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Why are the ethical safeguards provided…

It has been suggested that informed con…

What may help to encourage participants…

Which of the following need not be cove…

Researchers may decide against running a study because of the…

Sixth grade

Reassurance of anonymity

The qualifications and organizational affiliation of the resea…

Pearson product moment correlation

Partial correlation

Semi-partial correlation

Linear regression, if linear relationsh…

You would like to know if there is a relationship between two…

You would like to know the correlation /b/ two variables but w…

you would like to know the relationship between two variables…

You want to predict one dependent variable from on independent…

Probability Sample

Simple random sample

Stratified random sample

Cluster random sample

Allows researcher to specify that each element of population h…

A probability sample - subjects from known population are draw…

A probability sample - subjects first grouped into strata of i…

A probability sample - multiple-stage sampling in which succes…

hindsight bias

overconfidence

operational definition

standardization

knew-it-all-along effect; seeing an event as predictable after…

when we think we know more than we do.... -hindsight bias... -commo…

statement of procedures used to define research variables.... -b…

making sure test conditions are consistent, controlled, and ob…

Cross-Sectional Study

Cohort Study

Case-Control

Positive Control

Studies a sample of the population @ ONE POINT IN TIME. eg. a…

Studies a sample of the population over time. eg. a researcher…

Study Studies two sample populations, one with and one without…

groups in which an effect is expected because scientists manip…

What are the 4 goals of research?

objectivity

reliability

validity

1) objectivity... 2) reliability... 3) validity... 4) generalizability

you want your research to be as free from bias as possible

CONSISTENT results over time and across subjects; reliable

the test measures what it's supposed to (in order for a test t…

Theory

Hypothesis

Operational definition

Empirical evidence

Set of logically related statements that provide a tentative e…

A precise, educated TESTABLE proposition about the relationshi…

A clear and precise statement of procedures/operations used th…

Evidence that can be experienced/observed through the senses

Quality research should...

Qualitative research (subjective)

Quantitative research (objective)

Descriptive research (qualitative resea…

Expand current knowledge and enhance practice of the profession

Explore relationships through textual, not quantitative data.…

Relationships using numeric data. Surveys. results can often b…

Data for a particular point in time. Associations can be made,…

Hindsight bias

Critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one w…

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion…

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hindsight bias

theory

hypothesis

operational definition

the "knew-it-all-along" effect, the tendency to believe you wo…

summarizes facts/observations in an effort to explain behavior

a testable prediction often implied by theory ("if"/"when")

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operatio…

What determines whether a field of stud…

What approach must science take when re…

Empirical Approach?

What is the independent variable?

Method, NOT content

Empirical.

Relies on direct observation and experimentation.

The thing that gets manipulated by the researcher. What determ…

Belief Bias Effect

Evans, Barston & Pollard (1983)

Simpson paradox (or Yule-Simpson Effect)

Aggregated Data vs Disaggregate Data

The tendency to judge the strength of arguments based on plaus…

Statistics helps to keep people honest- it is too easy to beli…

A trend that appears in different groups of data disappears or…

Aggregated data is data combined from several measurements.…

William Wundt

Herman Ebbinghaus

oswald kulpe

James McKeen Cattell

founded the first psychological research lab but believed that…

studied higher mental processes using experimental psychology,…

disagreed with wundt, believed there can be imageless thought.

studied under wundt and introduced mental testing to the US

Hindsight Bias

Overconfidence

Operational Definition

Standardization

Definition-Looking back at past experiences as being predictab…

Definition-Acting more confident in the judgement of a inaccur…

Definition- defining intuitive and basic concepts to begin sci…

Definition- a standard administration of experiments to ensure…

Statistics

Descriptive statistics

Frequency distribution

Histogram

Is the use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret…

Used to organize and summarize data including measures of cent…

And orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of…

A bargraph that present status from the frequency distribution

Hypothesis

Quantitative Methods

Qualitative Methods

Mixed Methodology

a hypothetical explanation describing the relationship between…

are an approach to data collection that measures the quantity…

are an approach to data collection that attempts to discover t…

• Use of both methods to show triangulation and to see consist…

Nominal #s

Ordinal #s

Internal #s

Ratio #s

are merely names, they carry info about identity.

on the scale refer to a ranking, they carry info about identit…

on the scale have equal magnitudes between them, all numbers o…

on the scale have equal internals between them and there is an…

Variable

Data Distribution

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Anything that can take on a different quality or quantity. It…

A data distribution is: a listing of values associated with a…

The variable that is presumed to influence another variable.

The variable that is presumed to be influenced by another vari…

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

the tendency to believe after learning and outcome, that one w…

thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions…

an explanation using and integrated set of principles that org…

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Hindsight bias

Theory

Hypothesis

Operational definition

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one wo…

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that orga…

a testable prediction often implied by a theory

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operatio…

T-Test

Probability Values

Paired T-Test

Unpaired T-Test

Measures the probability that differences in scores are due to…

Probability value is greater than 0.05 = there is more than 5%…

Used when testing the same individuals at two different times…

Used when giving the same test to two completely different gro…

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Level of Significance

Type I Error

are manipulated or selected by the researcher to check their e…

attempt to measure the results of treatment of independent var…

when setting up their research design. Has to do with research…

Errors in research. The researcher rejects the null hypothesis…

Hindsight Bias

Operation Definition

Replication

Case Study

Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would…

Statement of procedures used to explain research variables in…

Repeating of research study to determine if its finding extend…

Descriptive research technique in which one person or a small…

hindsight bias

critical thinking

theory

hypothesis

people believing they knew this would occur after learning the…

thinking outside the box, doesn't accept arguments and conclus…

an explanation discovered by the use of observations that pred…

A prediction... -often implied by a theory... ex. people who sleep…

hindsight bias

applied research

basic research

hypothesis

i-knew-it-all-along; tendency to exaggerate, after learning an…

scientific study undertaken to solve immediate practical probl…

scientific inquiry done to advance basic knowledge, not to sol…

the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess ab…

Egocentrism

Concrete operational Stage

Personal Fable

Theory of the mind (and autism)

The inability to see the world from someone elses perspective.

Piagets third principal, it symbolizes conservatism

Exaggerated belief in ones own uniqueness and immorality , esp…

Peoples ideas about their on and others mental stages-about th…

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Positive relationship

Scales to measure a variable

Is the variable that is manipulated

Is the variable we measure the effect of the independent

As the IV increases the DV decreases ... Eg: the more music the h…

Nominal ... Ordinal... Interval... Ratio

"n" or "N"

"p" level

confidence interval (CI)

independent variable

refers to the size of the sample (n) or the population (N) in…

--refers to the probability value... --the lower the p value, the…

interval in which a measurement trial falls within or correspo…

the variable representing the value being manipulated by the r…