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Why are the ethical safeguards provide…

It has been suggested that informed co…

What may help to encourage participant…

Which of the following need not be cov…

Researchers may decide against running a study because of the…

Sixth grade

Reassurance of anonymity

The qualifications and organizational affiliation of the rese…

Why are the ethical safeguards provide…

Researchers may decide against running a study because of the…

It has been suggested that informed co…

Sixth grade

Measurement Scales

Nominal Scales

Ordinal Scales

Interval Scales

NOIR

Data with no quantitative values, organized into categories w…

Data are organized into categories which are rank ordered on…

Data are organized into categories which are rank ordered wit…

Measurement Scales

NOIR

Nominal Scales

Data with no quantitative values, organized into categories w…

What are the 4 goals of research?

objectivity

reliability

validity

1) objectivity... 2) reliability... 3) validity... 4) generalizability

you want your research to be as free from bias as possible

CONSISTENT results over time and across subjects; reliable

the test measures what it's supposed to (in order for a test…

What are the 4 goals of research?

1) objectivity... 2) reliability... 3) validity... 4) generalizability

objectivity

you want your research to be as free from bias as possible

Cross-Sectional Study

Cohort Study

Case-Control

Positive Control

Studies a sample of the population @ ONE POINT IN TIME. eg. a…

Studies a sample of the population over time. eg. a researche…

Study Studies two sample populations, one with and one withou…

groups in which an effect is expected because scientists mani…

Cross-Sectional Study

Studies a sample of the population @ ONE POINT IN TIME. eg. a…

Cohort Study

Studies a sample of the population over time. eg. a researche…

Applied Research

Basic Research

Hypothesis

validity

has clear practical application

looks at questions of interest, but no real application

educated guess

does the research measure what its supposed to measure

Applied Research

has clear practical application

Basic Research

looks at questions of interest, but no real application

Probability Sample

Simple random sample

Stratified random sample

Cluster random sample

Allows researcher to specify that each element of population…

A probability sample - subjects from known population are dra…

A probability sample - subjects first grouped into strata of…

A probability sample - multiple-stage sampling in which succe…

Probability Sample

Allows researcher to specify that each element of population…

Simple random sample

A probability sample - subjects from known population are dra…

hindsight bias

overconfidence

operational definition

standardization

knew-it-all-along effect; seeing an event as predictable afte…

when we think we know more than we do.... -hindsight bias... -comm…

statement of procedures used to define research variables.... -…

making sure test conditions are consistent, controlled, and o…

hindsight bias

knew-it-all-along effect; seeing an event as predictable afte…

overconfidence

when we think we know more than we do.... -hindsight bias... -comm…

Theory

Hypothesis

Operational definition

Empirical evidence

Set of logically related statements that provide a tentative…

A precise, educated TESTABLE proposition about the relationsh…

A clear and precise statement of procedures/operations used t…

Evidence that can be experienced/observed through the senses

Theory

Set of logically related statements that provide a tentative…

Hypothesis

A precise, educated TESTABLE proposition about the relationsh…

Quality research should...

Qualitative research (subjective)

Quantitative research (objective)

Descriptive research (qualitative rese…

Expand current knowledge and enhance practice of the profession

Explore relationships through textual, not quantitative data.…

Relationships using numeric data. Surveys. results can often…

Data for a particular point in time. Associations can be made…

Quality research should...

Expand current knowledge and enhance practice of the profession

Qualitative research (subjective)

Explore relationships through textual, not quantitative data.…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

Multiple group design

Factorial design

Xs: Subject (participant) variable

Xe: experimental variables

When you use more than two groups

When you use more than one IV

Differences in the subjects

Variables the experiments manipulate

Multiple group design

When you use more than two groups

Factorial design

When you use more than one IV

experimental group

independent variable

dependent variable

scientific method

group of participants exposed to the independent variable

characteristic of experiment that is changed

is being measured

step-by-step procedure for conducting research

experimental group

group of participants exposed to the independent variable

independent variable

characteristic of experiment that is changed

hindsight bias

theory

hypothesis

operational definition

the "knew-it-all-along" effect, the tendency to believe you w…

summarizes facts/observations in an effort to explain behavior

a testable prediction often implied by theory ("if"/"when")

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operati…

hindsight bias

the "knew-it-all-along" effect, the tendency to believe you w…

theory

summarizes facts/observations in an effort to explain behavior

What determines whether a field of stu…

What approach must science take when r…

Empirical Approach?

What is the independent variable?

Method, NOT content

Empirical.

Relies on direct observation and experimentation.

The thing that gets manipulated by the researcher. What deter…

What determines whether a field of stu…

Method, NOT content

What approach must science take when r…

Empirical.

Types of research

Basic research

Applied Research

Two goals of descriptive statistics

Basic and applied

Intended to expand general knowledge... Example: tells us how vi…

Intended to solve practical problems

Correlation and Prediction/Regression

Types of research

Basic and applied

Basic research

Intended to expand general knowledge... Example: tells us how vi…

Belief Bias Effect

Evans, Barston & Pollard (1983)

Simpson paradox (or Yule-Simpson Effect)

Aggregated Data vs Disaggregate Data

The tendency to judge the strength of arguments based on plau…

Statistics helps to keep people honest- it is too easy to bel…

A trend that appears in different groups of data disappears o…

Aggregated data is data combined from several measurements.…

Belief Bias Effect

The tendency to judge the strength of arguments based on plau…

Evans, Barston & Pollard (1983)

Statistics helps to keep people honest- it is too easy to bel…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

Theory

Hypothesis

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

a testable prediction

Hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusio…

William Wundt

Herman Ebbinghaus

oswald kulpe

James McKeen Cattell

founded the first psychological research lab but believed tha…

studied higher mental processes using experimental psychology…

disagreed with wundt, believed there can be imageless thought.

studied under wundt and introduced mental testing to the US

William Wundt

founded the first psychological research lab but believed tha…

Herman Ebbinghaus

studied higher mental processes using experimental psychology…

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

thinking that you don't blindly accept arguments and conclusi…

explanation that organizes observations and predicts behavior…

testable prediction.

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one…

critical thinking

thinking that you don't blindly accept arguments and conclusi…

Hindsight Bias

Overconfidence

Operational Definition

Standardization

Definition-Looking back at past experiences as being predicta…

Definition-Acting more confident in the judgement of a inaccu…

Definition- defining intuitive and basic concepts to begin sc…

Definition- a standard administration of experiments to ensur…

Hindsight Bias

Definition-Looking back at past experiences as being predicta…

Overconfidence

Definition-Acting more confident in the judgement of a inaccu…

Hindsight Bias

Overconfidence

Frequency Distribution

Bell Curve

Seeing an event as being predictable after experiencing it

When somebody has more confidence in their ability then they…

How often the number (value) shows up in the data

Graph of normal distribution

Hindsight Bias

Seeing an event as being predictable after experiencing it

Overconfidence

When somebody has more confidence in their ability then they…

Measured score

Systematic error

Random error

Reliability

True score =/- error

Instrument (make sure they are calibrated

Subject, tester (rater)

Extent to which a measurement is repeatable in similar condit…

Measured score

True score =/- error

Systematic error

Instrument (make sure they are calibrated

Applied Research

Basic Research

Good research must be: (basic terms of…

Validity

Clear, practical applications

Explores questions of interest, but has no real application.

1. Validity... 2. Reliability... 3. Hypothesis

Does it measure what its suppose to be measuring?

Applied Research

Clear, practical applications

Basic Research

Explores questions of interest, but has no real application.

reliability

Validity

inductive method

deductive method

the consistency with which the event is measured repeatedly

the degree to which an instrument measures what is says it me…

experiment first and then propose a theory based on results

propose theory then verify it

reliability

the consistency with which the event is measured repeatedly

Validity

the degree to which an instrument measures what is says it me…

Statistics

Parameter

Nominal

Ordinal

-Refers to numbers relating to sample studied

-Refers to numbers for population

-Non-parametric... -Count of attributes/events falls into mutual…

-Non-parametric... -Arrangement of attribute in a rank order... -Ca…

Statistics

-Refers to numbers relating to sample studied

Parameter

-Refers to numbers for population

Nominal #s

Ordinal #s

Internal #s

Ratio #s

are merely names, they carry info about identity.

on the scale refer to a ranking, they carry info about identi…

on the scale have equal magnitudes between them, all numbers…

on the scale have equal internals between them and there is a…

Nominal #s

are merely names, they carry info about identity.

Ordinal #s

on the scale refer to a ranking, they carry info about identi…

Statistics

Descriptive statistics

Frequency distribution

Histogram

Is the use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret…

Used to organize and summarize data including measures of cen…

And orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of…

A bargraph that present status from the frequency distribution

Statistics

Is the use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret…

Descriptive statistics

Used to organize and summarize data including measures of cen…

Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research

N

Population

Focus on numerical analysis eg. multiple choice surveys

Creating a picture of a situation/problem through words eg. i…

The number of people responding

Entire collection of people

Quantitative Research

Focus on numerical analysis eg. multiple choice surveys

Qualitative Research

Creating a picture of a situation/problem through words eg. i…

Hypothesis

Quantitative Methods

Qualitative Methods

Mixed Methodology

a hypothetical explanation describing the relationship betwee…

are an approach to data collection that measures the quantity…

are an approach to data collection that attempts to discover…

• Use of both methods to show triangulation and to see consis…

Hypothesis

a hypothetical explanation describing the relationship betwee…

Quantitative Methods

are an approach to data collection that measures the quantity…

Hindsight bias

Theory

Hypothesis

Operational definition

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one w…

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

a testable prediction often implied by a theory

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operati…

Hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one w…

Theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that org…

cause and effect/causation

strength, consistency, temporality, do…

formulate problem, formulate hypothesi…

hypothesis

experimental research is designed to establish:

6 standards for causality

the scientific method

suggested explanation of a phenomenon

cause and effect/causation

experimental research is designed to establish:

strength, consistency, temporality, do…

6 standards for causality

Variable

Data Distribution

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Anything that can take on a different quality or quantity. It…

A data distribution is: a listing of values associated with a…

The variable that is presumed to influence another variable.

The variable that is presumed to be influenced by another var…

Variable

Anything that can take on a different quality or quantity. It…

Data Distribution

A data distribution is: a listing of values associated with a…

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

the tendency to believe after learning and outcome, that one…

thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

an explanation using and integrated set of principles that or…

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe after learning and outcome, that one…

critical thinking

thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

The null hypothesis

Hypothesis

Confounding variables

Independent variable

The statement that the independent variable will have no effc…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Variables the experimenter didn't control that might've affec…

The variable you manipulate

The null hypothesis

The statement that the independent variable will have no effc…

Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

"n" or "N"

"p" level

confidence interval (CI)

independent variable

refers to the size of the sample (n) or the population (N) in…

--refers to the probability value... --the lower the p value, th…

interval in which a measurement trial falls within or corresp…

the variable representing the value being manipulated by the…

"n" or "N"

refers to the size of the sample (n) or the population (N) in…

"p" level

--refers to the probability value... --the lower the p value, th…

Chi Squared

McNemar's Chi Squared

Mann Whitney U or Wilcoxon Rank Sum

Wilcoxon Signed Rank

Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Nominal, Independent

Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Nominal, Paired

Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Ordinal, Independent

Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Ordinal, Paired

Chi Squared

Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Nominal, Independent

McNemar's Chi Squared

Non-Parametric, 2 groups, Nominal, Paired

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

believing you knew the outcome all along

logical and well thought out reasoning

a concept or idea that is testable

educated guess

hindsight bias

believing you knew the outcome all along

critical thinking

logical and well thought out reasoning

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Level of Significance

Type I Error

are manipulated or selected by the researcher to check their…

attempt to measure the results of treatment of independent va…

when setting up their research design. Has to do with researc…

Errors in research. The researcher rejects the null hypothesi…

Independent Variable

are manipulated or selected by the researcher to check their…

Dependent Variable

attempt to measure the results of treatment of independent va…

T-Test

Probability Values

Paired T-Test

Unpaired T-Test

Measures the probability that differences in scores are due t…

Probability value is greater than 0.05 = there is more than 5…

Used when testing the same individuals at two different times…

Used when giving the same test to two completely different gr…

T-Test

Measures the probability that differences in scores are due t…

Probability Values

Probability value is greater than 0.05 = there is more than 5…

sample

random sample

stratified sample

random assignment

a relatively small group out of the total population under st…

each individual has an equal chance of being represented

is to pick deliberately individuals who represent the various…

all subjects have an equal chance of being in the control or…

sample

a relatively small group out of the total population under st…

random sample

each individual has an equal chance of being represented

Hindsight Bias

Operation Definition

Replication

Case Study

Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one woul…

Statement of procedures used to explain research variables in…

Repeating of research study to determine if its finding exten…

Descriptive research technique in which one person or a small…

Hindsight Bias

Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one woul…

Operation Definition

Statement of procedures used to explain research variables in…

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Positive relationship

Scales to measure a variable

Is the variable that is manipulated

Is the variable we measure the effect of the independent

As the IV increases the DV decreases ... Eg: the more music the…

Nominal ... Ordinal... Interval... Ratio

Independent variable

Is the variable that is manipulated

Dependent variable

Is the variable we measure the effect of the independent

data

population

sample

random sample

all the information collected in a scientific study

all the subjects a study can apply to

the small group of subjects, out of the total number availabl…

a sample group of a larger population selected in such a way…

data

all the information collected in a scientific study

population

all the subjects a study can apply to

PICO, to formulate"well built question"

Specificity

Sensitivity

Type I error ( false positive, I.e. gu…

P pt/pop/prob, I intervention, C comparison, O outcomes

negatives correctly identified as negatives ( incorrectly ide…

positives correctly identified as true positives (correctly i…

Reject null hypotheses

PICO, to formulate"well built question"

P pt/pop/prob, I intervention, C comparison, O outcomes

Specificity

negatives correctly identified as negatives ( incorrectly ide…

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

people believing they knew this would occur after learning th…

thinking outside the box, doesn't accept arguments and conclu…

an explanation discovered by the use of observations that pre…

A prediction... -often implied by a theory... ex. people who sleep…

hindsight bias

people believing they knew this would occur after learning th…

critical thinking

thinking outside the box, doesn't accept arguments and conclu…

hindsight bias

case study

standarization

Random Assignment

people tend to believe they could have foreseen an event afte…

intensive investigation of ONE person. can represent a phenom…

keeping tests consistent and treatment in uniform. related te…

The procedure of assigning participants to the experimental a…

hindsight bias

people tend to believe they could have foreseen an event afte…

case study

intensive investigation of ONE person. can represent a phenom…

hindsight bias

applied research

basic research

hypothesis

i-knew-it-all-along; tendency to exaggerate, after learning a…

scientific study undertaken to solve immediate practical prob…

scientific inquiry done to advance basic knowledge, not to so…

the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess a…

hindsight bias

i-knew-it-all-along; tendency to exaggerate, after learning a…

applied research

scientific study undertaken to solve immediate practical prob…

Egocentrism

Concrete operational Stage

Personal Fable

Theory of the mind (and autism)

The inability to see the world from someone elses perspective.

Piagets third principal, it symbolizes conservatism

Exaggerated belief in ones own uniqueness and immorality , es…

Peoples ideas about their on and others mental stages-about t…

Egocentrism

The inability to see the world from someone elses perspective.

Concrete operational Stage

Piagets third principal, it symbolizes conservatism