# Study sets matching "research statistics"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Why are the ethical safeguards provided…

It has been suggested that informed con…

What may help to encourage participants…

Which of the following need not be cove…

Researchers may decide against running a study because of the…

Sixth grade

Reassurance of anonymity

The qualifications and organizational affiliation of the resea…

Why are the ethical safeguards provided…

Researchers may decide against running a study because of the…

It has been suggested that informed con…

Sixth grade

What are the 4 goals of research?

objectivity

reliability

validity

1) objectivity... 2) reliability... 3) validity... 4) generalizability

you want your research to be as free from bias as possible

CONSISTENT results over time and across subjects; reliable

the test measures what it's supposed to (in order for a test t…

What are the 4 goals of research?

1) objectivity... 2) reliability... 3) validity... 4) generalizability

objectivity

you want your research to be as free from bias as possible

Measurement Scales

Nominal Scales

Ordinal Scales

Interval Scales

NOIR

Data with no quantitative values, organized into categories wh…

Data are organized into categories which are rank ordered on t…

Data are organized into categories which are rank ordered with…

Measurement Scales

NOIR

Nominal Scales

Data with no quantitative values, organized into categories wh…

Cross-Sectional Study

Cohort Study

Case-Control

Positive Control

Studies a sample of the population @ ONE POINT IN TIME. eg. a…

Studies a sample of the population over time. eg. a researcher…

Study Studies two sample populations, one with and one without…

groups in which an effect is expected because scientists manip…

Cross-Sectional Study

Studies a sample of the population @ ONE POINT IN TIME. eg. a…

Cohort Study

Studies a sample of the population over time. eg. a researcher…

Theory

Hypothesis

Operational definition

Empirical evidence

Set of logically related statements that provide a tentative e…

A precise, educated TESTABLE proposition about the relationshi…

A clear and precise statement of procedures/operations used th…

Evidence that can be experienced/observed through the senses

Theory

Set of logically related statements that provide a tentative e…

Hypothesis

A precise, educated TESTABLE proposition about the relationshi…

Applied Research

Basic Research

Hypothesis

validity

has clear practical application

looks at questions of interest, but no real application

educated guess

does the research measure what its supposed to measure

Applied Research

has clear practical application

Basic Research

looks at questions of interest, but no real application

Experiment

Naturalistic Observation

Case Study

Correlational Study

Random selection, double blind, and random assignment... -Only ty…

Watching people, observations made without interfering with th…

studies one person/group ... - can't apply variables!! ... Pros: in…

relationship between two variables that already exist ... Pros: c…

Experiment

Random selection, double blind, and random assignment... -Only ty…

Naturalistic Observation

Watching people, observations made without interfering with th…

frequency distribution

cumalitive frequency distribution

inferential statistics

significant differences

a tabular summary of a set of data showing the frequency of it…

a tabular summary of a set of data showing for each class the…

allows you to answer several kinds of questions about a set of…

a difference that is so large that it is unlikely that the gro…

frequency distribution

a tabular summary of a set of data showing the frequency of it…

cumalitive frequency distribution

a tabular summary of a set of data showing for each class the…

Steps in Data Analysis (5)

What are the 2 types of statistics?

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

1)

**Management of missing data**... - this reduces errors... 2) *Des…- Descriptive... - Inferential

Summary statistics that allow data to be organized... (data!!)... -…

Done to identify relationships, examine predictions, and deter…

Steps in Data Analysis (5)

1)

**Management of missing data**... - this reduces errors... 2) *Des…What are the 2 types of statistics?

- Descriptive... - Inferential

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

what is mean best for?

what is median best for?

hypothesis that is tested for possible rejection under the ass…

hypothesis contrary to the null, usually suggests the two vari…

interval / ratio data

ordinal

null hypothesis

hypothesis that is tested for possible rejection under the ass…

alternative hypothesis

hypothesis contrary to the null, usually suggests the two vari…

hindsight bias

overconfidence

operational definition

standardization

knew-it-all-along effect; seeing an event as predictable after…

when we think we know more than we do.... -hindsight bias... -commo…

statement of procedures used to define research variables.... -b…

making sure test conditions are consistent, controlled, and ob…

hindsight bias

knew-it-all-along effect; seeing an event as predictable after…

overconfidence

when we think we know more than we do.... -hindsight bias... -commo…

Multiple group design

Factorial design

Xs: Subject (participant) variable

Xe: experimental variables

When you use more than two groups

When you use more than one IV

Differences in the subjects

Variables the experiments manipulate

Multiple group design

When you use more than two groups

Factorial design

When you use more than one IV

What is descriptive statistics?

What is inferential statistics?

What is a normal curve?

What is type 1 error?

1. Exploratory analyses- looks at what kind of data we have... 2.…

1. Determines group differences... 2. Examines relationships... 3. M…

A theoretical frequency distribution in which the mean, median…

Rejecting the null when it's not true (saying there is a diffe…

What is descriptive statistics?

1. Exploratory analyses- looks at what kind of data we have... 2.…

What is inferential statistics?

1. Determines group differences... 2. Examines relationships... 3. M…

Hypothesis

FINER method

Feasible, interesting, novel, ethical,…

Control

Proposed explanation or proposed answer to a testable question

Method used to determine whether an answer to one's question w…

FINER method acronym

Standard that is used for comparison in an experiment

Hypothesis

Proposed explanation or proposed answer to a testable question

FINER method

Method used to determine whether an answer to one's question w…

theory

hypothesis

independent variable

depended variable

a claim backed by evidence

an educated prediction for the outcome of an experiment or stu…

the factor controlled or manipulated by the experimenter

the factor changed or influenced by the independent factor tha…

theory

a claim backed by evidence

hypothesis

an educated prediction for the outcome of an experiment or stu…

mean

mode

median

nominal

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

the value that appears the most

the middle value

unordered categories (skin colors: black, white, yellow)... - mode

mean

- the average, very sensitive to the influence of outliers... - d…

mode

the value that appears the most

5 Steps in data analysis

what are the 2 types of statistics

what is descriptive statistics... gives __…

what is the function of descriptive sta…

1) Management of missing data... 2) Description of sample (sample…

1. descriptive... 2. inferential

Summary statistics that allow data to be organized that give m…

Descriptive statistics are calculated to describe the sample a…

5 Steps in data analysis

1) Management of missing data... 2) Description of sample (sample…

what are the 2 types of statistics

1. descriptive... 2. inferential

Hindsight bias

hypothesis

replication

case study

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Repeating the essence of the research, usually with different…

A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is st…

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

statistical notation

scientific method

lawful

determinism

Symbols and Terms, code for communicating statistical results…

A set of rules consisting of certain assumptions, attitudes, g…

Every event can be understood as a predictable sequence of nat…

Behavior is solely influenced by natural causes and does not d…

statistical notation

Symbols and Terms, code for communicating statistical results…

scientific method

A set of rules consisting of certain assumptions, attitudes, g…

Hindsight bias

hypothesis

replication

case study

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Repeating the essence of the research, usually with different…

A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is st…

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight Bias

Theory

Hypothesis

Operational Definition

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

A carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a…

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

Theory

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

4 levels of measurement

Nomial data

Ordinal data

Interval data

-Nominal... -Ordinal... -Interval... -Ratio

-Classify or categorize variables, categorical ... -Data that can…

-Categorical data that can be put into rank order... -Exact quant…

-Continuous data measured on a 'real' number scale... -Continuum…

4 levels of measurement

-Nominal... -Ordinal... -Interval... -Ratio

Nomial data

-Classify or categorize variables, categorical ... -Data that can…

independent variable

dependent variable

continuous variables

discrete variables

intervention / treatment that is varied

responses / outcomes / performances / behaviors that the inves…

- no minimal value - easier to detect smaller changes... - ex. -…

- can't have a value <1... - ex. can't have 1.5 children

independent variable

intervention / treatment that is varied

dependent variable

responses / outcomes / performances / behaviors that the inves…