How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Study sets matching "small animal medicine rusvm cardiovascular"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "small animal medicine rusvm cardiovascular"

Small Animal medicine Cardiovascular exam
What will be seen on radiographs with…
What causes pallor of the mucus membra…
What causes cyanosis of the mucus memb…
What causes a delayed CRT?
Rad 1 - cardio megally, separation of the mainstem bronchi, b…
anemia... peripheral vasoconstriction (dehydration, poor cardiac…
Hypoxemia and right-left shunting
REduced/poor cardiac output, dehydration, hypovolemic shock
What will be seen on radiographs with…
Rad 1 - cardio megally, separation of the mainstem bronchi, b…
What causes pallor of the mucus membra…
anemia... peripheral vasoconstriction (dehydration, poor cardiac…
70 terms
Small Animal Critical Care Medicine - cardiovascular
RAAS and heart failure
Sympathetic nervous system and heart f…
Natriuretic peptides and heart failure
Endothelin-1 and heart failure
- Activation through decreased renal blood flow and Na+ deliv…
- short term response ... - when long term - adrenergetic recept…
- Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide…
- potent vasoconstrictor, increases afterload; ... - response to…
RAAS and heart failure
- Activation through decreased renal blood flow and Na+ deliv…
Sympathetic nervous system and heart f…
- short term response ... - when long term - adrenergetic recept…
119 terms
Small Animal Medicine and Surgery: Cardiovascular: PE
What aspects of the Hx and signalment…
How many problems can be present durin…
What are some other diseases that can…
What are objective signs of heart dise…
1. signalment → breed important factor ( Cavalier King Charle…
many so thorough exam needed
1. cardiomyopathy and HyperT4... 2. arrhythmias with splenic tu…
1. cardiac murmurs... 2. rhythm disturbances... 3. jugular pulsat…
What aspects of the Hx and signalment…
1. signalment → breed important factor ( Cavalier King Charle…
How many problems can be present durin…
many so thorough exam needed
176 terms
Small Animal Medicine
What is a basic anatomic, genetic and…
What are the three parts of the a neur…
What are the three important neurons?
What are sensory neurons and their fun…
a neuron
the dendrites, the cell body and the axon
sensory neurons, motor neurons and interneurons
afferent or ascending neurons that are a part of propriocepti…
What is a basic anatomic, genetic and…
a neuron
What are the three parts of the a neur…
the dendrites, the cell body and the axon
65 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Lens
- Fibers are produced throughout life…
Nuclear sclerosis... - fundus not visible…
- Any true opacity of the lens or its…
1) Age of onset: congenital, juvenile,…
What is nuclear sclerosis?
Cataract or nuclear sclerosis?
What is a cataracts?
What are the classifications of cataracts?
- Fibers are produced throughout life…
What is nuclear sclerosis?
Nuclear sclerosis... - fundus not visible…
Cataract or nuclear sclerosis?
363 terms
Small animal medicine/neurology
Pituitary
Neurohypophysis
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Oxytocin
A gland located at the base of the brain that produces a numb…
( noor″o-hi-pof´ĭ-sis)- the posterior (or neural) lobe of the…
Augments the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex abbr…
Stimulates uterine contractions during parturition and milk l…
Pituitary
A gland located at the base of the brain that produces a numb…
Neurohypophysis
( noor″o-hi-pof´ĭ-sis)- the posterior (or neural) lobe of the…
62 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Conjunctiva
1. Palpebral conjuntiva... 2. Fornix... 3. P…
Normal!
Normal!
Normal!
Label the conjunctival regions.
Normal or abnormal? Why?
Normal or abnormal? Why?
Normal or abnormal? Why?
1. Palpebral conjuntiva... 2. Fornix... 3. P…
Label the conjunctival regions.
Normal!
Normal or abnormal? Why?
55 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Anemia
What PCV is consistent with anemia in…
What are breeds have naturally elevate…
What are the 3 broad categories of ane…
What is the key test(s) to do in an an…
Dog = <35%... Cat = <28%
56-57% in Greyhounds and Dauschunds
- Lost from circulation... - Destruction... - Lack of production
PCV and TP... *hematocrit is essentialyl the PCV and TS is essen…
What PCV is consistent with anemia in…
Dog = <35%... Cat = <28%
What are breeds have naturally elevate…
56-57% in Greyhounds and Dauschunds
176 terms
Small Animal Medicine for BOARDS
-Plasma Transfusion... -Low Protein Diet…
anuric or oliguric
decreased urine production
-Parenteral CORTICOSTEROID (dexamethas…
Mainstay treatment of glomerulonephritis
Treatment of kidney dz should only include furosemide if?
Oliguric means?
Acute outbreak of Urticaria in animal should be treated with?…
-Plasma Transfusion... -Low Protein Diet…
Mainstay treatment of glomerulonephritis
anuric or oliguric
Treatment of kidney dz should only include furosemide if?
84 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Hemolysis
What are strong indications of hemolyt…
Review: What RBC morphology is associa…
Review: What drug is used to reduce th…
Review: What blood product is indicate…
- Spontaneous Autoagglutination... - Bilirubin => icteric, UA
Spherocyte
Clopidogrel? Heparin?
Packed RBCs
What are strong indications of hemolyt…
- Spontaneous Autoagglutination... - Bilirubin => icteric, UA
Review: What RBC morphology is associa…
Spherocyte
41 terms
Leptospirosis - Small Animal Medicine
Name three infectious diseases of smal…
True or False: Leptospirosis is a zoon…
What is the morphology of the leptospi…
Which two species of Leptospira are we…
1. Leptospirosis... 2. Lyme Borreliosis... 3. Rocky Mountain Spotte…
True
- Thin, motile, hook-shaped spirochetes... - S-shaped with filam…
1. Leptospira interrogans... 2. Leptospira kirschneri
Name three infectious diseases of smal…
1. Leptospirosis... 2. Lyme Borreliosis... 3. Rocky Mountain Spotte…
True or False: Leptospirosis is a zoon…
True
48 terms
Nutrition, Small Animal Medicine
Nutrient
Digestive System
3 Energy producing Nutrients
Macronutrients
Substance that provides nourishment for growth & maintenance
Converts food eaten by animal into nutrient compounds
Water, Macronutrients, Micronutrients
Used for energy production.... -proteins, fats, & carbohydrates
Nutrient
Substance that provides nourishment for growth & maintenance
Digestive System
Converts food eaten by animal into nutrient compounds
55 terms
Small Animal Medicine
Mouse
Rat
Hamsters
Mongolian Gerbil
Mus musculus
Rattus rattus (common house rat)... Rattus norvegicus
Mesocricetus auratus (Golden or Syrian)... Cricetulus griseus (C…
Meriones unguiculatus
Mouse
Mus musculus
Rat
Rattus rattus (common house rat)... Rattus norvegicus
small animal medicine
Biologics
Pharmaceuticals
Amitraz
Boldenone
commonly known as vaccines
covering a variety of medicines such as pain medications, ane…
Antiparasitic used to control ticks, mites, lice and other an…
anabolic steroid for treatment of horses.
Biologics
commonly known as vaccines
Pharmaceuticals
covering a variety of medicines such as pain medications, ane…
43 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Drugs
Maropitant
Ondansetron
Metaclopramide
Famotidine
- Centrally acting anti-emetic... - Neurokinin-1 antagonist... - do…
- Centrally acting anti-emetic... - 5-HT3 serotonin receptor ant…
- Wimpy anti-emetic, more of a prokinetic... - Dopamine antagonist
- Anti-acid... - Histamine 2 antagonist => inhibits parietal cel…
Maropitant
- Centrally acting anti-emetic... - Neurokinin-1 antagonist... - do…
Ondansetron
- Centrally acting anti-emetic... - 5-HT3 serotonin receptor ant…
46 terms
Leptospirosis - Small Animal Medicine
Name three infectious diseases of smal…
Serovar versus serogroup
True or False: Leptospirosis is a zoon…
What is the morphology of the leptospi…
1. Leptospirosis... 2. Lyme Borreliosis... 3. Rocky Mountain Spotte…
...
True
Thin, motile, hook-shaped spirochetes... S-shaped with filament…
Name three infectious diseases of smal…
1. Leptospirosis... 2. Lyme Borreliosis... 3. Rocky Mountain Spotte…
Serovar versus serogroup
...
43 terms
Small Animal Respiratory Medicine
CLINICAL SIGNS OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE…
CLINICAL SIGNS OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE…
Sneezing Localizes disease to
Paroxysmal Sneezing DD's:... (3)
1. Sneezing... 2. Nasal discharge... 3. Stertorous respiration (noi…
1. Tachypnea... 2. Hyperpnea... 3. Hemoptysis... 4. Exercise intoleran…
nasal cavity
acute viral diseases... foreign bodies... trauma
CLINICAL SIGNS OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE…
1. Sneezing... 2. Nasal discharge... 3. Stertorous respiration (noi…
CLINICAL SIGNS OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE…
1. Tachypnea... 2. Hyperpnea... 3. Hemoptysis... 4. Exercise intoleran…
160 terms
Small Animal Medicine - Respiratory
What is the difference between Stertor…
What is anosmia?
True or false primary bacterial rhinit…
What breeds are predisposed to stenoti…
Stertor - associated with nasal and/or pharyngeal obstruction…
absence of smell
False, it is rare
- Brachycephalic breeds (English bulldogs, boston terriers, p…
What is the difference between Stertor…
Stertor - associated with nasal and/or pharyngeal obstruction…
What is anosmia?
absence of smell
31 terms
small animal medicine
Three types of nutrients, often referr…
micronutrients, have many functions bu…
dehydration
Typical dry pet foods contain approxim…
protein, fats, and carbohydrates
vitamins and minerals and water
A decrease in the amount of water present in the body
10%
Three types of nutrients, often referr…
protein, fats, and carbohydrates
micronutrients, have many functions bu…
vitamins and minerals and water
118 terms
Small Animal Medicine Review
How much more food should a queen get…
Another name for vitamin B1
Vitamin A deficiency leads to?
Cat eating grass means what?
2-3 times
Thiamine
Skin lesions and hearing loss
Nothing, this has no significance
How much more food should a queen get…
2-3 times
Another name for vitamin B1
Thiamine
37 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Lymphoma
What is the median survival time of a…
What is the median survival time of a…
What is the median survival time of a…
What are the clinical signs associated…
10 weeks
3-4 mo
Remission for 9-10 mo
- Painless generalized lymphadenopathy w/ normal texture and…
What is the median survival time of a…
10 weeks
What is the median survival time of a…
3-4 mo
53 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Cerebellum
What things are abnormal in a cerebell…
What things are normal in a cerebellar…
Describe decerebellate posture.
What are CNS causes of tremors?
- Gait (hypermetria)... - Posture (wide base stance with swaying…
- Mentation... - Spinal reflexes... +/- postural reactions
- Extended forelimbs... - Flexed hindlimbs
- Cerebellar dz... - Myelin dysfunction... - Motor neuron/axon dysf…
What things are abnormal in a cerebell…
- Gait (hypermetria)... - Posture (wide base stance with swaying…
What things are normal in a cerebellar…
- Mentation... - Spinal reflexes... +/- postural reactions
24 terms
Bordetellosis - Small Animal Medicine
List 5 bacterial/fungal organisms that…
Describe the morphology of Bordetella…
How many different species of Bordetel…
Which species of Bordetella is most co…
1. Blastomycosis... 2. Aspergillosis... 3. Cryptococcous... 4. Bordete…
- Gram negative... - Coccobacilli... - Fimbriae and flagella
Nine (9) different bacterial species
Bordetella bronchiseptica
List 5 bacterial/fungal organisms that…
1. Blastomycosis... 2. Aspergillosis... 3. Cryptococcous... 4. Bordete…
Describe the morphology of Bordetella…
- Gram negative... - Coccobacilli... - Fimbriae and flagella
231 terms
small animal medicine Exam 2
Blastomycosis is from what agent
what is the characteristic of Blasto u…
how is an animal infected with Blasto
describe blast yeast
Blastomyces dermatitidis
branching fungal hyphae
1. inhale spores... 2. body temperature triggers the spore into…
1. 5-20 um in size... 2. thick refractile wall... 3. broad base bud…
Blastomycosis is from what agent
Blastomyces dermatitidis
what is the characteristic of Blasto u…
branching fungal hyphae
213 terms
Medicine & Surgery: Small Animal
Canine Cystitis
Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FL…
Feline Idiopathic Cystitis (FIC)
Feline Urolithiasis
Defined as a Urinary Tract Infection ... Normal defense mechani…
Describes a collection of problems that affect the bladder an…
Sub-category to FLUTD... Nonmalignant inflammatory condition of…
Sub- category of FLUTD ... Polycrystalline concretions composed…
Canine Cystitis
Defined as a Urinary Tract Infection ... Normal defense mechani…
Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FL…
Describes a collection of problems that affect the bladder an…
219 terms
Small Animal medicine
Signs of overhydration
Routes for fluid therapy
When to use oral fluid therapy
When to use SQ fluid therapy
Restlessness, increased RR, peripheral and pulmonary edema, w…
Oral, subcutaneous, intravenously, and intramedullary
If they are willing to drink. Least effective way
Mild dehydration, needs to be isotonic, 50-100ml at each site…
Signs of overhydration
Restlessness, increased RR, peripheral and pulmonary edema, w…
Routes for fluid therapy
Oral, subcutaneous, intravenously, and intramedullary
41 terms
Small Animal Medicine Rabies
other names for rabies
etiology of rabies
reaches the CNS via what
rabies is an acute, viral
hydrophobia, lyssa
rhabdovirus
peripheral nerves
encephalomyelitis
other names for rabies
hydrophobia, lyssa
etiology of rabies
rhabdovirus
11 terms
Small Animal Respiratory Medicine
Canine Nasal Cavity - Viral
Feline Nasal Cavity - Viral
Canine Nasal Cavity - Bacterial
Feline Nasal Cavity - Bacterial
Canine Distemper... Parainfluenza... Canine Adenovirus type-2... Canin…
Herpesvirus (rhinotracheitis)... Calicivirus... Feline reovirus
Bordetella bronchiseptica... Non-commensal pathogens (e.g. Paste…
Chlamydophila felis... Mycoplasma felis... Bordetella bronchiseptic
Canine Nasal Cavity - Viral
Canine Distemper... Parainfluenza... Canine Adenovirus type-2... Canin…
Feline Nasal Cavity - Viral
Herpesvirus (rhinotracheitis)... Calicivirus... Feline reovirus
69 terms
small animal medicine 2
mycotoxins
chocolate
onions
macademia nuts
moldy food, c/s muscle tremors, ataxia, and convulsions, trea…
c/s hyperactivity, tachycardia, tremors, vomiting, polydipsia…
c/s hemolytic anemia, weakness, pallor treatment emesis and a…
c/s weakness, depression, vomiting, ataxia, tremors, hyperthe…
mycotoxins
moldy food, c/s muscle tremors, ataxia, and convulsions, trea…
chocolate
c/s hyperactivity, tachycardia, tremors, vomiting, polydipsia…
12 terms
Small Animal Medicine Toxoplasmosis
etiology
toxoplasmosis is what kind of parasite
parasite can replicate in this kind of…
parasite can live but not replicate in…
toxoplasma gondii
obligate intracellular protozoan
definitive
intermediate
etiology
toxoplasma gondii
toxoplasmosis is what kind of parasite
obligate intracellular protozoan
422 terms
Small animal medicine 1
Apermatogenesis
encephalomalacia
free radicals
morphologic diagnosis
Inability to form gametes(Sperm).
Softening of the brain, usually reffering to degenerative bra…
Hightly reactive unpaired electrons that are common by produc…
pathologist describes what is actually being seen
Apermatogenesis
Inability to form gametes(Sperm).
encephalomalacia
Softening of the brain, usually reffering to degenerative bra…
237 terms
Intro to Small Animal Medicine
The first legislation for the care of…
AALS is a branch of the federal govern…
The Animal Welfare Act....
when getting ready to work w. your pac…
protect food animals traveling by rail to slaughter
False
-Established the requirment for an institutional animal care…
look at the medical record
The first legislation for the care of…
protect food animals traveling by rail to slaughter
AALS is a branch of the federal govern…
False
151 terms
Small Animal Medicine
Canine Distemper Etiology/ Characteris…
Canine Distemper Epidemiology/transmis…
Pathogenesis of CDV
Immune response to CDV/ cell mediated…
Family: Paramyxoviridae... Genus: Morbillivirus... - enveloped, neg…
- predominantly aerosol transmission (most abundant in respir…
Day 1: virus multiplication in tissue macrophages, spread in…
** good cell-mediated immunity and anti-CDV antibodies will c…
Canine Distemper Etiology/ Characteris…
Family: Paramyxoviridae... Genus: Morbillivirus... - enveloped, neg…
Canine Distemper Epidemiology/transmis…
- predominantly aerosol transmission (most abundant in respir…
11 terms
Small Animal Medicine - Respiratory
*** Side effects of doxycycline in cats
Nasal Lymphoma in Cats
nasopharyngeal polyps
feline allergic rhinitis
Pill form causes esophageal strictures! Caustic pill stays in…
is actually quite treatable
cats
cat allergies do not come across as runny noses like in people.
*** Side effects of doxycycline in cats
Pill form causes esophageal strictures! Caustic pill stays in…
Nasal Lymphoma in Cats
is actually quite treatable
87 terms
Small Animal Medicine- Nutrition
Energy
Nutrients
Goal of Nutrition
Energy producing
Essential for sustaining life in all animals
Any substance that is ingested that support life
Supply all the key nutrients and energy needed to meet the da…
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins
Energy
Essential for sustaining life in all animals
Nutrients
Any substance that is ingested that support life
29 terms
Small Animal Medicine - Dermatology
Atopy vs. Food Allergy distinction
Intradermal allergy testing
Localized vs. generalized dermatologic…
Intradermal allergy testing cannot hap…
Seasonality
type 1 hypersensitivity
Localized can be reasonably treated topically.
On steroids.
Atopy vs. Food Allergy distinction
Seasonality
Intradermal allergy testing
type 1 hypersensitivity
23 terms
Small Animal Medicine FIV
etiology
family
subfamily
FIV loves and kills
feline immunodeficiency virus
retrovirus
lentivirinae
T-lymphocytes
etiology
feline immunodeficiency virus
family
retrovirus
175 terms
Small Animal Gastrointestinal Medicine
What is swallowing pain?
What are the main clinical signs in th…
Give the main investigations?
Describe the physical exam
odynophagia (oropharyngeal and oesophageal problem)
- drooling salive (+/- blood)... - halitosis... - dysphagia +/- ody…
- physical exam... - radiographs... - minimum data base: haematolog…
- complete examination may require sedation or general anaest…
What is swallowing pain?
odynophagia (oropharyngeal and oesophageal problem)
What are the main clinical signs in th…
- drooling salive (+/- blood)... - halitosis... - dysphagia +/- ody…
138 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Endocrine System
List the hormones released from the An…
List the hormones released from the Po…
Acromegaly
What is the typical signalment of a do…
- ACTH --> Adrenal Cortex... - GH --> Bone, Muscle... - MSH --> Ski…
- Oxytocin --> Mammary tissue... - ADH --> Kidney
- due to excessive growth hormone production... - not a primary…
- middle-aged to older female dogs ... - with hyperprogesteronis…
List the hormones released from the An…
- ACTH --> Adrenal Cortex... - GH --> Bone, Muscle... - MSH --> Ski…
List the hormones released from the Po…
- Oxytocin --> Mammary tissue... - ADH --> Kidney
102 terms
Small Animal Medicine: Corneal Disease
Junction of cornea and sclera
1) Peripheral (close the limbus)... 2) ce…
1) Epithelium... 2) Stroma... 3) Descemet's…
Stroma!
What is the limbus?
What are the regions of the cornea?
What are the 4 primary layers of the cornea rom superficial t…
Which layer of the cornea retains stain?
Junction of cornea and sclera
What is the limbus?
1) Peripheral (close the limbus)... 2) ce…
What are the regions of the cornea?
181 terms
Small Animal respiratory medicine
Name 11 ddx for nasal disease
Name the 5 most common ddx for nasal d…
What information should be gathered on…
What does a rapid onset nasal disease…
- URT virus (cats)... - FB... - Aspergillosis (dogs), [Cryptococcos…
1. FB... 2. Dental disease... 3. Aspergillosis... 4. Tumours... 5. Rhinitis
- Speed of onset... - Nasal discharge?... - Sneezing?... - Stertor?... -…
Likely to be FB related
Name 11 ddx for nasal disease
- URT virus (cats)... - FB... - Aspergillosis (dogs), [Cryptococcos…
Name the 5 most common ddx for nasal d…
1. FB... 2. Dental disease... 3. Aspergillosis... 4. Tumours... 5. Rhinitis
30 terms
Small Animal Medicine Parvo
etiology
what year was parvo found
parvo is an acute, contagious, infecti…
swelling of intestine
parvovirus
1978
enteritis
enteritis
etiology
parvovirus
what year was parvo found
1978
204 terms
small animal medicine final
ischemic stroke has a predilection for…
Which modality is superior to diagnose…
When is hypoxia lethal to neurons?
Which modality is superior to diagnose…
Cerebellum
MRI
>5 mins --> blindness, recumbency, seizures
CT
ischemic stroke has a predilection for…
Cerebellum
Which modality is superior to diagnose…
MRI
44 terms
Small Animal Medicine
What are the two different types of hy…
Of the two types of hyperadrenocortici…
What causes pituitary dependant hypera…
What causes adrenal dependant hyperadr…
Pituitary dependant and adrenal dependant
Pituitary dependant 80-85%... Adrenal dependant 15-20%
Adenoma on the pituitary gland
adrenocortical hyperplasia and adrenal neoplasia (adenoma and…
What are the two different types of hy…
Pituitary dependant and adrenal dependant
Of the two types of hyperadrenocortici…
Pituitary dependant 80-85%... Adrenal dependant 15-20%
90 terms
Small Animal Medicine LAB
regular trash container
kennel trash container
Red biohazard bag
sharps container
used paper towels, gloves, syringe wrappers
fecal material and urine with bleach soaked paper towel, anal…
anything contaminated with body fluids (except urine) remove…
needles, vaccine bottles, blood tubes, wooden applicator stic…
regular trash container
used paper towels, gloves, syringe wrappers
kennel trash container
fecal material and urine with bleach soaked paper towel, anal…
23 terms
Small Animal Medicine Distemper
Etiology of Distemper
distemper is closely related to
true or false distemper is a highly co…
true or false, the distemper virus is…
paramyxovirus
measles, rhinderpest
true
false
Etiology of Distemper
paramyxovirus
distemper is closely related to
measles, rhinderpest
178 terms
Small Animal Medicine Final
Canine vs feline dentition
Classes of dental malocclusion
Retained vs persistent deciduous teeth
Dentigerous cyst
-Cats: 26 (deciduous) - 30 (permanent)... -Dogs: 28 (deciduous)…
-Class 1: jaw relationship normal, 1+ tooth out of position (…
-Retained: under gingiva... -Persistent: above gum line... -Both ca…
-Fluid-filled structure surrounding the crown of an *unerupte…
Canine vs feline dentition
-Cats: 26 (deciduous) - 30 (permanent)... -Dogs: 28 (deciduous)…
Classes of dental malocclusion
-Class 1: jaw relationship normal, 1+ tooth out of position (…
Small Animal Medicine - Dentistry
Definition: Mesial
Definition: distal
Definition: apical
Definition: coronal
Toward the front midline
away from the front midline
toward the apex (root)
toward the crown
Definition: Mesial
Toward the front midline
Definition: distal
away from the front midline
37 terms
Small animal respiratory medicine
nasal dz is a result of what?
Aggressive lesion involve what?
What are the 6 primary clinical signs?
define sneezing
inflammation ... obstruction to air flow ... tissue expansion ... eros…
surrounding anatomical structures ... CNS
1. sneezing... 2. nasal discharge ... 3. stertor... 4. stridor... 5. dist…
forceful expulsion of air and debris
nasal dz is a result of what?
inflammation ... obstruction to air flow ... tissue expansion ... eros…
Aggressive lesion involve what?
surrounding anatomical structures ... CNS
26 terms
Small animal medicine
What are the four regions of the nephr…
Write down some toxic causes of AKI
How do you differentiate CKD and AKI u…
What are the potential clinical signs…
- Vascular... - Glomerulus... - Tubulointerstitium... - Renal tubules
...
...
...
What are the four regions of the nephr…
- Vascular... - Glomerulus... - Tubulointerstitium... - Renal tubules
Write down some toxic causes of AKI
...
1 of 10