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Biased Sample

Unbiased Sample/Representative

Statistics

Voluntary Response Sample

is when one or more parts of the population are favored.

is when each item or person in the population is as likely to…

deals with collecting, organizing/analyzing, and interpreting…

involves only those who want to participate in the sampling.

random variable

discrete

continuous

probability distribution of a discrete…

a numerical variable whose value is determined by the outcome…

can count, isolated points on number line

measured, includes entire interval on number line

gives the probability associated with each x value (formula, t…

statistical inference

parameter

statistic

biased, wording, leading, ambiguous, in…

To obtain information about a population from information cont…

A numerical characteristic of a population

a numerical characteristic of a sample

Common sampling pitfalls are b______ samples, w________ of que…

Addition Rule

Complement Rule

Conditional Probability

Disjoint Events

If A and B are disjoint events, the =n the probability of A or…

The probability of an event occurring is 1 minus the probabili…

P(B/A)= (P(A and B))/(P(A))... P(B/A) is read "the probability of…

Two events are disjoint if they have no outcomes in common. If…

sampled population

frame

parameter

simple random sample

the population from which the sample is taken

a listing of the elements the sample will be selected from

a numerical characteristic of a population, such as a populati…

a blank of size n from a finite population of size N is a samp…

simple random sampling

stratified stampling

cluster sampling

systematic sampling

a sample selected from a finite population such that each poss…

a sampling method in which the population is first divided int…

a sampling method in which the population is first divided int…

is a sampling method in whci you randomly select one of the fi…

Average

Central limit theorem

Exponential distribution

Mean

A number that describes the central tendency of the data

Given a random variable with known mean and known standard dev…

A continuous random variable that appears when we are interest…

A number that measures the central tendency, aka average

Descriptive Statistics

Central Tendency

Mean

Median

Provides a calculation of central tendency and variation measu…

The center of a distribution: mean, median or mode.

A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by ad…

A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of…

Assumption

Parametric test

Nonparametric test

Robust hypothesis test

a characteristic that we ideally require the population from w…

an inferential statistical analysis based on a set of assumpti…

an inferential statistical analysis that is not based on a set…

a test that produces fairly accurate results even when the dat…

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

type I error

process that uses sample statistics to test a claim about the…

statistical hypothesis that contains a statement of equality

complement of the null... - statement that must be true if Ho is…

occurs if the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true

Parameter

Statistic

Because good samples are chosen randoml…

We can describe the behavior of a sampl…

A number that describes a character of the population. The val…

A number describing a characteristic of a sample. Statistics a…

random variables.

What would happen if we did this many times?

Sampling Distribution of a statistic (M…

Sampling Distribution shows...

Population distribution is the distribu…

An example of population distribution (…

The probability distribution that specifies probabilities for…

All possible values of the sample proportion

take the sample

Population proportion p for a categorical variable (fixed)

household bias

nonresponse bias

quota sampling bias

response bias

when a sample includes only one member of any given household

make it hard to know which part of the population is underrepr…

results when interviewers are given free choice in picking peo…

when the wording of the question changes the true answer

Parameter

Statistics

Sampling Distribution

Unbiased Estimator

is a number that describes some characteristics of the populat…

is a number that describes some characteristics of the sample

is the distribution of values taken by the statistics in all p…

a statistic used to estimate a parameter , if the mean of its…

Random Variable

Discrete Random Variable

Probability Distribution

Density Curve

A variable whose value is a numerical outcome of a random phen…

Variable which has a countable number of possible values

Lists the values of the variables and their probabilities

Describes the probability distribution of a continuous random…

Scatterplots

Association

Outlier

Response Variable

Shows the relationship between 2 quantitative variable measure…

1) Direction: (slope tells direction) a positive direction mea…

A point that does not fit the overall pattern seen in the scat…

What you are interested in, dependent, Y

correlation

prediction

bivariate distribution

scatter diagram

a measure of the degree of relationship between two variables

when two variables are correlated, estimating the value of one…

a distribution that shows the relationship between two variables

a graph of a bivariate distribution consisting of dots at the…

Inferential Statistics

Sampling

Random sampling

Types of Distributions

Social scientists want to know about the characteristics of a…

goal: obtain a subset of the population that represents the po…

-each element in the population has an equal chance at being c…

1. Population... 2. Sample... 3.Sampling

parameter

statistic

sampling distribution

unbiased estimator

a number that describes some characteristic of the population.…

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…

the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possi…

statistic used to estimate a parameter is this if the mean of…

bias

selection bias

nonresponse bias

simple random sample

the tendency of a sample statistic to systematically overestim…

a systematic underrepresentation of certain groups from consid…

a systematic difference in preferences between respondents and…

A sample of n observations that has the same probability of be…

Why should you sample?

Sampling Frame

Frames

Non-probability Sample

It is less time-consuming, less costly than selecting every it…

A listing of items that make up the population.

Data sources such as population lists, directories, or maps.

Items included are chosen without regard to their probability…

Requirements for Using a Normal Distrib…

Notation for Proportions

Point Estimate

Confidence interval.

1. The sample is a simple random sample.... 2. The conditions for…

p = population proportion... p-hat = x/n sample proportion of x…

Is a single value (or point) used to approximate a population…

(or interval estimate) is a range (or an interval) of values u…

Parameter

Statistic

Population distribution

Sampling distribution of a statistic

Number that describes some characteristic of the population.

Number that describes some characteristic of a sample.

The distribution of values of the variable among all the indiv…

The distribution of all values of a particular statistic from…

model

linear model

predicted value

residuals

an equation or formula that simplifies and represents reality

an equation of a line. To interpret a linear model, we need to…

the value of (predicted y) found for a given x-value in the da…

the differences between data values and the corresponding valu…

Random Variable

Discrete Random Variable

Continuous Random Variable

Density Curve

A variable taking numerical values determined by the outcome o…

Random variable X with a countable number of possible values

Random variable X with values, a random variable whose values…

A mathematical model used to describe the overall pattern of t…

Random Variable

Probability Distribution

Probability Histogram

Discrete Random Variables

A variable whose value is a numerical outcome of a random phen…

The ___ of a random variable X tells us what the possible valu…

A graph that shows the probability of each outcome on the Y-ax…

A ___ has a countable number of possible values. The probabili…

observational study

experiment

population

sample

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, does…

deliberately imposes a treatment on individuals in order to ob…

entire group of individuals from which we want information

part of the population that data is actually collected from

hypothesis

value

larger

hypothesis testing

a statement or proposed explanation for an observation, a phen…

a hypothesis is often a statement about the _______________ fo…

the ______________ the difference of discrepancy between the s…

a method for testing a claim or hypothesis about a parameter i…

Model

Linear model

Predicted value

Residuals

An equation or formula that simplifies and represents reality.

A ____________ is an equation of aline. To interpret a linear…

The value of y found for a given x-value in the data. A ______…

_______________ are the differences between data values and th…

Sampling Distribution

Sampling Distribution of Sample Means

The Central Limit Theorem: Mean

The Central Limit Theorem: Standard Dev…

Distribution of values of a particular sample statistic for al…

Distribution of sample means for all possible samples of a giv…

The mean of sampling distribution of sample means, μ of xbar,…

The standard deviation of a sampling distribution of sample me…

Alpha Level

Alternative Hypothesis

Confidence Interval

Effect Size

The a priori probability of falsely rejecting the null hypothe…

The alternative to the null hypothesis. Usually it is the hypo…

An interval calculated using sample statistics to contain the…

A measure of the size of the effect observed in some statistic…

Adjusted hospital autopsy rate

Adjusted hospital autopsy rate Formula

Autopsy

Autopsy Rate

The proportion of hospital autopsies performed following the d…

Total hospital autopsies X 100/Total # of deaths of hospital p…

The postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body…

The proportion or percentage of deaths in a healthcare organiz…

Random

Probability

Probability theory

Personal probability

If indivisible outcomes are uncertain but there is nonetheless…

Any outcome of any phenomenon is a number between zero and 1 t…

The mathematical theory Of randomness

An outcome is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the indi…

biased sample

convenience sample

double box plot

double dot plot

A sample drawn in such a way that one or more parts of the pop…

A sample which consists of members of a population that are ea…

2 box plots graphed on the same number line

A method of visually displaying 2 sets of data values where ea…