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measure of center

mean

median

mode

the central position of the data set; "typical" value in a da…

average value; balancing point of a data set

middle value of a data set

most common value of a data set

measure of center

the central position of the data set; "typical" value in a da…

mean

average value; balancing point of a data set

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

measures an outcome of a study

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…

Response Variable

measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

Bimodal distribution

First quartile

Interquartile Range

Lower inner fence

A distribution that has two modes

The value in a ranked data set such that about 25% of the mea…

The difference between the third and the first quartiles

A value in a data set that is 1.5(IQR) below the first quartile

Bimodal distribution

A distribution that has two modes

First quartile

The value in a ranked data set such that about 25% of the mea…

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

When the variables aren't dependent, t…

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (biva…

Independent, x

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Quantitative variables

Categorical variables

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Numerical values

Values expressed in categories

Measures the outcome of a study; dependent variable; y

Explains observed outcomes; independent variable; x

Quantitative variables

Numerical values

Categorical variables

Values expressed in categories

mean

average

standard deviation

variance

the arithmetic average

add all values up and divide by the number of values there are

a number that measures how far away the typical observation i…

the standard deviation squared

mean

the arithmetic average

average

add all values up and divide by the number of values there are

Arithmetic Mean

Population Arithmetic Mean

Sample Arithmetic Mean

Mean

Computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data…

Computed using all the individuals in a population (a paramet…

Computed using sample data (a statistic)

The arithmetic mean

Arithmetic Mean

Computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data…

Population Arithmetic Mean

Computed using all the individuals in a population (a paramet…

Sample mean

population mean

sample median

population median

the sum of the observation divided by n

the mean of the entire population

the middle value of the ordered data

the middle value of an entire population

Sample mean

the sum of the observation divided by n

population mean

the mean of the entire population

Median

Mode

Mean

Range

the value that lies in the middle of the data when arranged i…

the most frequent observation of the of the variable that occ…

average

the difference between the largest data value and the smallest

Median

the value that lies in the middle of the data when arranged i…

Mode

the most frequent observation of the of the variable that occ…

Parameter

population mean

sample mean

statistic

A characteristic of a population.

population mean = sum of all the values in the population / n…

"x bar"... sample mean = sum of all the values in the sample / n…

A characteristic of a sample.

Parameter

A characteristic of a population.

population mean

population mean = sum of all the values in the population / n…

bimodal

boxplot

Chebyshev's Theorem

co-efficient of variation

a data set with 2 modes

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

theorem stating that the proportion of values from a data set…

standard deviation divided by the mean with the result expres…

bimodal

a data set with 2 modes

boxplot

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

Statistic

Parameter

Mean

The Sample Mean

A characteristic or measure obtained by using the data values…

A characteristic or measure obtained by using all the data va…

The sum of the values, divided by the total number of values.

Denoted by x̄ (pronounced X-bar) is calculated by using sampl…

Statistic

A characteristic or measure obtained by using the data values…

Parameter

A characteristic or measure obtained by using all the data va…

Average

Mode

Median

Sample mean, x

One number used to describe the entire sample or population

the value that occurs most frequently

The central value of an ordered distribution. If there is an…

the sum of all values of entries in a sample population divid…

Average

One number used to describe the entire sample or population

Mode

the value that occurs most frequently

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

scatterplot

Interpreting scatterplots

measure the outcome of a study.

may help explain or influence changes in a response variable.

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables mea…

1) the direction ... 2) the form ... 3) the strength of the relatio…

Response Variable

measure the outcome of a study.

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or influence changes in a response variable.

bimodal

boxplot

Chebyshev's Theorem

co-efficient of variation

a data set with 2 modes

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

theorem stating that the proportion of values from a data set…

standard deviation divided by the mean with the result expres…

bimodal

a data set with 2 modes

boxplot

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

Symmetric distribution

skewed

unimodal

outliers

same shape reflected around the center

distribution ends farther on one end than the other

distribution has a single major hump or mode, bimodal has two…

values that lie far from the rest of the data

Symmetric distribution

same shape reflected around the center

skewed

distribution ends farther on one end than the other

___ ___ refers to the value around whi…

___ refers to the degree to which valu…

___ ___ ___ refers to the particular w…

The three key measures of central tend…

Central tendency

Variability

Shape of distribution

Mode, median, mean

___ ___ refers to the value around whi…

Central tendency

___ refers to the degree to which valu…

Variability

Distribution

Histogram

Gap

Stem-and-leaf display

Slices up all the possible values of the variable into equal-…

a type of bar graph that shows the frequency of data within g…

a region of the distribution where there are no values.

shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the dis…

Distribution

Slices up all the possible values of the variable into equal-…

Histogram

a type of bar graph that shows the frequency of data within g…

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

Measures an outcome of a study

Helps explain or influences changes in a response variable

A graphed cluster of points each of which represents the valu…

Data points that generally go upward from left to right, some…

Response Variable

Measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

Helps explain or influences changes in a response variable

Scatterplot

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

DOFS

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1…

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

When y is predicted by x, goes on y axis

Direction, Outliers, Form, Strength

Scatterplot

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1…

Explanatory Variable

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

Scatterplot

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

DOFS

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1…

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

When y is predicted by x, goes on y axis

Direction, Outliers, Form, Strength

Scatterplot

Displays the relationship between 2 quantitative variables... 1…

Explanatory Variable

When x helps predict y, goes on x-axis

Experiment

Sample Point

Sample Space

Event

process of making an observation that leads to a single outco…

the most basic outcome of an experiment

the collection of all its sample points

is a specific collection of sample points.

Experiment

process of making an observation that leads to a single outco…

Sample Point

the most basic outcome of an experiment

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mean

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Median

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mode

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Resi…

- The average.... - Used when data are quantitative and the freq…

- The data value "in the middle"... - Used when the data are qua…

- The most frequently occurring value... - Can be applied to bot…

Resistant statistic is a numerical summary (statistic or para…

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mean

- The average.... - Used when data are quantitative and the freq…

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Median

- The data value "in the middle"... - Used when the data are qua…

3 Things you should always do first wi…

Relative Frequency Table (distribution…

Distribution of a variable

Area Principle

1. Make a picture- a display to help you THINK... 2. Picture- SH…

Lists the categories in a categorical variable and the percen…

Tells us what values a variable takes and how often

Each data value should be represented by the same amount of a…

3 Things you should always do first wi…

1. Make a picture- a display to help you THINK... 2. Picture- SH…

Relative Frequency Table (distribution…

Lists the categories in a categorical variable and the percen…

bimodal

boxplot

Chebyshev's Theorem

co-efficient of variation

a data set with 2 modes

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

theorem stating that the proportion of values from a data set…

standard deviation divided by the mean with the result expres…

bimodal

a data set with 2 modes

boxplot

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

frequency distribution

Comparative bar chart

pie chart

Segmented bar chart

A table that displays frequencies and sometimes relative and…

two or more bar charts that use the same set of horizontal an…

a graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data set.

A graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data se…

frequency distribution

A table that displays frequencies and sometimes relative and…

Comparative bar chart

two or more bar charts that use the same set of horizontal an…

Basic display types

Histogram

Key characteristics to observe

Shape

Histogram, Dot Plot, Steam-and-leaf Display

Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

shape, center, spread, and outliers

single or multiple modes; symmetry or skewedness; gaps

Basic display types

Histogram, Dot Plot, Steam-and-leaf Display

Histogram

Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

Central tendecny

Median

Mode

Open-ended distribution

Is a statistical measure that attempts to determine the singl…

If the scores in a distribution are listed in order from smal…

In a frequency distribution, the m_____ is the score or categ…

A distribution is said to be open- minded when there is no up…

Central tendecny

Is a statistical measure that attempts to determine the singl…

Median

If the scores in a distribution are listed in order from smal…

Average daily inpatient census

Calculation of inpatients service days

Calculation of transfers

Census day

The mean number of hospital inpatients present in the hospita…

The measurement of the services received by all inpatients in…

A medical care unit that shows transfers on and off the unit…

A unit of measure equivalent to the services received by one…

Average daily inpatient census

The mean number of hospital inpatients present in the hospita…

Calculation of inpatients service days

The measurement of the services received by all inpatients in…

shape

measure of center

measure of spread

gap

another word for pattern

a measure of center is an indication of where the center, or…

a measure of spread tells us how the data is distributed; the…

gap refers to a gap in the data set; a gap occurs when severa…

shape

another word for pattern

measure of center

a measure of center is an indication of where the center, or…

central tendency

mean / average

weighted mean

outliers

a single value used to describe the center point of a data set

most common measure of central tendency... calculated by adding…

allows you to assign more weight to certain values and less w…

values that are much higher or lower than most of your data

central tendency

a single value used to describe the center point of a data set

mean / average

most common measure of central tendency... calculated by adding…

Arithmetic Mean

Median

Mode

Skewed Right

The sum of all observations divided by the number of observat…

The midpoint of all ranked values

The most frequently observed value in a data set

Mean > Medain; long right tail

Arithmetic Mean

The sum of all observations divided by the number of observat…

Median

The midpoint of all ranked values

Mean

Standard Deviation

Variance

Empirical Rule

Arithmetic avergage, typical value, add all together and divi…

Number that measures how far away typical observations are fr…

standard deviation squared

Rough guideline that helps us understand how the standard dev…

Mean

Arithmetic avergage, typical value, add all together and divi…

Standard Deviation

Number that measures how far away typical observations are fr…

bimodal distribution

box-and-whisker plot

Chebyshev's theorem

Coefficient of variation

a distribution that has two modes

a plot that shows the center, spread, and skewness of a data…

for any number k greater than 1, at least (1 - k^2) of the va…

a measure of relative variability that expresses standard dev…

bimodal distribution

a distribution that has two modes

box-and-whisker plot

a plot that shows the center, spread, and skewness of a data…

Probability Experiment

Outcome

Sample Space

Event

An action, or trial, through which specific results (counts,…

The result of a single trial in a probability experiment.

The set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment {}

Consists of 1+ outcomes and is a subset of the sample space.

Probability Experiment

An action, or trial, through which specific results (counts,…

Outcome

The result of a single trial in a probability experiment.

Statistical tools to make sense of a l…

Statistical measures that define the c…

Mean

Deviation

Centrality: data values cluster around one central value whic…

Arithmetic Mean... Median... Mode

Suppose there are n observations in a data set consisting of…

Given a point A and a data point x, then (x- A) represents ho…

Statistical tools to make sense of a l…

Centrality: data values cluster around one central value whic…

Statistical measures that define the c…

Arithmetic Mean... Median... Mode

Mean (arithmetic mean)

Median

Mode

Bimodal

found by adding the data values and dividing the total by the…

the middle value or physical center of a data set (if n is ev…

the most frequently occurring value in a data set

when two values occur with the highest frequency in a data set

Mean (arithmetic mean)

found by adding the data values and dividing the total by the…

Median

the middle value or physical center of a data set (if n is ev…

standard deviation

Z score

empirical rule definition

68% lie within 1 standard deviation of…

how far the distance is from the mean

measures the number of standard deviations above or below the…

rule stating the symmetrical % breakdown of a bell shape.

empirical rule % breakdowns

standard deviation

how far the distance is from the mean

Z score

measures the number of standard deviations above or below the…

Variance

Sample Variance

Standard Deviation

Z-Score

Measure of how far values in a set of data are from the mean

Summation of the differences of all values and the mean squar…

a quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for…

A value minus the mean, divided by the standard deviation.

Variance

Measure of how far values in a set of data are from the mean

Sample Variance

Summation of the differences of all values and the mean squar…

Measure of center

Arithmetic mean

Median

Mode

A value at the center or middle of a dat set

The measure of center found by adding the data values and div…

The measure of center that is the middle value when the origi…

The value that occurs with the greatest frequency

Measure of center

A value at the center or middle of a dat set

Arithmetic mean

The measure of center found by adding the data values and div…

sample mean

median

mode

deviation

sum of all data values divided by the total # of data values

data value such that 50% of the information lies to the left…

data value occurs frequently

measure of differences between a set of data values and mean

sample mean

sum of all data values divided by the total # of data values

median

data value such that 50% of the information lies to the left…

Histogram

Stem-and-leaf display

Mode

Uniform

Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

Shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the dis…

A hump or local high point in the shape of the distribution o…

A distribution that doesn't appear to have any mode and in wh…

Histogram

Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of a quantitative…

Stem-and-leaf display

Shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the dis…