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Social Psychology Exam2
Cognitive Dissonance
Self-Affirmation
Impact Bias
Postdecision Dissonance
A drive or feeling of discomfort, origionally defined as bein…
In the context of dissonance theory, a way of reducing disson…
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of on…
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced…
Cognitive Dissonance
A drive or feeling of discomfort, origionally defined as bein…
Self-Affirmation
In the context of dissonance theory, a way of reducing disson…
Psychology 2 (Social Psychology)
Social psychology
Social context
Social reality
Situationism
branch of psychology that deals with social interactions, ori…
how someone reacts to something depending on their social/ ph…
A reality or a fact of life peculiar to a particular society
the theory that human behavior is determined by surrounding c…
Social psychology
branch of psychology that deals with social interactions, ori…
Social context
how someone reacts to something depending on their social/ ph…
60 terms
Social Psychology exam 2
Persuasion
Who started research in Persuassion
Opinion
Attitude
Communication designed to influence attitudes... -the process by…
Research began with Hovland (1930-1950s) Yale Professor... -rese…
Judgement expressed in verbal responses
favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward a stimuli…
Persuasion
Communication designed to influence attitudes... -the process by…
Who started research in Persuassion
Research began with Hovland (1930-1950s) Yale Professor... -rese…
61 terms
Social Psychology exam 2
Who said "Know thyself"?... Who said "Exi…
______________ : the sum total of beli…
____________ - Different siblings take…
___________ - establishment niche (hen…
1. Socrates... 2. Jean-Paul Sartre
Self Concept
Diversification
Older Siblings
Who said "Know thyself"?... Who said "Exi…
1. Socrates... 2. Jean-Paul Sartre
______________ : the sum total of beli…
Self Concept
Social Psychology Part 2
prejudice
Stereotype
ingroup
outgroup
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
a generalized belief about a group of people
"us" - people with whom one shares a common identity
"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from one's ing…
prejudice
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
Stereotype
a generalized belief about a group of people
37 terms
Social Psychology Exam #2
Culture
Norms
Normative Culture variations
Universal cultural variations
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shar…
standards of accepted and expected behavior
Expressiveness, punctuality, rule-breaking, personal space
friendships, trait dimensions, social belief dimensions, stat…
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shar…
Norms
standards of accepted and expected behavior
69 terms
Unit 2: Social Psychology
social psychology
attribution theory
fundamental attribution error
attitude
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
how we explain someone's behavior—by crediting either the sit…
tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to…
feelings often based on our beliefs, which predispose us to r…
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
attribution theory
how we explain someone's behavior—by crediting either the sit…
50 terms
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Attribution Theory
Fundamental Attribution Error
Attitude
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting ei…
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior…
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us…
Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
Attribution Theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting ei…
73 terms
Social Psychology Chapter 2
hindsight bias
An Empirical Science
Formulating Hypotheses and Theories
Hypotheses Based on Personal Observati…
the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could hav…
Social Psychology... -research allows us to test the validity of…
Inspiration from Earlier Theories and Research... --• Studies of…
• Personal experience, current events, and literature can ser…
hindsight bias
the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could hav…
An Empirical Science
Social Psychology... -research allows us to test the validity of…
Psychology #2 Social Psychology
Key Factors in Close Relationships
Proximity
Similarity
Reciprocity
1. Physical Attractiveness... 2. Similarity... 3. Reciprocity
Physical nearness, a predictor of attraction.
Extent to which we have things in common with others, a predi…
Rule of give and take, predictor of attraction.
Key Factors in Close Relationships
1. Physical Attractiveness... 2. Similarity... 3. Reciprocity
Proximity
Physical nearness, a predictor of attraction.
18 terms
Unit 4.2 Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Cognition
Reference Groups
Relative Deprivation
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
The process of analyzing and interpreting events, other peopl…
categories of people to which people compare themselves
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with w…
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
Social Cognition
The process of analyzing and interpreting events, other peopl…
45 terms
Social Psychology Chapter 2
Hindsight Bias
Observational Method
Ethnography
Interjudge Reliability
The tendency for people to exaggerate, after knowing that som…
observes people and systematically records measurements or im…
The method by which researchers attempt to understand a group…
The level of agreement b/w two or more people observe a set o…
Hindsight Bias
The tendency for people to exaggerate, after knowing that som…
Observational Method
observes people and systematically records measurements or im…
345 terms
Social Psychology-Exam 2
what is the process by which people th…
what kind of thought to people have a…
when do controlled behaviors occur?
what are the goals of social cognition?
social cognition
effortful, conscious thought
when something is vitally important to meeting goals and stan…
to conserve mental effort, to be accurate, and to manage self…
what is the process by which people th…
social cognition
what kind of thought to people have a…
effortful, conscious thought
Social Psychology Chapter 2
moviation
goal
motive
attention
the force that moves people toward desired outcomes
a desired outcome, something one wishes to accomplish
a high level goal fundamental to social survival
the process of consciously focusing on aspects of our environ…
moviation
the force that moves people toward desired outcomes
goal
a desired outcome, something one wishes to accomplish
Exam 2 - Social Psychology
What is the Process of Cognitive Disso…
How to reduce Dissonance?
Cognitive Dissonance in totality (the…
Insufficient Justification Effect
Inconsistency between two cognitions produces dissonance ... Di…
Least important or most easily changeable element (usually th…
1. Tension arises between two cognitions ... 2. the two cogniti…
reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one's behavi…
What is the Process of Cognitive Disso…
Inconsistency between two cognitions produces dissonance ... Di…
How to reduce Dissonance?
Least important or most easily changeable element (usually th…
48 terms
social psychology test #2
introspection
Self-Perception Theory
Feedback and reaction from others
Social Comparison Theory
The examination or observation of one's mental and emotional…
Individuals come to know their own attitudes, emotions and in…
Socialization - e.g., How parents/friends/teachers treat you…
The theory that proposes that we evaluate our thoughts and ac…
introspection
The examination or observation of one's mental and emotional…
Self-Perception Theory
Individuals come to know their own attitudes, emotions and in…
Social Psychology Test 2
Cognitive Dissonance
Impact Bias
Self-Affirmation
Self-Esteem
inconsistency between thoughts, feelings and actions create a…
tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of one's…
reminding yourself of one or more of your positive attributio…
increase experience most when they go against personal belief…
Cognitive Dissonance
inconsistency between thoughts, feelings and actions create a…
Impact Bias
tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of one's…
30 terms
Social Psychology Chapter 2
hindsight bias
observational method
ethnography
interjudge reliability
the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could hav…
the technique whereby a researcher observes people and system…
the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group…
the level of agreement between two or more people who indepen…
hindsight bias
the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could hav…
observational method
the technique whereby a researcher observes people and system…
53 terms
Social Psychology Exam #2
gender role
prenatal testosterone
testosterone
free testosterone
a set of behavior expectations (norms) for males & females
what the embryo is exposed to while in the uterus; organizes…
causes increased aggression, higher sex drive
in a person's bloodstream that influences our daily behavior;…
gender role
a set of behavior expectations (norms) for males & females
prenatal testosterone
what the embryo is exposed to while in the uterus; organizes…
Social Psychology Exam 2
Evolutionary Psychology
Conformity
Compliance
Obedience
The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using pr…
Changing behavior to match that of other in the group.
Changing behavior as a result of a direct request.
Acting in accord with a direct request from an authority.
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using pr…
Conformity
Changing behavior to match that of other in the group.
32 terms
Social Psychology Chapter 2
Hindsight Bias
Observational Method
Ethnography
Interjudge Reliability
(pg. 22) The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they…
(pg. 24) The technique whereby a researcher observes people a…
(pg. 24) The method by which researchers attempt to understan…
(pg. 25) The level of agreement between two or more people wh…
Hindsight Bias
(pg. 22) The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they…
Observational Method
(pg. 24) The technique whereby a researcher observes people a…
38 terms
Psychology Exam 2 Social Psychology
Three main findings about how you tend…
Spotlight Effect
Gilovich's T-shirt Experiment
"Lake Wobegon" effect and possible exp…
1. You're the hero of your own story. 2. You are above averag…
People overestimate the degree to which others pay attention…
In an experiment, participants wearing an embarrassing t-shir…
Systematic tendency to see ourselves as better than average.…
Three main findings about how you tend…
1. You're the hero of your own story. 2. You are above averag…
Spotlight Effect
People overestimate the degree to which others pay attention…
50 terms
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Attribution Theory
Fundamental Attribution Error
Attitude
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting ei…
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior…
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us…
Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
Attribution Theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting ei…
Social Psychology [Chapter 2]
Bystander Effect
Hindsight Bias
Where are many studies conducted?
Explain theory refinement.
witnesses failing to help in the case of emergencies; results…
the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could hav…
Social psychological studies often stem from a researcher's d…
Continual process of developing theories, testing specific hy…
Bystander Effect
witnesses failing to help in the case of emergencies; results…
Hindsight Bias
the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could hav…
20 terms
Social Psychology Set 2
stereotype
discrimination
just world phenomenon
ingroup
A generalized belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that…
"us" - people with whom we share a common identity
stereotype
A generalized belief about a group of people
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
34 terms
Social Psychology Exam 2
cognitive dissonance
cognitive dissonance - changing behavi…
cognitive dissonance - self affirmation
cognitive dissonance - unconscious pro…
This feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action tha…
the first to try and explain why our behaviors sometimes lead…
Reduce dissonance by bolstering the self concept in a differe…
People do not anticipate how successfully they will reduce di…
cognitive dissonance
This feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action tha…
cognitive dissonance - changing behavi…
the first to try and explain why our behaviors sometimes lead…
PSY 360 Social Psychology 2
Self-Recognition
Self-Knowledge
Independent view of the self
Interdependent view of the self
Identification of the self as a physically unique being; deve…
Beliefs about who we are; Formulating and organizing what we…
Way of defining oneself in terms of one's own internal though…
Way of defining oneself in terms of one's relationships to ot…
Self-Recognition
Identification of the self as a physically unique being; deve…
Self-Knowledge
Beliefs about who we are; Formulating and organizing what we…
27 terms
Social Psychology, Chapter 2
Hindsight bias
Participant observation
Shirley Brice Heath
Archival research
People's tendency to be overconfident about whether they coul…
A research method in which investigators systematically obser…
Cultural anthropologist who used participant observation to s…
Research in which existing data, such as census documents, co…
Hindsight bias
People's tendency to be overconfident about whether they coul…
Participant observation
A research method in which investigators systematically obser…
Social Psychology - Exam 2
Evolutionary Psychology
How are we different from animals?
What is our purpose in life?
Natural Selection
The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using pr…
...
To continue our family and have grandchildren.
the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environ…
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using pr…
How are we different from animals?
...
98 terms
Social Psychology Exam 2
Social Cognition
Explicit Cognition
Implicit Cognition
Categorical Information
The study of how individuals interpret, analyze, remember and…
Awareness. Deliberate judgments or decisions of which we are…
No Awareness. Judgements or decisions that are under the cont…
Make judgements about other people, objects, and events. Acti…
Social Cognition
The study of how individuals interpret, analyze, remember and…
Explicit Cognition
Awareness. Deliberate judgments or decisions of which we are…
Social Psychology exam 2
Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
FAE example
Why do we use FAE?
Situational salience
tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people's b…
The people who had to say whether the students were pro or an…
1. situational salience... 2. perceptual salience
being unaware of target's environment
Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people's b…
FAE example
The people who had to say whether the students were pro or an…
Social Psychology Chapter 2
Explain why social psychological resul…
Identify the origins of hypothesis.
Distinguish among the three research m…
Identify the goal of the observational…
the results of some experiments that you encounter may seem o…
Research often observe something in their lives/lives of othe…
1. observational: observes people and systematically records…
simple observation... one records and observes from the inside
Explain why social psychological resul…
the results of some experiments that you encounter may seem o…
Identify the origins of hypothesis.
Research often observe something in their lives/lives of othe…
32 terms
Social Psychology Midterm #2
Persuasion
Types (Routes) of Persuasion
Central Route
Peripheral Route
The process of changing someone's attitude by means of a dire…
~Central Route... ~Peripheral Route
Persuasion through the strength of the arguments themselves
Persuasion through peripheral cues - features of the communic…
Persuasion
The process of changing someone's attitude by means of a dire…
Types (Routes) of Persuasion
~Central Route... ~Peripheral Route
12 terms
Social Psychology 2 - Social Influence
Conformity
Obedience
Normative Conformity
Compliance
Change in thoughts, feelings, or behaviour as result of... real…
Change in thoughts, feelings, or behaviour as result of... direc…
Yielding to group pressure because the person wants to... fit in…
Publicly changing behaviour to fit in with the group while pr…
Conformity
Change in thoughts, feelings, or behaviour as result of... real…
Obedience
Change in thoughts, feelings, or behaviour as result of... direc…
Social Psychology 2
De - individualization
Zimbardo's De - individualization model
What did Stanford study show?
Obedience
-ppl doing things they wouldn't normally do bc stripped of id…
anonymity ---> less self observation & responsibility ---> in…
-person may quickly adopt attitudes consistent with their ass…
-conforming to higher authority
De - individualization
-ppl doing things they wouldn't normally do bc stripped of id…
Zimbardo's De - individualization model
anonymity ---> less self observation & responsibility ---> in…
Social Psychology Exam 2
Emotion
5 key components of an emotion
Appraisal Process
evidence for universality of emotions
Brief responses that are subjectively experienced as feelings…
- brief responses that are subjectively experienced as feelin…
...
- universality of facial expressions; cross-species continuit…
Emotion
Brief responses that are subjectively experienced as feelings…
5 key components of an emotion
- brief responses that are subjectively experienced as feelin…
28 terms
Social Psychology (Myers) Ch 2
spotlight effect
illusion of transparency
self-concept
self-schema
the belief that others are paying more attention to our behav…
the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be…
what we know and believe about ourselves
beliefs about self that organize guide the processing of self…
spotlight effect
the belief that others are paying more attention to our behav…
illusion of transparency
the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be…
Social Psychology Exam 2
A psychiatrist who interviewed 40 of M…
If we were to conclude that Milgram's…
In Western individualistic societies,…
Mullen and her colleagues (1990) found…
none had been harmed.
committing the fundamental attribution error.
a negative value judgment.
status
A psychiatrist who interviewed 40 of M…
none had been harmed.
If we were to conclude that Milgram's…
committing the fundamental attribution error.
24 terms
Social Psychology #2
prejudice
discrimination
in-groups
out-groups
negative attitude held by a person about the members of a par…
treating people differently because of prejudice toward the s…
social groups with whom a person identifies; "us"
social groups with whom a person does not identify; "them"
prejudice
negative attitude held by a person about the members of a par…
discrimination
treating people differently because of prejudice toward the s…
Social Psychology Ch. 2
hindsight bias
observational method
ethnography
interjudge reliability
the tendency for people to exaggerate, after knowing that som…
the technique whereby a researcher observes people and system…
the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group…
the level of agreement between two or more people who indepen…
hindsight bias
the tendency for people to exaggerate, after knowing that som…
observational method
the technique whereby a researcher observes people and system…
40 terms
Social Psychology Unit #2
Self-concept
Self-schema
Self-perception theory
Facial feedback hypothesis
The sum total of an individual's beliefs about his/her own pe…
A belief people hold about themselves that guides the process…
we look to our behavior to describe or confirm an internal ch…
The hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to…
Self-concept
The sum total of an individual's beliefs about his/her own pe…
Self-schema
A belief people hold about themselves that guides the process…
Social Psychology MT2
Self-Presentation
Dramaturgical Perspective
Public Self-Conciousness
Self-Monitoring
We try to control the impressions that people form of us
The perspective that much of social interaction can be though…
The tendency to have a chronic awareness of oneself as being…
The tendency to be chronically concerned with ones public sel…
Self-Presentation
We try to control the impressions that people form of us
Dramaturgical Perspective
The perspective that much of social interaction can be though…
Social psychology chpt. 2
Hindsight bias
Correlational research
Experimental research
Reverse causation
People's tendency to be overconfident about whether they coul…
research that does not involve random assignment to different…
In social psych, research that randomly assigns people to dif…
When variable 1 is assumed to cause variable 2, yet the oppos…
Hindsight bias
People's tendency to be overconfident about whether they coul…
Correlational research
research that does not involve random assignment to different…
30 terms
Social Psychology Chapter 2
hindsight bias
observational method
ethnography
interjudge reliability
The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could hav…
The technique whereby a researcher observes people and system…
The method by which researchers attempt to understand a group…
The level of agreement between two or more people who indepen…
hindsight bias
The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could hav…
observational method
The technique whereby a researcher observes people and system…
27 terms
Social Psychology Ch. 2
theory
hypothesis
applied research
basic research
An organized set of principles used to explain observed pheno…
A testable prediction about the conditions under which an eve…
Research whose goals are to enlarge the understanding of natu…
Research whose goal is to increase the understanding of human…
theory
An organized set of principles used to explain observed pheno…
hypothesis
A testable prediction about the conditions under which an eve…
43 terms
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Attribution Theory
Fundamental Attribution Error
Attitude
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting ei…
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior…
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us…
Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and re…
Attribution Theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting ei…
91 terms
Social Psychology 2
Social perception
How fast do we form first impressions?
Nonverbal communication
Encode
The study of how we form impressions of others based on the s…
In less than 100 milliseconds.
The way in which people communicate, intentionally or uninten…
To express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or pat…
Social perception
The study of how we form impressions of others based on the s…
How fast do we form first impressions?
In less than 100 milliseconds.
75 terms
Social psychology test #2
prejudice
discrimination
Stereotypes
Groups
negative feelings about others because of their connection to…
negative behaviors directed against persons because of their…
beliefs that associate a whole group of people with certain t…
two or more people perceived as having at least one of the fo…
prejudice
negative feelings about others because of their connection to…
discrimination
negative behaviors directed against persons because of their…
17 terms
Problem 2 - Social Psychology
Bystander Effect
Pluralistic Ignorance
Diffusion of Responsibility
5 Steps to helping
The psychological phenomenon where people do not help another…
a type of misunderstanding that happens when people don't rea…
Bystander being convinced that someone else will help
1. Noticing... 2. Interpreting... 3. Taking responsibility... 4. Decid…
Bystander Effect
The psychological phenomenon where people do not help another…
Pluralistic Ignorance
a type of misunderstanding that happens when people don't rea…
13 terms
Social Psychology in Action 2
Resilience
Stress
Internal-External Locus of Control
Perceived Control
Mild, transient reactions to stressful events, followed by a…
The negative feelings and beliefs that arise whenever people…
The tendency to believe that things happen because we control…
The belief that we can influence our environment in ways that…
Resilience
Mild, transient reactions to stressful events, followed by a…
Stress
The negative feelings and beliefs that arise whenever people…
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