# Study sets matching "research statistics"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

sample

naturalistic observation

case study

survey

a subset of the population

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

intensive study of a single person, group, incident, or commun…

an information-gathering tool for quantitative data analysis

sample

a subset of the population

naturalistic observation

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

variable

theory

hypothesis

independent variable

a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypo…

a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

A variable thought to be the cause of some effect. This term i…

variable

a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypo…

theory

a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for…

mean

mode

median

nominal

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

the value that appears the most

the middle value

unordered categories (skin colors: black, white, yellow)... - mode

mean

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

mode

the value that appears the most

Hindsight bias

hypothesis

replication

case study

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Repeating the essence of the research, usually with different…

A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is st…

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Steps in Data Analysis (5)

What are the 2 types of statistics?

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

1)

**Management of missing data**... - this reduces errors... 2) *Des…- Descriptive... - Inferential

Summary statistics that allow data to be organized... (data!!)... -…

Done to identify relationships, examine predictions, and deter…

Steps in Data Analysis (5)

1)

**Management of missing data**... - this reduces errors... 2) *Des…What are the 2 types of statistics?

- Descriptive... - Inferential

Hindsight bias

hypothesis

replication

case study

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Repeating the essence of the research, usually with different…

A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is st…

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

sample

naturalistic observation

case study

survey

a subset of the population

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

intensive study of a single person, group, incident, or commun…

an information-gathering tool for quantitative data analysis

sample

a subset of the population

naturalistic observation

watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to man…

Experiment

Naturalistic Observation

Case Study

Correlational Study

Random selection, double blind, and random assignment... -Only ty…

Watching people, observations made without interfering with th…

studies one person/group ... - can't apply variables!! ... Pros: in…

relationship between two variables that already exist ... Pros: c…

Experiment

Random selection, double blind, and random assignment... -Only ty…

Naturalistic Observation

Watching people, observations made without interfering with th…

hypothesis

theory

validity

reliability

a specific, testable proposition about something someone wants…

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, an…

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is sup…

Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same in…

hypothesis

a specific, testable proposition about something someone wants…

theory

set of statements that can be used to account for, predict, an…

Hindsight Bias

Overconfidence

Theory

Hypothesis

The tendency to believe that, after learning about an outcome,…

The tendency to overestimate one's own abilities, their explan…

An idea that explains events, organizes facts, and makes predi…

A prediction that when tested will either confirm or reject yo…

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe that, after learning about an outcome,…

Overconfidence

The tendency to overestimate one's own abilities, their explan…

Sources of Variation

Bias variability

Chance error variability

Significant event variability

Bias... Chance Error... Significant event

if sampling procedure allowed bias then there will be differen…

a subset of the population whose probability is different than…

when the difference between the population and sample means is…

Sources of Variation

Bias... Chance Error... Significant event

Bias variability

if sampling procedure allowed bias then there will be differen…

Double Blind Procedure

Independent Variable

Dependent Variables

Mode

An experimental procedure in which both the research participa…

The experimental factor that is manipulated--the variable whos…

The outcome factor -- the variable that may change in response…

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

Double Blind Procedure

An experimental procedure in which both the research participa…

Independent Variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated--the variable whos…

relationship statistics help to. . .

pearson correlation

pearson correlation as effect size

pearson correlation and agreement

. . . investigate... 1. inter-rater reliability... 2. intra-rater re…

parametric statistics that gives info about strength of relati…

pearson's correlation may also measure. . . ... +/- .1 = small e…

scores may reflect good reliability (co-variation) but poor ag…

relationship statistics help to. . .

. . . investigate... 1. inter-rater reliability... 2. intra-rater re…

pearson correlation

parametric statistics that gives info about strength of relati…

frequency distribution

cumalitive frequency distribution

inferential statistics

significant differences

a tabular summary of a set of data showing the frequency of it…

a tabular summary of a set of data showing for each class the…

allows you to answer several kinds of questions about a set of…

a difference that is so large that it is unlikely that the gro…

frequency distribution

a tabular summary of a set of data showing the frequency of it…

cumalitive frequency distribution

a tabular summary of a set of data showing for each class the…

Define descriptive statistics:

What are the two different scales withi…

What type of data is in the categorical…

What type of data is in the numerical s…

**Describes**the data

1. Categorical scale... 2. Numerical scale

1. Nominal (e.g. gender)... 2. Report

**frequency**or**percent**1. Interval, ratio and ordinal... 2. Report

**mean**and *standard…Define descriptive statistics:

**Describes**the data

What are the two different scales withi…

1. Categorical scale... 2. Numerical scale

nursing research

two types of research

evidence-based practice

the difference between research and evi…

the systematic, rigorous, critical investigation that aims to…

quantitative... qualitative... mixed

allows one to systematically use the best available evidence f…

-research: a systematic, rigorous, logical investigation that…

nursing research

the systematic, rigorous, critical investigation that aims to…

two types of research

quantitative... qualitative... mixed

applied

basic

validity

reliability

clear, practical applications

no application, but answers questions of interest

does it measure what it is supposed to measure?

can it be REPEATED with the SAME results?

applied

clear, practical applications

basic

no application, but answers questions of interest

Probability

fundamental counting principle

Mutually Exclusive events

Independent events

likelihood an event will occur... P(E) = # of outcomes in event…

multiplication rule:... if M can occur in m ways and is followed…

disjoint... events that cannot occur at the same time... if A and B…

when the occurrence of one event doesn't affect the occurrence…

Probability

likelihood an event will occur... P(E) = # of outcomes in event…

fundamental counting principle

multiplication rule:... if M can occur in m ways and is followed…

Inductive Method

deductive method

validity

predictive validity/criterion validity

experiment first and explain later-research starts by conducti…

explain first and verify later approach, explains events and t…

degree to which an instrument measures what it purports to mea…

the accuracy with whicha test predicts future performance on a…

Inductive Method

experiment first and explain later-research starts by conducti…

deductive method

explain first and verify later approach, explains events and t…

study designed to describe what is goin…

study designed to look at the relations…

study designed to determine whether one…

A study takes place at a single point i…

Descriptive

Relational

Casual

Cross-sectional

study designed to describe what is goin…

Descriptive

study designed to look at the relations…

Relational

Population

Sample

Participants

subjects

The

**entire group**to which a law appliesA relatively small subset of a population that is intended to…

The individuals measured in a sample

any non-humans measured in a sample

Population

The

**entire group**to which a law appliesSample

A relatively small subset of a population that is intended to…

Empirical Approach

Hindsight Bias

Overconfidence

Theory

Research that uses of the scientific method and provides empir…

You believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have fo…

People feel they know more than they actually do

an idea that describes a behavior/s

Empirical Approach

Research that uses of the scientific method and provides empir…

Hindsight Bias

You believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have fo…

Data set

Descriptive statistics

Distribution

Frequencies

scores found in a specific collection of scores, generally fro…

a collection of data that is representative of a sample of the…

how scores are distributed across a data set

number of times a score is found in a distribution

Data set

scores found in a specific collection of scores, generally fro…

Descriptive statistics

a collection of data that is representative of a sample of the…