# Study sets matching "statistics chapter 3"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Sample Standard Deviation

Measures of center

mean

mode

preferred measure of variation when the mean is used as the me…

value at the center or middle of the data set

adding all of the values and dividing the total by the number…

most frequently occurring value... no modes if no repeating numbe…

Sample Standard Deviation

preferred measure of variation when the mean is used as the me…

Measures of center

value at the center or middle of the data set

Probability Experiment

outcome

sample space

event

an action, or trial in which specific results (counts, measure…

the result of a single trial in a probability experiment

the set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment

a subset of the sample space, may consist of one or more outco…

Probability Experiment

an action, or trial in which specific results (counts, measure…

outcome

the result of a single trial in a probability experiment

population

census

sample

observational study

In a statistical study, the entire group of individuals we wan…

Data collected from every individual in the population.

A subset of individuals in the population from which we collec…

Observes individuals and measures variables of interest withou…

population

In a statistical study, the entire group of individuals we wan…

census

Data collected from every individual in the population.

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

scatterplot

Interpreting scatterplots

measure the outcome of a study. This variable responds to the…

may help explain or influence changes in a response variable.…

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables meas…

1) the direction ... 2) the form ... 3) the strength of the relation…

Response Variable

measure the outcome of a study. This variable responds to the…

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or influence changes in a response variable.…

Skewness

Kurtosis

Mesokurtic

Leptokurtic

data that does not have normal distribution

the peakedness or flatness of a distribution of data

normal distribution

Which type of distribution is peaked

Skewness

data that does not have normal distribution

Kurtosis

the peakedness or flatness of a distribution of data

distribution

pie chart

marginal distribution

independent

The possible values of the variable and/or the relative freque…

Show how a "whole" divides into categories by showing a wedge…

The distribution of either variable alone from a contingency t…

Variables are considered this if the conditional distribution…

distribution

The possible values of the variable and/or the relative freque…

pie chart

Show how a "whole" divides into categories by showing a wedge…

Measures of Center

Measures of Spread

Sample Mean

Population mean

Describes where the data distribution is located along the num…

Describes how much variability there is in a data distribution.

Denoted by x bar. (Sum of all observations in a sample)/(# of…

Denoted by "u", arithmetic average of all x values in an entir…

Measures of Center

Describes where the data distribution is located along the num…

Measures of Spread

Describes how much variability there is in a data distribution.

statistic

parameter

mean

sample mean

a characteristic or measure obtained by using the data values…

a characteristic or measure obtained by using all the data val…

the sum of the values, divided by the total number of values

calculated by using sample data-the sample mean is a statistic

statistic

a characteristic or measure obtained by using the data values…

parameter

a characteristic or measure obtained by using all the data val…

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

Positive association

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (bivar…

As x increases, y increases

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

parameter

statistic

Bias

Variability

is a number that describes a population. A ____ is a fixed num…

is a number that describes a sample. The value of this is know…

is consistent, repeated deviation of the sample statistic from…

describes how spread out the values of the sample statistic ar…

parameter

is a number that describes a population. A ____ is a fixed num…

statistic

is a number that describes a sample. The value of this is know…

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

Positive association

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (bivar…

As x increases, y increases

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Distribution

The Area Principle

Categorical data

Quantitative data

This term gives the possible values of the variable and the re…

In a statistical display, each data value should be represente…

A variable that names categories (whether words or numerals)

A variable in which the numbers act as numerical values.

Distribution

This term gives the possible values of the variable and the re…

The Area Principle

In a statistical display, each data value should be represente…

Measure of center

What are four different ways to calcula…

Mean

Resistant measure of center

a value at the center or middle of a data set

Mean... Median... Mode ... Midrange

(average) the mean of a set of data is the measure of center f…

can resist substantial changes caused by extreme values. ... mean…

Measure of center

a value at the center or middle of a data set

What are four different ways to calcula…

Mean... Median... Mode ... Midrange

Measure of central tendency

Mode

Bimodal

Multimodal

a type of measure that is used to describe a set of data by yi…

the most frequently occurring value in a set of data

in the case of a tie for the most frequently occurring value,…

data sets with more than two modes

Measure of central tendency

a type of measure that is used to describe a set of data by yi…

Mode

the most frequently occurring value in a set of data

Mean (or Arithmetic Mean)

Important Properties of the Mean

Notation

Notation

The mean (or arithmetic mean) of a set of data is the measure…

Sample means drawn from the same population tend to vary less…

∑ ... denotes the sum of a set of data values.... x ... is the variabl…

Mean (or Arithmetic Mean)

The mean (or arithmetic mean) of a set of data is the measure…

Important Properties of the Mean

Sample means drawn from the same population tend to vary less…

density curve

proportion

one

shape, center, spread/variability

A curve that is always on or above the horizontal axis and has…

The area under the density curve for a given range of values a…

The density curve has an area of exactly _______ underneath it…

The concepts of _________, __________, and __________/________…

density curve

A curve that is always on or above the horizontal axis and has…

proportion

The area under the density curve for a given range of values a…

3.1 Measures of center are often called

mean and median apply only to

mean can be applied to

mean of a data set is

averages

quantitative data

quantitative and qualitative

sum of observations divided by the number of observation

3.1 Measures of center are often called

averages

mean and median apply only to

quantitative data

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatterplot

Positive Association

measures an outcome of a study

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

shows the relationship between two quantitative variables meas…

data points that generally go upward from left to right, somew…

Response Variable

measures an outcome of a study

Explanatory Variable

may help explain or predict changes in a response variable

1.50

the number with 70% of the data below i…

49.85%

50%

SAT scores are Normally distributed with mean 500 and standard…

The 70th percentile of a distribution is

For a Normal distribution with mean 20 and standard deviation…

For a Normal distribution with mean 20 and standard deviation…

1.50

SAT scores are Normally distributed with mean 500 and standard…

the number with 70% of the data below i…

The 70th percentile of a distribution is

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Scatterplots

Positive association

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Show the relationship betweeen two quantitive variables (bivar…

As x increases, y increases

Response variable

Measures the outcome of a study, dependent variable, y

Explanatory variable

Attempts to explain observed outcomes, indepdent variable, x

Outliers

Outliers Calculation

Box Plot

Comparing Data

an extreme value that lies outside the overall pattern of the…

=Q3 + k(IQR)... =Q1 - k(IQR)

-represents important features of the data... -diagram - lowest/…

-measure of location (average) and a measure of spread... -includ…

Outliers

an extreme value that lies outside the overall pattern of the…

Outliers Calculation

=Q3 + k(IQR)... =Q1 - k(IQR)

indifference curve

Indifference map

Indifference curve properties (4 of the…

Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS)

a line that shows the consumption bundles that yield the same…

Shows 4 of infinitely possible indiffernce curves

1. They are ubiquitous ... 2. They are downward sloping... 3. They c…

Absolute value of slope of the indifference curve at a point

indifference curve

a line that shows the consumption bundles that yield the same…

Indifference map

Shows 4 of infinitely possible indiffernce curves

Arithmetic Mean

Population Arithmetic Mean

Sample Arithmetic Mean

Mean

Computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data…

Computed using all the individuals in a population (a paramete…

Computed using sample data (a statistic)

The arithmetic mean

Arithmetic Mean

Computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data…

Population Arithmetic Mean

Computed using all the individuals in a population (a paramete…

Distribution

Histogram

Gap

Stem-and-leaf display

Slices up all the possible values of the variable into equal-w…

a type of bar graph that shows the frequency of data within gi…

a region of the distribution where there are no values.

shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the dist…

Distribution

Slices up all the possible values of the variable into equal-w…

Histogram

a type of bar graph that shows the frequency of data within gi…

Addition Rule

Classical Probability

Combination

Complement

Used to find the probability of at least one or two events occ…

The number of outcomes in the sample space is known and each o…

The number of combinations of r objects selected from a group…

The set of all outcomes in a sample space that are not included

Addition Rule

Used to find the probability of at least one or two events occ…

Classical Probability

The number of outcomes in the sample space is known and each o…