#### Study sets matching "statistics chapter 4"

#### Study sets matching "statistics chapter 4"

Bi-variate Data

Response Variable

Explanatory/Predictor Variable

Scatter Diagram

Data in which two variables are measured on an individual

The variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

The variable whose value explains the response variable

A graph that shows the relationship between two quantitative…

Bi-variate Data

Data in which two variables are measured on an individual

Response Variable

The variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

comparison test for linear correlation

correlation coefficient

scatterplot

response variable

helps determine whether the correlation coefficient is strong…

measures the strength of the linear association between two v…

plot of the values of y, the response variable, vs the corres…

y variable in regression analysis; dependent; outcome

comparison test for linear correlation

helps determine whether the correlation coefficient is strong…

correlation coefficient

measures the strength of the linear association between two v…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

A study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample that r…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reac…

Population

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

Sample

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Population

Sample

Sample survey

Convenience sample

in a statistical study is the entire group of individuals abo…

is the part of the population from which we actually collect…

A study that asks questions of a sample drawn from some popul…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach.

Population

in a statistical study is the entire group of individuals abo…

Sample

is the part of the population from which we actually collect…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

To take a cluster sample, first divide the population into sm…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population tha…

Bias

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

Event

Simple Event

Sample Space

P

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

an outcome or an event that cannot be further broken down int…

for a procedure consists of all possible simple events; that…

denotes a probability.

Event

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

Simple Event

an outcome or an event that cannot be further broken down int…

Experiment

Sample space

Tree diagram

Event

An activity in which there are at least two possible outcomes…

S': a listing of all possible outcomes, using set notation

A visual road map of possible outcomes in an experiment

Any collection of outcomes from an experiment

Experiment

An activity in which there are at least two possible outcomes…

Sample space

S': a listing of all possible outcomes, using set notation

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals we want to know about. For ex…

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Sample survey is a study in which you obtain data from a subs…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reac…

Population

The entire group of individuals we want to know about. For ex…

Sample

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Random Variable

Discrete

Continuous

Discrete probability distribution

x represents a numerical value associated with each outcome o…

A variable is discrete if it has finite or countable number o…

If the variable has an uncountable number of possible outcome…

Lists each possible value the random variable can assume, tog…

Random Variable

x represents a numerical value associated with each outcome o…

Discrete

A variable is discrete if it has finite or countable number o…

Random Variable

A random variable is ________ if its p…

A random variable is _________ if its…

Probability distribution

a numerical variable associated with the outcomes of a random…

discrete

continuous

of a discrete random variable x is a list (or description) of…

Random Variable

a numerical variable associated with the outcomes of a random…

A random variable is ________ if its p…

discrete

Experiment

Outcomes

Sample space

Tree Diagram

A process that, when performed, results in one and only one o…

These observations are called the outcomes of the experiment.

The collection of all outcomes for an experiment is called a…

Experiment

A process that, when performed, results in one and only one o…

Outcomes

These observations are called the outcomes of the experiment.

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

When a statistical study systematically favors certain outcom…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

To take a cluster sample, first divide the population into sm…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population tha…

Bias

When a statistical study systematically favors certain outcom…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

What is the population in a statistica…

What is the sample in a statistical st…

What is a convenience sample, and why…

What is a bias?

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

part of the population from which we actually collect informa…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach results. Howeve…

design of a statistical study that systematically favors cert…

What is the population in a statistica…

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

What is the sample in a statistical st…

part of the population from which we actually collect informa…

Stratification

Stratified random sampling

Cluster Sample

Two Stage sampling

A classification of the units in the population into homogeno…

Stratifying the population and then taking a simple random sa…

When the units in the population are assigned to non-overlapp…

A sampling procedure that involves two steps. For example, ta…

Stratification

A classification of the units in the population into homogeno…

Stratified random sampling

Stratifying the population and then taking a simple random sa…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

Bayes Theorem

Multiplication of Probabilities(And)

Addition of Probablilities(Or)

Mutually Exclusive events

Based on conditions that might be related to the event. P(A|B…

N means multiply

U means add

Bayes Theorem

Based on conditions that might be related to the event. P(A|B…

Multiplication of Probabilities(And)

N means multiply

Probability

Experiment

Sample Space

Sample Point

A numerical measure of the likelihood that an event will occur

A process that generates well-defined outcomes

The set of all experimental outcomes

An element of the sample space. This represents an experiment…

Probability

A numerical measure of the likelihood that an event will occur

Experiment

A process that generates well-defined outcomes

Scatter Diagram

Drawing scatter diagram with calculator

Scatter diagram & implied relation

Properties of the linear correlation c…

Scatter diagram is a graph that shows the relationship betwee…

- Enter explanatory variable data in Stat - L1... - Enter respon…

- Positive linear relation: Two variables are positively asso…

1. r is always between -1 and 1... 2. If r = 1 it is a perfect p…

Scatter Diagram

Scatter diagram is a graph that shows the relationship betwee…

Drawing scatter diagram with calculator

- Enter explanatory variable data in Stat - L1... - Enter respon…

Scatter Diagram

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Correlation Coefficient

A graph in which the values of two variables are plotted alon…

X-Axis

Y-Axis

r=[nΣ(xy)-(Σx)(Σy)]/[√nΣ(x^2)-(Σx)^2] * [√nΣ(y^2)-(Σy)^2] ; A…

Scatter Diagram

A graph in which the values of two variables are plotted alon…

Explanatory Variable

X-Axis

Scatter Diagram

Explanatory Variable

REsponse Variable

Correlation Coefficient

A graph in which the values of two variables are plotted alon…

First variable in the pair (x).

Second variable in the pair (y).

A numerical value that measures the strength of a linear rela…

Scatter Diagram

A graph in which the values of two variables are plotted alon…

Explanatory Variable

First variable in the pair (x).

Area Principle

Bar Chart

Cell

Column Percent

In a statistics display, each data value is represented by th…

A chart that represents the count (or percentage) of each cat…

Each location in a contingency table, representing the values…

The proportion of each column contained in the cell of a freq…

Area Principle

In a statistics display, each data value is represented by th…

Bar Chart

A chart that represents the count (or percentage) of each cat…

sample mean

is sample mean sensitive or insensitiv…

population mean

sample median

= sum of all observations in the sample/ number of observatio…

sensitive

the average x value of the entire population

the middle value in the ordered list of observations... the sing…

sample mean

= sum of all observations in the sample/ number of observatio…

is sample mean sensitive or insensitiv…

sensitive

RARE EVENT RULE FOR INFERENTIAL STATIS…

event

Simple event

sample space

if under a given assumption, the probability of a particular…

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

an outcome or an event that cannot be further broken down int…

for a procedure consists of all possible simple events. The s…

RARE EVENT RULE FOR INFERENTIAL STATIS…

if under a given assumption, the probability of a particular…

event

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

Scatter Diagram

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Correlation Coefficient

A diagram in which there is an x & y axis, with dots displayi…

x axis

y axis

A numerical value that measures the strength of a linear rela…

Scatter Diagram

A diagram in which there is an x & y axis, with dots displayi…

Explanatory Variable

x axis

Common Math

Common graph

Regression Analysis

Scatter Plot

We are given an equation and we use it to solve problems

A line showing the relationship between the two variables.

Instead of an equation, we are given data in the form of a ta…

The graph of the set of points whose coordinates match the da…

Common Math

We are given an equation and we use it to solve problems

Common graph

A line showing the relationship between the two variables.

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatter Diagram

Scatter Plot

The dependent variable

The independent variable; explains he response variable

Graph showing the relationship between two numeric variables:…

Displays the relationship between two variables. DO NOT conne…

Response Variable

The dependent variable

Explanatory Variable

The independent variable; explains he response variable

Sample survey

Population

Sample

Census

Is a study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample tha…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Is a part of the population that we actually examine in order…

Attempts to contact every individual in the entire population

Sample survey

Is a study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample tha…

Population

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Statistics

descriptive stats

inferential stats

variables

Broad range of techniques and procedures for gathering, organ…

describe a set of quantitative data

make inferences about large groups of a people by analyzing d…

characteristics on which people differ

Statistics

Broad range of techniques and procedures for gathering, organ…

descriptive stats

describe a set of quantitative data

Deviation Score

Interquartile Range

Range

Standard Deviation

A raw score minus the mean of the distribution whether the di…

Range of scores that contain the middle 50% of a distribution.

The highest score minus the lowest score.

Descriptive measure of the dispersion of scores around the me…

Deviation Score

A raw score minus the mean of the distribution whether the di…

Interquartile Range

Range of scores that contain the middle 50% of a distribution.

Probability

Sample Space

Event

Probability of an Event

the study of random phenomena. The probability of any outcome…

the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment with random…

an outcome or outcomes in a sample space... example: Experiment…

number of ways the event can occur/number of members in the s…

Probability

the study of random phenomena. The probability of any outcome…

Sample Space

the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment with random…

Bivariate data

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Predictor variable

Data in which two variables are measured.

Variable that is measured; the dependent variable.

Variable that is controlled; the independent variable.

Variable that is manipulated in an experiment.

Bivariate data

Data in which two variables are measured.

Response variable

Variable that is measured; the dependent variable.

Sample Mean

Sample Median

Comparing Mean and Median of a Histogram

Histogram skewed

The sample mean consists of a numerical data set from a sampl…

The sample median is the middle number in which half (50%) of…

As stated in the previous slide, the sample median is the val…

If the histogram is skewed to the left (negatively skewed), t…

Sample Mean

The sample mean consists of a numerical data set from a sampl…

Sample Median

The sample median is the middle number in which half (50%) of…

random variable

discrete

continuous

probability distribution of a discrete…

a variable that assumes numerical values associated with the…

random variables that can assume a countable number (finite o…

random variables the can assume values corresponding to any o…

a graph, table, or formula that specifies thee probability as…

random variable

a variable that assumes numerical values associated with the…

discrete

random variables that can assume a countable number (finite o…

4 processes of statistics

Display

Summary

Statistic

-data production... -displaying and summarizing data... -probabilit…

pie chart, bar graph

count, percent, proportion

number summarizing sample (p-hat)

4 processes of statistics

-data production... -displaying and summarizing data... -probabilit…

Display

pie chart, bar graph

"Sigma"X

Measure of Central Tendency

Mode

Unimodal

To add the X scores

A score that summarizes the location of a distribution on a v…

The score that occurs the most frequently. Typically used to…

When a polygon has one hump (like a normal curve)

"Sigma"X

To add the X scores

Measure of Central Tendency

A score that summarizes the location of a distribution on a v…

Population

Sample

Convenience sample

Bias

the entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn

set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical popu…

made up of people who are easy to reach.

the tendency of a measurement process to over- or under-estim…

Population

the entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn

Sample

set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical popu…

ogive

frequency distribution

central tendency

variability

cumulative frequency polygon

method of tallying and representing how often certain scores…

best for describing a group of data

measure of how diverse or different, scores are from one anot…

ogive

cumulative frequency polygon

frequency distribution

method of tallying and representing how often certain scores…

Bivariate Data

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatter Diagram

data in which two variables are measured on an individual.

the variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

the variable that explains or influences changes in the respo…

a graph that shows the relationship between two quantitative…

Bivariate Data

data in which two variables are measured on an individual.

Response Variable

the variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

Area principle

Bar chart (relative frequency bar chart)

Categorical data condition

Column percent

A principle that helps to interpret statistical information w…

A chart that represents the count (or percentage) of each cat…

Data are counts or percentages of individuals in categories

The proportion of each column contained in the cell of a cont…

Area principle

A principle that helps to interpret statistical information w…

Bar chart (relative frequency bar chart)

A chart that represents the count (or percentage) of each cat…

census

sampling

inference

Simple Random Sample

to obtain information about every member of the population, a…

studying a part to gain information about the whole is

the purpose of sampling

SRS stands for this

census

to obtain information about every member of the population, a…

sampling

studying a part to gain information about the whole is

correlation

positive correlation

negative correlation

no correlation

relationship between explanatory and response variables

variables react in the same manner

variables react in opposite manners

no significant relationship between the variables

correlation

relationship between explanatory and response variables

positive correlation

variables react in the same manner

What are the 3 general ways to gather…

Observational study

Experiment

Simulation

Observational studies, experiments, simulations

Observes individuals and measures variables of interest but d…

Deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals to measure…

Imitation of chance behavior, based on a model that accuratel…

What are the 3 general ways to gather…

Observational studies, experiments, simulations

Observational study

Observes individuals and measures variables of interest but d…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

A study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample that r…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reac…

Population

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

Sample

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Scatter Diagram

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Correlation Coefficient

the data pairs (x,y) are plotted as individual points on a gr…

the first data value (x).

the second data value (y).

a numerical value that measures the strength of a linear rela…

Scatter Diagram

the data pairs (x,y) are plotted as individual points on a gr…

Explanatory Variable

the first data value (x).