…

Inferential Statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Correlation, regression)

the probabiliy that an observed effect arose by chance

Descriptive (size and direction) and also our judgement (impo…

What is the purpose of descriptive sta…

To describe and summarise the scores on a variable or the dif…

Statistics that tell us whether an eff…

Inferential Statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Correlation, regression)

Belmont Report (1979)

Cognitive Obstacles for Drawing Valid…

Types of Self-report Questions

Open-ended Questions

Respect for Persons: informed consent, special protection for…

Hindsight bias: "I knew it all along" effect. 20/20. HARKING:…

Open-ended: free format.... Close-ended: forced choice or scale…

Free format: respondent provides response. ... Advantage: MAY pr…

Belmont Report (1979)

Respect for Persons: informed consent, special protection for…

Cognitive Obstacles for Drawing Valid…

Hindsight bias: "I knew it all along" effect. 20/20. HARKING:…

Theory

Hypothesis

Verifiability

Objectivity

a scientific theory is an idea, or a conceptual model, that i…

a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,…

can be tested by others

based on observable phenomena and is uninfluenced by emotions…

Theory

a scientific theory is an idea, or a conceptual model, that i…

Hypothesis

a statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,…

ANOVA

MANOVA

LINEAR REGRESSION

F

-test to see if sample means are stat significant ... -chance or…

-main effects through combination of DVs... -new DV is created a…

-a regression line is a straight line that describes how a re…

F-stat is designed to test if 2 population means are equal (b…

ANOVA

-test to see if sample means are stat significant ... -chance or…

MANOVA

-main effects through combination of DVs... -new DV is created a…

Dependent Variable

Independent variable

Case study

Experiment

(statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expressi…

(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of chang…

An observation technique in which one person is studied in de…

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or…

Dependent Variable

(statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expressi…

Independent variable

(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of chang…

Observations

Types of Observation

Theory

Types of Theory

a remark, statement, or comment based on something one has se…

Uncontrolled observation: The situation is set up by nature…

human attempt to describe and explain observation

Descriptive : describes what happens... Explanatory : describes…

Observations

a remark, statement, or comment based on something one has se…

Types of Observation

Uncontrolled observation: The situation is set up by nature…

Theory

Hypothesis

Replication

Independent Variable

Explains observable events but are not as specific as hypothe…

A statement of the results that the experimenter expects... ex.…

A study is conducted again in the same way but using differen…

Factors that are changed or manipulated by the researcher ... ex…

Theory

Explains observable events but are not as specific as hypothe…

Hypothesis

A statement of the results that the experimenter expects... ex.…

Theory

Hypothesis

Replication

Independent Variable

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

A proposed, scientifically testable explanation for an observ…

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with diffe…

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who…

Theory

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

Hypothesis

A proposed, scientifically testable explanation for an observ…

Dependent variable

Independent variable

Case study

Experiment

Whats being measured

What's manipulated

the use of a descriptive research approach to obtain an in-de…

An investigation in which a hypothesis is scientifically tested

Dependent variable

Whats being measured

Independent variable

What's manipulated

Theory

Hypothesis

Replication

Independent Variable

A system of ideas to explain something.... Ex: The Big Bang The…

A statement of the results that the experimenter expects, a p…

To make another of, to have two of, or exact copy.... Ex: The t…

Factors that are changed or manipulated in an experiment.... Ex…

Theory

A system of ideas to explain something.... Ex: The Big Bang The…

Hypothesis

A statement of the results that the experimenter expects, a p…

Control of Potential Confounding Varia…

Random Variables

Participant Expectations

Experimenter Bias

Making extra steps to eliminate other causes ... Having a contro…

Can only find the probability; we can calculate expected resu…

Their expectations can alter actual results.

Experimenter's desires for outcome influences the actual outc…

Control of Potential Confounding Varia…

Making extra steps to eliminate other causes ... Having a contro…

Random Variables

Can only find the probability; we can calculate expected resu…

Standardization

Operational Definition

Random Sampling

Random Assignment

During an experiment or study, when you treat people as unifo…

Statement about how a researcher will measure certain behavio…

How are member of study selected from the population ... (You ar…

How members are assigned to the part of the experiment that t…

Standardization

During an experiment or study, when you treat people as unifo…

Operational Definition

Statement about how a researcher will measure certain behavio…

Theory

Hypothesis

Replication

Independent Variable

A concept or idea that is testable. Example: If I see that st…

An idea that you test through study and experimentation. Exam…

Repeating a scientific experiment to ensure that the same res…

The variable that's changed or controlled in an experiment. E…

Theory

A concept or idea that is testable. Example: If I see that st…

Hypothesis

An idea that you test through study and experimentation. Exam…

analysis of variance

antecedent variable

availability sampling

average deviation

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to…

In statistics and social sciences, an antecedent variable is…

Availability sampling is a method of choosing subjects who ar…

The average absolute deviation of a data set is the average o…

analysis of variance

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to…

antecedent variable

In statistics and social sciences, an antecedent variable is…

Sample

Population

Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

set of observations drawn from the population of interest

includes all possible observations about which we'd like to k…

use sample data to make general estimates about the larger po…

organize, summarize, and communicate a group of numerical obs…

Sample

set of observations drawn from the population of interest

Population

includes all possible observations about which we'd like to k…

scatterplot

correlation coefficient (r)

null hypothesis

correlational design

shows how variables are related

expresses how close the points are to the best-fit line (the…

any relationship between variables will be due to chance

- approach when there is no clear IV... - used to identify a rel…

scatterplot

shows how variables are related

correlation coefficient (r)

expresses how close the points are to the best-fit line (the…

Frequency distribution

Mode

Mean

Median

A type of descriptive statistic that provides information suc…

The score that appears most frequently; may have more than on…

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding…

The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above…

Frequency distribution

A type of descriptive statistic that provides information suc…

Mode

The score that appears most frequently; may have more than on…