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Study sets matching "responses immunity"

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Study sets matching "responses immunity"

8 terms
Immune Response
Inflammatory Response
Histamine
Interferon
Immune Response
nonspecific defense against infection, characterized by redne…
Chemical stored in mast cells that triggers dilation and incr…
Protein produced by cells in response to being infected by a…
The body's defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral…
Inflammatory Response
nonspecific defense against infection, characterized by redne…
Histamine
Chemical stored in mast cells that triggers dilation and incr…
16 terms
Immune Responses
Acute-phase reactant
Acute-phase reactant: positive (upregu…
Acute-phase reactant: Negative (downre…
Complement overview
-Factors whose serum concentrations change in response to inf…
-Serum amyloid A - prolonged elevation can lead to amyloidosi…
-Albumin - reduction conserves amino acids for positive react…
-Plasma proteins that play role in innate immunity and inflam…
Acute-phase reactant
-Factors whose serum concentrations change in response to inf…
Acute-phase reactant: positive (upregu…
-Serum amyloid A - prolonged elevation can lead to amyloidosi…
39 terms
Immune Responses
Normal Immune Response
Types of Immunity
Innate Immunity
Active Acquired Immunity
The 3 functions of immune responses are:... 1. Defense - the bod…
Either innate (present at birth) or acquired (development of…
Present at birth, primary role is first-line defense against…
Results from the invasion of foreign substances into the body…
Normal Immune Response
The 3 functions of immune responses are:... 1. Defense - the bod…
Types of Immunity
Either innate (present at birth) or acquired (development of…
12 terms
Immune Responses
Altered Immune Responses
Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions
IgE Mediated
Diagnostic for Allergies
Hypersensitivity Reactions, autoimmunity, immunodefiencies
Type 1: IgE mediated... Type 2: Cytotoxic ... Type 3: Immune-Comple…
Allergic Reactions... ⬆ vascular permiability, vasodilation, itc…
CBC, serological testing, RAST, Patch Testing
Altered Immune Responses
Hypersensitivity Reactions, autoimmunity, immunodefiencies
Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions
Type 1: IgE mediated... Type 2: Cytotoxic ... Type 3: Immune-Comple…
35 terms
Immune Responses
Types of Sentinel cells
Lymph nodes contain
Innate immunity
Innate immunity consists of...
1. Dendritic ... 2. Mast Cells... 3. Macrophages
B cells, T cells and lymphatic vessels.
This is the quick response that stops the entry of pathogens…
1. Barriers... 2. Sentinel cells that respond rapidly.
Types of Sentinel cells
1. Dendritic ... 2. Mast Cells... 3. Macrophages
Lymph nodes contain
B cells, T cells and lymphatic vessels.
27 terms
immune responses
2nd line of defense ...
1st line of defense in immune response…
immune response...
immune response is activated by...
Immune response, against injury and m/0
inflammation
has a capacity to remember and the reaction is based on this…
- in the presence of an already activated inflammatory respon…
2nd line of defense ...
Immune response, against injury and m/0
1st line of defense in immune response…
inflammation
8 terms
Immune responses
Acute- phase reactants
C-reactive protein... (positive- upregula…
Ferritin... (Positive upregulated)
Fibrinogen ... (positive upregulated)
Factors whose serum concentrations change significantly in re…
Opsonin; fixes complement and facilitates phagocytosis.... Measu…
binds and sequesters iron to inhibit microbial iron scavenging
Coagulation factor; promotes endothelial repair; correlates w…
Acute- phase reactants
Factors whose serum concentrations change significantly in re…
C-reactive protein... (positive- upregula…
Opsonin; fixes complement and facilitates phagocytosis.... Measu…
21 terms
Immune Responses
About immune responses
Immune-related factors in disease
Allergy
Autoimmunity
Normal body structures function to block entry of germs, infl…
Allergy, autoimmunity, immunodeficiency
Hypersensitivity to something in environment
The body will not recognize self and will begin to form antib…
About immune responses
Normal body structures function to block entry of germs, infl…
Immune-related factors in disease
Allergy, autoimmunity, immunodeficiency
16 terms
Immune Responses
antibody
antigen
B cell
cell-mediated immune response
any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the bo…
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immun…
a lymphocyte derived from bone marrow that provides humoral i…
an immune response that involves the presence and reaction of…
antibody
any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the bo…
antigen
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immun…
25 terms
Immunity and Abnormal Immune Responses
Functions of the Immune System
3 Lines of Defence in Immunity
Antigen (immunogen)
Antibody (immunoglobulin, Ig)
Recognise foreign substances (including, but not limited to p…
1st Line- Barriers... 2nd Line- Phagocytosis and Inflammation…
Foreign substance, or human cellular protein that is unique i…
Produced by lymphocytes... Has a unique variable portion = binds…
Functions of the Immune System
Recognise foreign substances (including, but not limited to p…
3 Lines of Defence in Immunity
1st Line- Barriers... 2nd Line- Phagocytosis and Inflammation…
35 terms
Immunity Response
Innate Immunity
Adaptive Immunity
Antimicrobial Substances
Normal Flora
Skin... Mucous membrane... Sensor system... Antimicrobial... Normal flora
Antibodies... "learns"... "remembers"
Sweat... Lysozyme... Lactoferrin-take up free iron... Transferrin-upta…
Competitive... Position... Nutrients... Produce toxic materials... E. co…
Innate Immunity
Skin... Mucous membrane... Sensor system... Antimicrobial... Normal flora
Adaptive Immunity
Antibodies... "learns"... "remembers"
6 terms
Responses to Immunizations
Local allergic reaction to a vaccine
Local reaction to vaccine
Systemic reaction to vaccine
Severe local allergic reaction to vacc…
can occur minutes to hours after injection... ex: wheel, urticar…
expected response... swelling/pain/redness at injection site
itching... sore throat... fever... irritability... loss of appetite... somet…
warmth... erythema (bumps under skin)... edema... petechiae (small red…
Local allergic reaction to a vaccine
can occur minutes to hours after injection... ex: wheel, urticar…
Local reaction to vaccine
expected response... swelling/pain/redness at injection site
17 terms
Immune responses
class switching
kinin system
Class switching
Costimulation
The process by which an individual B cell can link immunoglob…
A plasma enzyme system that generates mediators of inflammati…
From IgM production to IgG, IgE & IgA
Occurs between T cells & B cells. E.g. B7 (B cell) → CD28 (T…
class switching
The process by which an individual B cell can link immunoglob…
kinin system
A plasma enzyme system that generates mediators of inflammati…
67 terms
immune response
resistance
susceptibility
non specific resistance
specific resistance or immunity
ability to ward off disease through body defenses
lack of resistance
all body defenses that protect the host against any kind of p…
defenses against specific microorganisms
resistance
ability to ward off disease through body defenses
susceptibility
lack of resistance
immune response
functions of Complement fragment
eosinophils
granular leukocytes
neutrophils in blood
classic pathway- 0psonization lectin pathway- membrane attack…
combat parasites- long term chemtaxis
Blood they are neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
microphages in tissue
functions of Complement fragment
classic pathway- 0psonization lectin pathway- membrane attack…
eosinophils
combat parasites- long term chemtaxis
16 terms
Immune Response
leucocytes
lymphocytes
B cell
T cell
Another name for white blood cells
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body'…
lymphocyte that matures in the bone marrow and later produces…
lymphocyte that matures in the thymus; is responsible for cel…
leucocytes
Another name for white blood cells
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body'…
40 terms
immune response
immunity
immune response
innate and adaptive
influences, adaptive
protection from disease
collective coordinated response of cells and molecules of the…
form a dynamic network in which numerous cells and molecules…
innate immune response stimulates and _____________ the natur…
immunity
protection from disease
immune response
collective coordinated response of cells and molecules of the…
39 terms
Immune Responses
memory B cells
plasma cells
When B-cells differentiate during the…
T- Cells are involved in what type of…
recognize antigens in the future
produce antibodies
memory B-cells and plasma cells
cell-mediated immunity
memory B cells
recognize antigens in the future
plasma cells
produce antibodies
18 terms
Immune Responses
Innate Response
Immunological
Innate Immunity
Adaptive immunity
built-in, always on, always available
Require a specific set of prior events to be able to be activ…
non-specific, generates a rapid response, no memory
specific to antigen, generates potent response, involves a la…
Innate Response
built-in, always on, always available
Immunological
Require a specific set of prior events to be able to be activ…
Immune Responses
Acute-phase reactants
C-reactive protein
Ferritin
Fibrinogen
Factors whose serum concentrations change significantly in re…
Opsonin; fixes complement and facilitates phagocytosis.... -Mea…
Binds and sequesters iron to inhibit microbial iron scavenging
-Coagulation factor... -promotes endothelial repair... -correlates…
Acute-phase reactants
Factors whose serum concentrations change significantly in re…
C-reactive protein
Opsonin; fixes complement and facilitates phagocytosis.... -Mea…
26 terms
Immune responses
third line of defense
second line of defense
first line of defense
plasma
humoral and cell mediated responses
mast cells and macrophages
skin oils, stomach acid, antimicrobial protiens in tears, cil…
55%
third line of defense
humoral and cell mediated responses
second line of defense
mast cells and macrophages
17 terms
Immune responses
innate immunity
species, racial, and individual
Species immunity
Racial immunity
Genetic immunity
three types of innate immunity
attributed to the unique genetic makeup of a particular species
particular race
innate immunity
Genetic immunity
species, racial, and individual
three types of innate immunity
32 terms
immune responses
immunity
immune organs
modes of immune functions
innate (natural) immunity
Physiologic mechanisms which... recognize material as foreign or…
the entire lymph system, the tonsils and adenoids, the thymus…
Innate (natural) ... Adaptive (acquired)
the cellular and biochemical defenses that provide rapid prot…
immunity
Physiologic mechanisms which... recognize material as foreign or…
immune organs
the entire lymph system, the tonsils and adenoids, the thymus…
42 terms
Immune Responses
acute-phase reactants
C-reactive protein (CRP)
ferritin
fibrinogen
concs change significantly with inflammation... produced by live…
opsonin ... measured clinically as sign of ongoing inflamm... upreg…
upregulated with inflamm... binds and sequesters iron to inhibit…
upregulated with inflamm... coagulation factor... promotes endothel…
acute-phase reactants
concs change significantly with inflammation... produced by live…
C-reactive protein (CRP)
opsonin ... measured clinically as sign of ongoing inflamm... upreg…
122 terms
Immune Responses
Immune system role
Immune system is a what?
Components of the Immune System
Lymphoid structure
-promotes normal functions- clean up infected tissue and prep…
human SURVEILLANCE system... warns of an attack (inflammation…
-Lymphoid structure... -Immune cells... -Tissue
lymph nodes, spleen and tonsils, intestinal lymphoid tissue
Immune system role
-promotes normal functions- clean up infected tissue and prep…
Immune system is a what?
human SURVEILLANCE system... warns of an attack (inflammation…
16 terms
Immune responses
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
Listeria
Corynebacterium
Evasion: leukocydins, capsule, protein A, Catalase... Response:…
Evasion: IgA proease; M protein binds Ig's; Streptolysin lyse…
Evasion: Intracellular. Exit of phagosome into Cytosol via li…
Toxin neutralizing antibodies
Staphylococcus
Evasion: leukocydins, capsule, protein A, Catalase... Response:…
Streptococcus
Evasion: IgA proease; M protein binds Ig's; Streptolysin lyse…
13 terms
Immune Responses
Injured tissue response
goal
mechanism
Implantation of biomaterials activates
known as inflammatory response
to destroy or inactivate foreign entity, initiate healing
signal cascades from plasma and cells
coagulation cascade - involves 12 proteins... complement alterna…
Injured tissue response
known as inflammatory response
goal
to destroy or inactivate foreign entity, initiate healing
29 terms
Immune Responses
Factors whose serum concentrations cha…
Organ that produces acute-phase reacta…
Cytokine that induces production of ac…
Acute-phase reactants unregulated in i…
Acute-phase reactants
Liver
IL-6
C-reactive protein, Ferritin, Fibrinogen, Hepcidin, Serum Amy…
Factors whose serum concentrations cha…
Acute-phase reactants
Organ that produces acute-phase reacta…
Liver
50 terms
Immune Responses
type I hypersensitivity
TIH test
Type I hypersensitivity disorders
type II hypersensitivity
anaphylactic & atopic... - free antigen crosslinks IgE on presen…
skin test for specific IgE
Anaphylaxis (bee sting, some food/drug allergies)... Allergic an…
cytotoxic (antibody mediated)... - IgM, IgG bind to fixed antige…
type I hypersensitivity
anaphylactic & atopic... - free antigen crosslinks IgE on presen…
TIH test
skin test for specific IgE
17 terms
Immune responses
What does CRP do?
Why does ferritin go up?
What does hepcidin do?
Two negative acute phase reactants
Fixes complement and facilitates phagocytosis
Binds and sequesters iron to inhibit microbial iron scavenging
Prevents ferritin from releasing iron ==> causes anaemia of c…
Albumin - reduction conserves amino acids for positive reacta…
What does CRP do?
Fixes complement and facilitates phagocytosis
Why does ferritin go up?
Binds and sequesters iron to inhibit microbial iron scavenging
Immune responses
long
memory
quickly
cold
the primary immune response is the first exposure to a pathog…
during primary immune response _____________ cells are produc…
during the second immune response the body deals with it ____…
natural active immunity happens when you get a ____________.
long
the primary immune response is the first exposure to a pathog…
memory
during primary immune response _____________ cells are produc…
44 terms
Immune Response
Immunology
Immunity
Immune Response
Antigen (Ag)
The study of chemical and cellular defense against foreign su…
The body's resistance to disease-causing microorganisms and d…
Sequence of related host defense events beginning when a host…
A foreign substance that triggers the immune response and rea…
Immunology
The study of chemical and cellular defense against foreign su…
Immunity
The body's resistance to disease-causing microorganisms and d…
118 terms
The immune response
Immune system reaction is
Diseaseq
Components of immune response
What is immunity?
host response
Microbial assult
host's cells, effector... molecules, hypersensitivity reactions
the resistance to infectious diseases
Immune system reaction is
host response
Diseaseq
Microbial assult
48 terms
Immune Response
B Cells
Plasma Cells
Helper T Cell
Helper t cell
manufactures antibodies. A lymphocyte residing in lymphnodes,…
Antibody producing machine because it makes a large amount of…
Regulatory T cell that binds with specific antigen presented…
releases lymphokines
B Cells
manufactures antibodies. A lymphocyte residing in lymphnodes,…
Plasma Cells
Antibody producing machine because it makes a large amount of…
13 terms
immune response
memory cells
lymphocytes
cell signalling
starting the response
Circulate the body for a number of years, so that if a pathog…
are white blood cells that circulate round the body in the bl…
the communication between cells that allows effective coordin…
- a body cell is infected by a pathogen... ---> the pathogen is…
memory cells
Circulate the body for a number of years, so that if a pathog…
lymphocytes
are white blood cells that circulate round the body in the bl…
41 terms
Immune Responses
Homeostasis in immune responses
Defence against pathogens
Non specific
Specific
When foreign substances enter internal environments and alter…
Our bodies have a number of defence against invading pathogen…
Defences that protect against all pathogens and internal non-…
Direct towards a particular pathogen and immune response. E.g…
Homeostasis in immune responses
When foreign substances enter internal environments and alter…
Defence against pathogens
Our bodies have a number of defence against invading pathogen…
18 terms
Immune Response
Macrophages
Antigen Presenting Cell
cytokines
Helper T cells
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destro…
Cells that possess MHC II (B cells and macrophages) and are a…
Hormones secreted by activated macrophages and Helper T cells…
One type of T lymphocyte that activates B cells and other T l…
Macrophages
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destro…
Antigen Presenting Cell
Cells that possess MHC II (B cells and macrophages) and are a…
15 terms
Immune Responses
Types of immunity
Cell-mediated immunity
humoral immunity
non-specific immunity
Cell-mediated immunity, humoral Immunity, non-specific immuni…
-develops when T lymphocytes with protein receptors on the ce…
-B lymphocytes or B cells are responsible through the product…
innate immune system... 1st line defense-skin and mucous membran…
Types of immunity
Cell-mediated immunity, humoral Immunity, non-specific immuni…
Cell-mediated immunity
-develops when T lymphocytes with protein receptors on the ce…
35 terms
Immune Responses
antigen
antibody
autoantibody
thymus
foreign substance, microbes or component of cell that stimula…
specific protein produced in humoral response to bind with an…
antibodies against self-antigen; attacks body's own tissue
gland located in the mediastinum, large in children, decreasi…
antigen
foreign substance, microbes or component of cell that stimula…
antibody
specific protein produced in humoral response to bind with an…
15 terms
Immune Response
Lymphatic System
Lymph
Lymph nodes
Lymphocytes
Body system which creates lymph
Liquid in the spaces between cells
Pathogens are filtered through and destroyed
B-Cells and T-Cells
Lymphatic System
Body system which creates lymph
Lymph
Liquid in the spaces between cells
26 terms
Immune Responses
innate (natural)
adaptive (acquired)
passive natural
passive artificial
cellular/biochemical defense that provides rapid protection a…
immunity that is acquired through previous exposure to an inf…
mother passes antibodies to fetus
take antibodies from other pts blood and give to pt
innate (natural)
cellular/biochemical defense that provides rapid protection a…
adaptive (acquired)
immunity that is acquired through previous exposure to an inf…
19 terms
Immune Response
First line of defense
second line of defense
Third line of defense
Skin and Mucous membranes produce..
skin, mucosa
antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, NK cells, fever (hallmark…
adaptive defense response (B and T cells)
Acid, enzymes, Mucin (traps microbes), defensins, and other c…
First line of defense
skin, mucosa
second line of defense
antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, NK cells, fever (hallmark…
33 terms
Immune Response
Leukocytes
Lymphocytes
T Cell (T Lymphocyte)
Helper T Cell
The general term for white blood cells that neutralise and ki…
A type of white blood cell associated with the lymphatic syst…
Are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland.
Release interleukin 1 which stimulates B cells and interleuki…
Leukocytes
The general term for white blood cells that neutralise and ki…
Lymphocytes
A type of white blood cell associated with the lymphatic syst…
16 terms
immune responses and disorders of immunity
immunity
antigens
epitopes
t cells
innate, natural, adaptive, acquired... specificity... diversity... mem…
stimuli of the immune response... foreign macromoles... proteins mo…
immunologically active sites... antibody attaches itself
cell mediated immunity... helper t cells- cd4+ clusters to diffe…
immunity
innate, natural, adaptive, acquired... specificity... diversity... mem…
antigens
stimuli of the immune response... foreign macromoles... proteins mo…
33 terms
Immune Response
Leukocytes
Lymphocytes
T Cell (T Lymphocyte)
Helper T Cell
The general term for white blood cells that neutralise and ki…
A type of white blood cell associated with the lymphatic syst…
Are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland.
Release interleukin 1 which stimulates B cells and interleuki…
Leukocytes
The general term for white blood cells that neutralise and ki…
Lymphocytes
A type of white blood cell associated with the lymphatic syst…
36 terms
Immune Responses
When B-cells differentiate during the…
The T-cells are involved in what type…
4 types of T-cells seen during seen du…
Cytotoxic T cells
Memory B cells ... Plasma cells: produce antibodies
T-cell: cell-mediated immune response... B-cell: antibody mediat…
Cytotoxic T-cells... Memory T cells... Suppressor T cells... Helper T…
rupture antigens cell wall/membrane, secrete a lymphotoxin in…
When B-cells differentiate during the…
Memory B cells ... Plasma cells: produce antibodies
The T-cells are involved in what type…
T-cell: cell-mediated immune response... B-cell: antibody mediat…
33 terms
Immune Responses
Humoral... due to
Cell mediated response due to...
Acquired Immunity - natural
Natural active v. natural passive
Fluids of body, due to production of antibodies
Due to activity of various types of cells; clearing up infect…
Natural processes of life, occurring naturally, don't require…
Host actively participates in its own protection... Host is pass…
Humoral... due to
Fluids of body, due to production of antibodies
Cell mediated response due to...
Due to activity of various types of cells; clearing up infect…
8 terms
Immune Response
Pathogen
Nonspecific response
Interferons
External barrier
A virus that can cause a disease
Every response is thr same
Protein released by animal cells
prevents you from receiving and understanding the messages
Pathogen
A virus that can cause a disease
Nonspecific response
Every response is thr same
51 terms
Immune Response
Classifications of immune response
Features of Innate immune response
Cell mediated of Innate immune response
Soluble proteins of Innate immune resp…
Cell mediated... - Innate... - Adaptive... Soluble proteins... - Innate... -…
- Intrinsic defense mechanism ( found inside our body, no nee…
- Neutrophils... - Eosinophils... - Basophils/ Mast cells... - Monocyt…
- Lysozyme... - Complement proteins ( also used by Adaptive )... -…
Classifications of immune response
Cell mediated... - Innate... - Adaptive... Soluble proteins... - Innate... -…
Features of Innate immune response
- Intrinsic defense mechanism ( found inside our body, no nee…
23 terms
Immune Response
Antibodies
Phagocytes
Macrophages
Interferon
Structures that bind to antigens flagging them for destruction
A group of cells that clean up waste created after the immune…
Cells that engulf and consume pathogenic microorganisms. They…
Proteins released by viral infected cells to stop viral repli…
Antibodies
Structures that bind to antigens flagging them for destruction
Phagocytes
A group of cells that clean up waste created after the immune…
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