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Study sets matching "research statistics"

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Study sets matching "research statistics"

75 terms
Research & Statistics
Why are the ethical safeguards provide…
It has been suggested that informed co…
What may help to encourage participant…
Which of the following need not be cov…
Researchers may decide against running a study because of the…
Sixth grade
Reassurance of anonymity
The qualifications and organizational affiliation of the rese…
Why are the ethical safeguards provide…
Researchers may decide against running a study because of the…
It has been suggested that informed co…
Sixth grade
29 terms
Research Statistics
Measurement Scales
Nominal Scales
Ordinal Scales
Interval Scales
NOIR
Data with no quantitative values, organized into categories w…
Data are organized into categories which are rank ordered on…
Data are organized into categories which are rank ordered wit…
Measurement Scales
NOIR
Nominal Scales
Data with no quantitative values, organized into categories w…
75 terms
research/statistics
What are the 4 goals of research?
objectivity
reliability
validity
1) objectivity... 2) reliability... 3) validity... 4) generalizability
you want your research to be as free from bias as possible
CONSISTENT results over time and across subjects; reliable
the test measures what it's supposed to (in order for a test…
What are the 4 goals of research?
1) objectivity... 2) reliability... 3) validity... 4) generalizability
objectivity
you want your research to be as free from bias as possible
Statistics and Research
Cross-Sectional Study
Cohort Study
Case-Control
Positive Control
Studies a sample of the population @ ONE POINT IN TIME. eg. a…
Studies a sample of the population over time. eg. a researche…
Study Studies two sample populations, one with and one withou…
groups in which an effect is expected because scientists mani…
Cross-Sectional Study
Studies a sample of the population @ ONE POINT IN TIME. eg. a…
Cohort Study
Studies a sample of the population over time. eg. a researche…
51 terms
Research and Statistics
Applied Research
Basic Research
Hypothesis
validity
has clear practical application
looks at questions of interest, but no real application
educated guess
does the research measure what its supposed to measure
Applied Research
has clear practical application
Basic Research
looks at questions of interest, but no real application
80 terms
Statistics for Research
data
data set format
rows
columns
collection of information
rows & columns
observations/cases (units of analysis) go in... ex: students
characteristics being measured go in
data
collection of information
data set format
rows & columns
53 terms
Statistics/Research
Probability Sample
Simple random sample
Stratified random sample
Cluster random sample
Allows researcher to specify that each element of population…
A probability sample - subjects from known population are dra…
A probability sample - subjects first grouped into strata of…
A probability sample - multiple-stage sampling in which succe…
Probability Sample
Allows researcher to specify that each element of population…
Simple random sample
A probability sample - subjects from known population are dra…
15 terms
Research and Statistics
hindsight bias
overconfidence
operational definition
standardization
knew-it-all-along effect; seeing an event as predictable afte…
when we think we know more than we do.... -hindsight bias... -comm…
statement of procedures used to define research variables.... -…
making sure test conditions are consistent, controlled, and o…
hindsight bias
knew-it-all-along effect; seeing an event as predictable afte…
overconfidence
when we think we know more than we do.... -hindsight bias... -comm…
58 terms
Research and Statistics
Theory
Hypothesis
Operational definition
Empirical evidence
Set of logically related statements that provide a tentative…
A precise, educated TESTABLE proposition about the relationsh…
A clear and precise statement of procedures/operations used t…
Evidence that can be experienced/observed through the senses
Theory
Set of logically related statements that provide a tentative…
Hypothesis
A precise, educated TESTABLE proposition about the relationsh…
46 terms
Research/Statistics
Quality research should...
Qualitative research (subjective)
Quantitative research (objective)
Descriptive research (qualitative rese…
Expand current knowledge and enhance practice of the profession
Explore relationships through textual, not quantitative data.…
Relationships using numeric data. Surveys. results can often…
Data for a particular point in time. Associations can be made…
Quality research should...
Expand current knowledge and enhance practice of the profession
Qualitative research (subjective)
Explore relationships through textual, not quantitative data.…
43 terms
Research Methods/Research Statistics
Hindsight bias
Critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
18 terms
Research and statistics
Multiple group design
Factorial design
Xs: Subject (participant) variable
Xe: experimental variables
When you use more than two groups
When you use more than one IV
Differences in the subjects
Variables the experiments manipulate
Multiple group design
When you use more than two groups
Factorial design
When you use more than one IV
20 terms
Research & statistics
experimental group
independent variable
dependent variable
scientific method
group of participants exposed to the independent variable
characteristic of experiment that is changed
is being measured
step-by-step procedure for conducting research
experimental group
group of participants exposed to the independent variable
independent variable
characteristic of experiment that is changed
30 terms
Research & Statistics
hindsight bias
theory
hypothesis
operational definition
the "knew-it-all-along" effect, the tendency to believe you w…
summarizes facts/observations in an effort to explain behavior
a testable prediction often implied by theory ("if"/"when")
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operati…
hindsight bias
the "knew-it-all-along" effect, the tendency to believe you w…
theory
summarizes facts/observations in an effort to explain behavior
72 terms
Research Methods and Statistics
What determines whether a field of stu…
What approach must science take when r…
Empirical Approach?
What is the independent variable?
Method, NOT content
Empirical.
Relies on direct observation and experimentation.
The thing that gets manipulated by the researcher. What deter…
What determines whether a field of stu…
Method, NOT content
What approach must science take when r…
Empirical.
33 terms
Research & Statistics
Types of research
Basic research
Applied Research
Two goals of descriptive statistics
Basic and applied
Intended to expand general knowledge... Example: tells us how vi…
Intended to solve practical problems
Correlation and Prediction/Regression
Types of research
Basic and applied
Basic research
Intended to expand general knowledge... Example: tells us how vi…
9 terms
Research & Statistics
Belief Bias Effect
Evans, Barston & Pollard (1983)
Simpson paradox (or Yule-Simpson Effect)
Aggregated Data vs Disaggregate Data
The tendency to judge the strength of arguments based on plau…
Statistics helps to keep people honest- it is too easy to bel…
A trend that appears in different groups of data disappears o…
Aggregated data is data combined from several measurements.…
Belief Bias Effect
The tendency to judge the strength of arguments based on plau…
Evans, Barston & Pollard (1983)
Statistics helps to keep people honest- it is too easy to bel…
31 terms
Research & Statistics
Hindsight bias
Critical thinking
Theory
Hypothesis
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
a testable prediction
Hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…
49 terms
Research/statistics
William Wundt
Herman Ebbinghaus
oswald kulpe
James McKeen Cattell
founded the first psychological research lab but believed tha…
studied higher mental processes using experimental psychology…
disagreed with wundt, believed there can be imageless thought.
studied under wundt and introduced mental testing to the US
William Wundt
founded the first psychological research lab but believed tha…
Herman Ebbinghaus
studied higher mental processes using experimental psychology…
39 terms
Statistics and Research
hindsight bias
critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
thinking that you don't blindly accept arguments and conclusi…
explanation that organizes observations and predicts behavior…
testable prediction.
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…
critical thinking
thinking that you don't blindly accept arguments and conclusi…
Research and Statistics
Hindsight Bias
Overconfidence
Operational Definition
Standardization
Definition-Looking back at past experiences as being predicta…
Definition-Acting more confident in the judgement of a inaccu…
Definition- defining intuitive and basic concepts to begin sc…
Definition- a standard administration of experiments to ensur…
Hindsight Bias
Definition-Looking back at past experiences as being predicta…
Overconfidence
Definition-Acting more confident in the judgement of a inaccu…
24 terms
Statistics in Research
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Average of a set of data
Number in the middle
The number that occurs the most
differences between the highest and the lowest number
Mean
Average of a set of data
Median
Number in the middle
11 terms
Research and Statistics
Hindsight Bias
Overconfidence
Frequency Distribution
Bell Curve
Seeing an event as being predictable after experiencing it
When somebody has more confidence in their ability then they…
How often the number (value) shows up in the data
Graph of normal distribution
Hindsight Bias
Seeing an event as being predictable after experiencing it
Overconfidence
When somebody has more confidence in their ability then they…
19 terms
Research: statistics for methodological research
Measured score
Systematic error
Random error
Reliability
True score =/- error
Instrument (make sure they are calibrated
Subject, tester (rater)
Extent to which a measurement is repeatable in similar condit…
Measured score
True score =/- error
Systematic error
Instrument (make sure they are calibrated
50 terms
Research & Statistics
Applied Research
Basic Research
Good research must be: (basic terms of…
Validity
Clear, practical applications
Explores questions of interest, but has no real application.
1. Validity... 2. Reliability... 3. Hypothesis
Does it measure what its suppose to be measuring?
Applied Research
Clear, practical applications
Basic Research
Explores questions of interest, but has no real application.
35 terms
Research and statistics
reliability
Validity
inductive method
deductive method
the consistency with which the event is measured repeatedly
the degree to which an instrument measures what is says it me…
experiment first and then propose a theory based on results
propose theory then verify it
reliability
the consistency with which the event is measured repeatedly
Validity
the degree to which an instrument measures what is says it me…
48 terms
Research: Statistics
Statistics
Parameter
Nominal
Ordinal
-Refers to numbers relating to sample studied
-Refers to numbers for population
-Non-parametric... -Count of attributes/events falls into mutual…
-Non-parametric... -Arrangement of attribute in a rank order... -Ca…
Statistics
-Refers to numbers relating to sample studied
Parameter
-Refers to numbers for population
13 terms
Research and Statistics
Nominal #s
Ordinal #s
Internal #s
Ratio #s
are merely names, they carry info about identity.
on the scale refer to a ranking, they carry info about identi…
on the scale have equal magnitudes between them, all numbers…
on the scale have equal internals between them and there is a…
Nominal #s
are merely names, they carry info about identity.
Ordinal #s
on the scale refer to a ranking, they carry info about identi…
25 terms
Statistics and Research
Statistics
Descriptive statistics
Frequency distribution
Histogram
Is the use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret…
Used to organize and summarize data including measures of cen…
And orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of…
A bargraph that present status from the frequency distribution
Statistics
Is the use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret…
Descriptive statistics
Used to organize and summarize data including measures of cen…
18 terms
Research & Statistics
Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research
N
Population
Focus on numerical analysis eg. multiple choice surveys
Creating a picture of a situation/problem through words eg. i…
The number of people responding
Entire collection of people
Quantitative Research
Focus on numerical analysis eg. multiple choice surveys
Qualitative Research
Creating a picture of a situation/problem through words eg. i…
60 terms
Research and Statistics
Hypothesis
Quantitative Methods
Qualitative Methods
Mixed Methodology
a hypothetical explanation describing the relationship betwee…
are an approach to data collection that measures the quantity…
are an approach to data collection that attempts to discover…
• Use of both methods to show triangulation and to see consis…
Hypothesis
a hypothetical explanation describing the relationship betwee…
Quantitative Methods
are an approach to data collection that measures the quantity…
31 terms
Research & Statistics
Hindsight bias
Theory
Hypothesis
Operational definition
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one w…
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
a testable prediction often implied by a theory
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operati…
Hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one w…
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…
36 terms
Research and Statistics
cause and effect/causation
strength, consistency, temporality, do…
formulate problem, formulate hypothesi…
hypothesis
experimental research is designed to establish:
6 standards for causality
the scientific method
suggested explanation of a phenomenon
cause and effect/causation
experimental research is designed to establish:
strength, consistency, temporality, do…
6 standards for causality
49 terms
Research and Statistics
Variable
Data Distribution
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Anything that can take on a different quality or quantity. It…
A data distribution is: a listing of values associated with a…
The variable that is presumed to influence another variable.
The variable that is presumed to be influenced by another var…
Variable
Anything that can take on a different quality or quantity. It…
Data Distribution
A data distribution is: a listing of values associated with a…
30 terms
Research and Statistics
hindsight bias
critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
the tendency to believe after learning and outcome, that one…
thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusion…
an explanation using and integrated set of principles that or…
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe after learning and outcome, that one…
critical thinking
thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusion…
42 terms
Statistics and research
The null hypothesis
Hypothesis
Confounding variables
Independent variable
The statement that the independent variable will have no effc…
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Variables the experimenter didn't control that might've affec…
The variable you manipulate
The null hypothesis
The statement that the independent variable will have no effc…
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
33 terms
research statistics
"n" or "N"
"p" level
confidence interval (CI)
independent variable
refers to the size of the sample (n) or the population (N) in…
--refers to the probability value... --the lower the p value, th…
interval in which a measurement trial falls within or corresp…
the variable representing the value being manipulated by the…
"n" or "N"
refers to the size of the sample (n) or the population (N) in…
"p" level
--refers to the probability value... --the lower the p value, th…
12 terms
Research Statistics
Chi Squared
McNemar's Chi Squared
Mann Whitney U or Wilcoxon Rank Sum
Wilcoxon Signed Rank
Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Nominal, Independent
Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Nominal, Paired
Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Ordinal, Independent
Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Ordinal, Paired
Chi Squared
Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Nominal, Independent
McNemar's Chi Squared
Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Nominal, Paired
30 terms
Research and Statistics
hindsight bias
critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
believing you knew the outcome all along
logical and well thought out reasoning
a concept or idea that is testable
educated guess
hindsight bias
believing you knew the outcome all along
critical thinking
logical and well thought out reasoning
57 terms
Research and Statistics
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Level of Significance
Type I Error
are manipulated or selected by the researcher to check their…
attempt to measure the results of treatment of independent va…
when setting up their research design. Has to do with researc…
Errors in research. The researcher rejects the null hypothesi…
Independent Variable
are manipulated or selected by the researcher to check their…
Dependent Variable
attempt to measure the results of treatment of independent va…
37 terms
research and statistics
T-Test
Probability Values
Paired T-Test
Unpaired T-Test
Measures the probability that differences in scores are due t…
Probability value is greater than 0.05 = there is more than 5…
Used when testing the same individuals at two different times…
Used when giving the same test to two completely different gr…
T-Test
Measures the probability that differences in scores are due t…
Probability Values
Probability value is greater than 0.05 = there is more than 5…
49 terms
research and statistics
sample
random sample
stratified sample
random assignment
a relatively small group out of the total population under st…
each individual has an equal chance of being represented
is to pick deliberately individuals who represent the various…
all subjects have an equal chance of being in the control or…
sample
a relatively small group out of the total population under st…
random sample
each individual has an equal chance of being represented
15 terms
Research and Statistics
Hindsight Bias
Operation Definition
Replication
Case Study
Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one woul…
Statement of procedures used to explain research variables in…
Repeating of research study to determine if its finding exten…
Descriptive research technique in which one person or a small…
Hindsight Bias
Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one woul…
Operation Definition
Statement of procedures used to explain research variables in…
29 terms
Research and statistics
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Positive relationship
Scales to measure a variable
Is the variable that is manipulated
Is the variable we measure the effect of the independent
As the IV increases the DV decreases ... Eg: the more music the…
Nominal ... Ordinal... Interval... Ratio
Independent variable
Is the variable that is manipulated
Dependent variable
Is the variable we measure the effect of the independent
21 terms
Research and statistics
data
population
sample
random sample
all the information collected in a scientific study
all the subjects a study can apply to
the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…
a sample group of a larger population selected in such a way…
data
all the information collected in a scientific study
population
all the subjects a study can apply to
22 terms
Research and statistics
PICO, to formulate"well built question"
Specificity
Sensitivity
Type I error ( false positive, I.e. gu…
P pt/pop/prob, I intervention, C comparison, O outcomes
negatives correctly identified as negatives ( incorrectly ide…
positives correctly identified as true positives (correctly i…
Reject null hypotheses
PICO, to formulate"well built question"
P pt/pop/prob, I intervention, C comparison, O outcomes
Specificity
negatives correctly identified as negatives ( incorrectly ide…
15 terms
Research and statistics
hindsight bias
critical thinking
theory
hypothesis
people believing they knew this would occur after learning th…
thinking outside the box, doesn't accept arguments and conclu…
an explanation discovered by the use of observations that pre…
A prediction... -often implied by a theory... ex. people who sleep…
hindsight bias
people believing they knew this would occur after learning th…
critical thinking
thinking outside the box, doesn't accept arguments and conclu…
15 terms
Research and Statistics
hindsight bias
case study
standarization
Random Assignment
people tend to believe they could have foreseen an event afte…
intensive investigation of ONE person. can represent a phenom…
keeping tests consistent and treatment in uniform. related te…
The procedure of assigning participants to the experimental a…
hindsight bias
people tend to believe they could have foreseen an event afte…
case study
intensive investigation of ONE person. can represent a phenom…
84 terms
Research and Statistics
hindsight bias
applied research
basic research
hypothesis
i-knew-it-all-along; tendency to exaggerate, after learning a…
scientific study undertaken to solve immediate practical prob…
scientific inquiry done to advance basic knowledge, not to so…
the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess a…
hindsight bias
i-knew-it-all-along; tendency to exaggerate, after learning a…
applied research
scientific study undertaken to solve immediate practical prob…
Research and statistics
Egocentrism
Concrete operational Stage
Personal Fable
Theory of the mind (and autism)
The inability to see the world from someone elses perspective.
Piagets third principal, it symbolizes conservatism
Exaggerated belief in ones own uniqueness and immorality , es…
Peoples ideas about their on and others mental stages-about t…
Egocentrism
The inability to see the world from someone elses perspective.
Concrete operational Stage
Piagets third principal, it symbolizes conservatism
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