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Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

A study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample that r…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reac…

Population

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

Sample

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

comparison test for linear correlation

correlation coefficient

scatterplot

response variable

helps determine whether the correlation coefficient is strong…

measures the strength of the linear association between two v…

plot of the values of y, the response variable, vs the corres…

y variable in regression analysis; dependent; outcome

comparison test for linear correlation

helps determine whether the correlation coefficient is strong…

correlation coefficient

measures the strength of the linear association between two v…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

To take a cluster sample, first divide the population into sm…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population tha…

Bias

The design of a statistical study shows bias if it systematic…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

Bayes Theorem

Multiplication of Probabilities(And)

Addition of Probablilities(Or)

Mutually Exclusive events

Based on conditions that might be related to the event. P(A|B…

N means multiply

U means add

Bayes Theorem

Based on conditions that might be related to the event. P(A|B…

Multiplication of Probabilities(And)

N means multiply

Population

Sample

Sample survey

Convenience sample

in a statistical study is the entire group of individuals abo…

is the part of the population from which we actually collect…

A study that asks questions of a sample drawn from some popul…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach.

Population

in a statistical study is the entire group of individuals abo…

Sample

is the part of the population from which we actually collect…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals we want to know about. For ex…

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Sample survey is a study in which you obtain data from a subs…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reac…

Population

The entire group of individuals we want to know about. For ex…

Sample

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Bi-variate Data

Response Variable

Explanatory/Predictor Variable

Scatter Diagram

Data in which two variables are measured on an individual

The variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

The variable whose value explains the response variable

A graph that shows the relationship between two quantitative…

Bi-variate Data

Data in which two variables are measured on an individual

Response Variable

The variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

Experiment

Sample space

Tree diagram

Event

An activity in which there are at least two possible outcomes…

S': a listing of all possible outcomes, using set notation

A visual road map of possible outcomes in an experiment

Any collection of outcomes from an experiment

Experiment

An activity in which there are at least two possible outcomes…

Sample space

S': a listing of all possible outcomes, using set notation

Random Variable

A random variable is ________ if its p…

A random variable is _________ if its…

Probability distribution

a numerical variable associated with the outcomes of a random…

discrete

continuous

of a discrete random variable x is a list (or description) of…

Random Variable

a numerical variable associated with the outcomes of a random…

A random variable is ________ if its p…

discrete

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatter Diagram

Scatter Plot

The dependent variable

The independent variable; explains he response variable

Graph showing the relationship between two numeric variables:…

Displays the relationship between two variables. DO NOT conne…

Response Variable

The dependent variable

Explanatory Variable

The independent variable; explains he response variable

What is the population in a statistica…

What is the sample in a statistical st…

What is a convenience sample, and why…

What is a bias?

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

part of the population from which we actually collect informa…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach results. Howeve…

design of a statistical study that systematically favors cert…

What is the population in a statistica…

the entire group of individuals about which we want information

What is the sample in a statistical st…

part of the population from which we actually collect informa…

Experiment

Outcomes

Sample space

Tree Diagram

A process that, when performed, results in one and only one o…

These observations are called the outcomes of the experiment.

The collection of all outcomes for an experiment is called a…

Experiment

A process that, when performed, results in one and only one o…

Outcomes

These observations are called the outcomes of the experiment.

Stem and leaf

What is an outlier?

What is the general formula for outlie…

What does a histogram enable you to see?

To order and present data given to two or three significant f…

An extreme value that lies outside the overall pattern of the…

x > Q₃ + 1.5 × IQR... x < Q₁ + 1.5 × IQR

A good picture of the distribution, a rough location, the gen…

Stem and leaf

To order and present data given to two or three significant f…

What is an outlier?

An extreme value that lies outside the overall pattern of the…

Bias

Census

Cluster sample

Convenience sample

When a statistical study systematically favors certain outcom…

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

To take a cluster sample, first divide the population into sm…

A sample selected by taking the members of the population tha…

Bias

When a statistical study systematically favors certain outcom…

Census

A study that attempts to collect data from every individual i…

Stratification

Stratified random sampling

Cluster Sample

Two Stage sampling

A classification of the units in the population into homogeno…

Stratifying the population and then taking a simple random sa…

When the units in the population are assigned to non-overlapp…

A sampling procedure that involves two steps. For example, ta…

Stratification

A classification of the units in the population into homogeno…

Stratified random sampling

Stratifying the population and then taking a simple random sa…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

sample mean

is sample mean sensitive or insensitiv…

population mean

sample median

= sum of all observations in the sample/ number of observatio…

sensitive

the average x value of the entire population

the middle value in the ordered list of observations... the sing…

sample mean

= sum of all observations in the sample/ number of observatio…

is sample mean sensitive or insensitiv…

sensitive

variability

measures of variability

range

when to use the range

measure of dispersion of scores in a distribution

range, variance, standard deviation

difference between largest and smallest values

when data sets are small and do not have outliers

variability

measure of dispersion of scores in a distribution

measures of variability

range, variance, standard deviation

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals we want to know about. For ex…

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Sample survey is a study in which you obtain data from a subs…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reac…

Population

The entire group of individuals we want to know about. For ex…

Sample

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Probability

Experiment

Sample Space

Sample Point

A numerical measure of the likelihood that an event will occur

A process that generates well-defined outcomes

The set of all experimental outcomes

An element of the sample space. This represents an experiment…

Probability

A numerical measure of the likelihood that an event will occur

Experiment

A process that generates well-defined outcomes

Bivariate Data

Response Variable

Explanatory Variable

Scatter Diagram

data in which two variables are measured on an individual.

the variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

the variable that explains or influences changes in the respo…

a graph that shows the relationship between two quantitative…

Bivariate Data

data in which two variables are measured on an individual.

Response Variable

the variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

Scatter Diagram

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Correlation Coefficient

A graph in which the values of two variables are plotted alon…

X-Axis

Y-Axis

r=[nΣ(xy)-(Σx)(Σy)]/[√nΣ(x^2)-(Σx)^2] * [√nΣ(y^2)-(Σy)^2] ; A…

Scatter Diagram

A graph in which the values of two variables are plotted alon…

Explanatory Variable

X-Axis

Probablility

Probability of an event

Three probability assignments

intuition

Measure of (quantity) something happening between 0-1 chance…

has to either be greater or equals to 0 but less than or equa…

1) intuition... 2) relative frequency... 3) Equally likely outcomes

(when not given enough information), this incorporates pass e…

Probablility

Measure of (quantity) something happening between 0-1 chance…

Probability of an event

has to either be greater or equals to 0 but less than or equa…

Unit

Census

Frame

Simple Random Sampling

Single individual subject or object

A survey in which the entire population in measures

A list of units from which the sample is chosen

A sampling procedure that assures each element in the populat…

Unit

Single individual subject or object

Census

A survey in which the entire population in measures

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

A study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample that r…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reac…

Population

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

Sample

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

RARE EVENT RULE FOR INFERENTIAL STATIS…

event

Simple event

sample space

if under a given assumption, the probability of a particular…

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

an outcome or an event that cannot be further broken down int…

for a procedure consists of all possible simple events. The s…

RARE EVENT RULE FOR INFERENTIAL STATIS…

if under a given assumption, the probability of a particular…

event

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

Scatter diagram

Explanatory variable

Response variable

Correlation Coefficient

Data pairs (x,y) are plotted as individual points

First variable on the pair

Second variable in the pair

Numerical value that measure the strength of a linear relatio…

Scatter diagram

Data pairs (x,y) are plotted as individual points

Explanatory variable

First variable on the pair

classical probability rule

combinations

complementary events

Compound event

the method of assigning probabilities to outcome or events of…

the number of ways x elements can be selected from n elements…

two events that taken together include all the outcomes for a…

An event that contains more than one outcome of an experiment…

classical probability rule

the method of assigning probabilities to outcome or events of…

combinations

the number of ways x elements can be selected from n elements…

Population

Sample

Sample survey

Convenience sample

in a statistical study is the entire group of individuals abo…

is the part of the population from which we actually collect…

A study that asks questions of a sample drawn from some popul…

choosing individuals who are easiest to reach.

Population

in a statistical study is the entire group of individuals abo…

Sample

is the part of the population from which we actually collect…

Event

Simple Event

Sample Space

P

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

an outcome or an event that cannot be further broken down int…

for a procedure consists of all possible simple events; that…

denotes a probability.

Event

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

Simple Event

an outcome or an event that cannot be further broken down int…

Common Math

Common graph

Regression Analysis

Scatter Plot

We are given an equation and we use it to solve problems

A line showing the relationship between the two variables.

Instead of an equation, we are given data in the form of a ta…

The graph of the set of points whose coordinates match the da…

Common Math

We are given an equation and we use it to solve problems

Common graph

A line showing the relationship between the two variables.

Sample survey

Population

Sample

Census

Is a study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample tha…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Is a part of the population that we actually examine in order…

Attempts to contact every individual in the entire population

Sample survey

Is a study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample tha…

Population

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Variability

Statistical procedures used to summarize and describe the dat…

The difference of a score in a set of scores from the mean of…

Numbers that represent the average or typical score obtained…

Numbers that indicate how much scores differ from each other…

Descriptive Statistics

Statistical procedures used to summarize and describe the dat…

Deviation

The difference of a score in a set of scores from the mean of…

Bernoulli Trials

Binomial Experiment

Binomial Probability Distribution

Expected value

an experiment with the following characteristics:... 1. There ar…

a statistical experiment that satisfies the following three c…

a discrete random variable (RV) that arises from Bernoulli tr…

expected arithmetic average when an experiment is repeated ma…

Bernoulli Trials

an experiment with the following characteristics:... 1. There ar…

Binomial Experiment

a statistical experiment that satisfies the following three c…

Scatter Diagram

Explanatory Variable

REsponse Variable

Correlation Coefficient

A graph in which the values of two variables are plotted alon…

First variable in the pair (x).

Second variable in the pair (y).

A numerical value that measures the strength of a linear rela…

Scatter Diagram

A graph in which the values of two variables are plotted alon…

Explanatory Variable

First variable in the pair (x).

Area Principle

Bar Chart

Cell

Column Percent

In a statistics display, each data value is represented by th…

A chart that represents the count (or percentage) of each cat…

Each location in a contingency table, representing the values…

The proportion of each column contained in the cell of a freq…

Area Principle

In a statistics display, each data value is represented by th…

Bar Chart

A chart that represents the count (or percentage) of each cat…

Probability

Sample Space

Event

Probability of an Event

the study of random phenomena. The probability of any outcome…

the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment with random…

an outcome or outcomes in a sample space... example: Experiment…

number of ways the event can occur/number of members in the s…

Probability

the study of random phenomena. The probability of any outcome…

Sample Space

the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment with random…

Response Variable

Scatter Diagram

Bivariate Data

Explanatory Variable

The Variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

A graph that shows the relationship between two quantitative…

Data in which two variables are measured on and individual

Helps explain variability in the response variable

Response Variable

The Variable whose value can be explained by the value of the…

Scatter Diagram

A graph that shows the relationship between two quantitative…

Rare event rule for inferential statis…

event

Simple event

Sample Space

If, under a given assumption, the probability of a particular…

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

An outcome or an event that cannot be further broken down int…

The sample space for a procedure consists of all possible sim…

Rare event rule for inferential statis…

If, under a given assumption, the probability of a particular…

event

any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure

Bivariate data

Response variable

Explanatory variable

Predictor variable

Data in which two variables are measured.

Variable that is measured; the dependent variable.

Variable that is controlled; the independent variable.

Variable that is manipulated in an experiment.

Bivariate data

Data in which two variables are measured.

Response variable

Variable that is measured; the dependent variable.

Biased statistic

Degrees of freedom (df)

Deviation score

Population standard deviation

A statistic that, on average, consitently tends to overestima…

Degrees of freedom = df = n -1, measures the number of scores…

The distance (and direction) from the mean to a specific scor…

The square root of the population variance; a measure of the…

Biased statistic

A statistic that, on average, consitently tends to overestima…

Degrees of freedom (df)

Degrees of freedom = df = n -1, measures the number of scores…

variability

range

deviation

population variance equation

provides a quantitative measure of the differences between sc…

distance from the upper real limit of the highest score to th…

distance from the mean

o^2=SS/N

variability

provides a quantitative measure of the differences between sc…

range

distance from the upper real limit of the highest score to th…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e. i…

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want information

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

Outcome

Sample space

Relative frequency

Law of large numbers

possible result of an outcome

all possible outcomes

the ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the numb…

In the long run, as the sample size increases, the relative f…

Outcome

possible result of an outcome

Sample space

all possible outcomes