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sampling error

parameter

simple random sample

population mean

the difference between a measure computer from a sample (a st…

a measure computed from the entire population. As long as the…

a simple selected in such a manner that each possible sample…

sampling error

the difference between a measure computer from a sample (a st…

parameter

a measure computed from the entire population. As long as the…

statistic

parameter

mean

variance

a numerical descriptive measure of a sample

a numerical descriptive measure of a population

statistic: x bar... parameter: mu

statistic: s^2... parameter: σ^2

statistic

a numerical descriptive measure of a sample

parameter

a numerical descriptive measure of a population

Normal distribution

Empirical rule

Z score

Standard Normal

A continuous probability distribution. 1. Bell shaped curve,…

68%, 1 std dev, 95%, 2 std dev, 99.7%, 3 std dev

Gives the number of std dev between the original measurement…

Normal distribution with Mu= 0 and Sigma= 1

Normal distribution

A continuous probability distribution. 1. Bell shaped curve,…

Empirical rule

68%, 1 std dev, 95%, 2 std dev, 99.7%, 3 std dev

Parameter

Statistics

Sampling Distribution

Unbiased Estimator

is a number that describes some characteristics of the popula…

is a number that describes some characteristics of the sample

is the distribution of values taken by the statistics in all…

a statistic used to estimate a parameter , if the mean of its…

Parameter

is a number that describes some characteristics of the popula…

Statistics

is a number that describes some characteristics of the sample

random variable

discrete

continuous

probability distribution of a discrete…

a numerical variable whose value is determined by the outcome…

can count, isolated points on number line

measured, includes entire interval on number line

gives the probability associated with each x value (formula,…

random variable

a numerical variable whose value is determined by the outcome…

discrete

can count, isolated points on number line

Biased Sample

Unbiased Sample/Representative

Statistics

Voluntary Response Sample

is when one or more parts of the population are favored.

is when each item or person in the population is as likely to…

deals with collecting, organizing/analyzing, and interpreting…

involves only those who want to participate in the sampling.

Biased Sample

is when one or more parts of the population are favored.

Unbiased Sample/Representative

is when each item or person in the population is as likely to…

data set

range

mean

median

all the data collected in a particular study

Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.

the AVERAGE of a set of data; add them all up and divide the…

,Statistics: Mean, Median, Mode, Range, Graphing Data

data set

all the data collected in a particular study

range

Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.

statistical inference

parameter

statistic

biased, wording, leading, ambiguous, i…

To obtain information about a population from information con…

A numerical characteristic of a population

a numerical characteristic of a sample

Common sampling pitfalls are b______ samples, w________ of qu…

statistical inference

To obtain information about a population from information con…

parameter

A numerical characteristic of a population

Perfect "r"

Correlation Little Strength

Correlation Low Strength

Correlation Moderate Strength

Strength/Direction, Larger the r value stronger correlation

0.00-0.25

0.26-0.49

0.50-0.69

Perfect "r"

Strength/Direction, Larger the r value stronger correlation

Correlation Little Strength

0.00-0.25

Addition Rule

Complement Rule

Conditional Probability

Disjoint Events

If A and B are disjoint events, the =n the probability of A o…

The probability of an event occurring is 1 minus the probabil…

P(B/A)= (P(A and B))/(P(A))... P(B/A) is read "the probability o…

Two events are disjoint if they have no outcomes in common. I…

Addition Rule

If A and B are disjoint events, the =n the probability of A o…

Complement Rule

The probability of an event occurring is 1 minus the probabil…

sampled population

frame

parameter

simple random sample

the population from which the sample is taken

a listing of the elements the sample will be selected from

a numerical characteristic of a population, such as a populat…

a blank of size n from a finite population of size N is a sam…

sampled population

the population from which the sample is taken

frame

a listing of the elements the sample will be selected from

Model

Normal Curve

Normally Distributed

Inflection Points

Anything that represents reality.

Bell shaped distribution.

A continuous random variable in which its relative frequency…

The point at which the normal curve changes direction.

Model

Anything that represents reality.

Normal Curve

Bell shaped distribution.

Discrete

Continuous

Random Variable

Probability Distribution

A numerical variable that is countable

A numerical variable whose values can be any value on an inte…

A numerical variable with a value determined by the outcome o…

A formula, table, or graph that gives the probability of each…

Discrete

A numerical variable that is countable

Continuous

A numerical variable whose values can be any value on an inte…

Population

Parameter

Census

Sample

a big group of people or objects we wish to study

a numerical property that summarizes a characteristic of the…

a survey where every member of the population is measured

a small group of people or objects taken from the population…

Population

a big group of people or objects we wish to study

Parameter

a numerical property that summarizes a characteristic of the…

Average

Central limit theorem

Exponential distribution

Mean

A number that describes the central tendency of the data

Given a random variable with known mean and known standard de…

A continuous random variable that appears when we are interes…

A number that measures the central tendency, aka average

Average

A number that describes the central tendency of the data

Central limit theorem

Given a random variable with known mean and known standard de…

Assumption

Parametric test

Nonparametric test

Robust hypothesis test

a characteristic that we ideally require the population from…

an inferential statistical analysis based on a set of assumpt…

an inferential statistical analysis that is not based on a se…

a test that produces fairly accurate results even when the da…

Assumption

a characteristic that we ideally require the population from…

Parametric test

an inferential statistical analysis based on a set of assumpt…

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

type I error

process that uses sample statistics to test a claim about the…

statistical hypothesis that contains a statement of equality

complement of the null... - statement that must be true if Ho is…

occurs if the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true

hypothesis test

process that uses sample statistics to test a claim about the…

null hypothesis

statistical hypothesis that contains a statement of equality

Descriptive Statistics

Central Tendency

Mean

Median

Provides a calculation of central tendency and variation meas…

The center of a distribution: mean, median or mode.

A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by a…

A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of…

Descriptive Statistics

Provides a calculation of central tendency and variation meas…

Central Tendency

The center of a distribution: mean, median or mode.

Parameter

Statistic

Because good samples are chosen random…

We can describe the behavior of a samp…

A number that describes a character of the population. The va…

A number describing a characteristic of a sample. Statistics…

random variables.

What would happen if we did this many times?

Parameter

A number that describes a character of the population. The va…

Statistic

A number describing a characteristic of a sample. Statistics…

Sampling Distribution of a statistic (…

Sampling Distribution shows...

Population distribution is the distrib…

An example of population distribution…

The probability distribution that specifies probabilities for…

All possible values of the sample proportion

take the sample

Population proportion p for a categorical variable (fixed)

Sampling Distribution of a statistic (…

The probability distribution that specifies probabilities for…

Sampling Distribution shows...

All possible values of the sample proportion

household bias

nonresponse bias

quota sampling bias

response bias

when a sample includes only one member of any given household

make it hard to know which part of the population is underrep…

results when interviewers are given free choice in picking pe…

when the wording of the question changes the true answer

household bias

when a sample includes only one member of any given household

nonresponse bias

make it hard to know which part of the population is underrep…

Uniform Distribution

Properties of Continuous Distributions

Standard normal Distribution

Z-score

a constant function for all values of x for which the functio…

1. It's symmetric about it's mean, 𝜇.... 2. Because the mean, me…

u= 0 sd=1

x-u/sd

Uniform Distribution

a constant function for all values of x for which the functio…

Properties of Continuous Distributions

1. It's symmetric about it's mean, 𝜇.... 2. Because the mean, me…

What is an independant variable?

What is a dependent variable?

What is the equation of the regression…

How do you find b for a regression line?

A variable set independently of the other variable

A variable set depending on the values of the independent var…

What is an independant variable?

A variable set independently of the other variable

What is a dependent variable?

A variable set depending on the values of the independent var…

Sample

Population

Simple Random Sample

Survey

To save time and money, part of the large group, called a ___…

The large group being studied.

This is when each item or person in the population is as like…

This is a method of collecting information.

Sample

To save time and money, part of the large group, called a ___…

Population

The large group being studied.

Random Variable

Discrete Random Variable

Probability Distribution

Density Curve

A variable whose value is a numerical outcome of a random phe…

Variable which has a countable number of possible values

Lists the values of the variables and their probabilities

Describes the probability distribution of a continuous random…

Random Variable

A variable whose value is a numerical outcome of a random phe…

Discrete Random Variable

Variable which has a countable number of possible values

Scatterplots

Association

Outlier

Response Variable

Shows the relationship between 2 quantitative variable measur…

1) Direction: (slope tells direction) a positive direction me…

A point that does not fit the overall pattern seen in the sca…

What you are interested in, dependent, Y

Scatterplots

Shows the relationship between 2 quantitative variable measur…

Association

1) Direction: (slope tells direction) a positive direction me…

Adjusted hospital autopsy rate

Adjusted hospital autopsy rate Formula

Autopsy

Autopsy Rate

The proportion of hospital autopsies performed following the…

Total hospital autopsies X 100/Total # of deaths of hospital…

The postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a bod…

The proportion or percentage of deaths in a healthcare organi…

Adjusted hospital autopsy rate

The proportion of hospital autopsies performed following the…

Adjusted hospital autopsy rate Formula

Total hospital autopsies X 100/Total # of deaths of hospital…

correlation

prediction

bivariate distribution

scatter diagram

a measure of the degree of relationship between two variables

when two variables are correlated, estimating the value of on…

a distribution that shows the relationship between two variab…

a graph of a bivariate distribution consisting of dots at the…

correlation

a measure of the degree of relationship between two variables

prediction

when two variables are correlated, estimating the value of on…

Inferential Statistics

Sampling

Random sampling

Types of Distributions

Social scientists want to know about the characteristics of a…

goal: obtain a subset of the population that represents the p…

-each element in the population has an equal chance at being…

1. Population... 2. Sample... 3.Sampling

Inferential Statistics

Social scientists want to know about the characteristics of a…

Sampling

goal: obtain a subset of the population that represents the p…

parameter

statistic

sampling distribution

unbiased estimator

a number that describes some characteristic of the population…

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…

the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all poss…

statistic used to estimate a parameter is this if the mean of…

parameter

a number that describes some characteristic of the population…

statistic

a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. This…

autopsy

necropsy

postmortem examination

morgue

examination of a dead body to determine the cause of death; c…

another name for autopsy

another name for autopsy

normally the place in a hospital where autopsies are performed

autopsy

examination of a dead body to determine the cause of death; c…

necropsy

another name for autopsy

Biased estimator

Central limit theorem (CLT)

Parameter

Population distribution

If the mean of its sampling distribution is not equal to the…

Says that when n is large, the sampling distribution of the s…

A number that describes some characteristic of the population

Gives the values of the variable for all the individuals in t…

Biased estimator

If the mean of its sampling distribution is not equal to the…

Central limit theorem (CLT)

Says that when n is large, the sampling distribution of the s…

bias

selection bias

nonresponse bias

simple random sample

the tendency of a sample statistic to systematically overesti…

a systematic underrepresentation of certain groups from consi…

a systematic difference in preferences between respondents an…

A sample of n observations that has the same probability of b…

bias

the tendency of a sample statistic to systematically overesti…

selection bias

a systematic underrepresentation of certain groups from consi…

Sampling error

Distribution of sample means

Sampling distribution

Expected value of M

Is the natural discrepancy, or modern era, between a sample s…

D_____ of s_____ m______ is the collection of sample means fo…

S______ d______ is a distribution of statistics obtained by s…

The mean of the distribution of sample means is equal to the…

Sampling error

Is the natural discrepancy, or modern era, between a sample s…

Distribution of sample means

D_____ of s_____ m______ is the collection of sample means fo…

Why should you sample?

Sampling Frame

Frames

Non-probability Sample

It is less time-consuming, less costly than selecting every i…

A listing of items that make up the population.

Data sources such as population lists, directories, or maps.

Items included are chosen without regard to their probability…

Why should you sample?

It is less time-consuming, less costly than selecting every i…

Sampling Frame

A listing of items that make up the population.

Requirements for Using a Normal Distri…

Notation for Proportions

Point Estimate

Confidence interval.

1. The sample is a simple random sample.... 2. The conditions fo…

p = population proportion... p-hat = x/n sample proportion of x…

Is a single value (or point) used to approximate a population…

(or interval estimate) is a range (or an interval) of values…

Requirements for Using a Normal Distri…

1. The sample is a simple random sample.... 2. The conditions fo…

Notation for Proportions

p = population proportion... p-hat = x/n sample proportion of x…

A medium effect size (d) for a t test…

A t test for dependent means would be…

If an experimenter conducts a t test f…

The comparison distribution in a t tes…

.50

the level of reading comprehension of students at the beginni…

20 / 10 = 2.0

means of difference scores.

A medium effect size (d) for a t test…

.50

A t test for dependent means would be…

the level of reading comprehension of students at the beginni…

sample proportion

point estimate

confidence interval

confidence level

the best point estimate of the population proportion ... (p-hat)

a single value used to approximate a population parameter

a range (or interval) of values used to estimate the true val…

is the probability (1 - alpha) that the cconfidence interval…

sample proportion

the best point estimate of the population proportion ... (p-hat)

point estimate

a single value used to approximate a population parameter

Predicted value

Residual

How to find residual

Quantitative Variables Conditions

estimate made from a model

difference between observed value and its associated predicte…

actual - predicted OR y-yhat=residual

quantitative variables only

Predicted value

estimate made from a model

Residual

difference between observed value and its associated predicte…

Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Alternative (Research) Hypothesis

Test Statistic

A statement about the numerical value of a population parameter

That which represents the status quo to the party performing…

That which will be accepted only if the data provide convinci…

A sample statistic computed from information provided in the…

Hypothesis

A statement about the numerical value of a population parameter

Null Hypothesis

That which represents the status quo to the party performing…

model

linear model

predicted value

residuals

an equation or formula that simplifies and represents reality

an equation of a line. To interpret a linear model, we need t…

the value of (predicted y) found for a given x-value in the d…

the differences between data values and the corresponding val…

model

an equation or formula that simplifies and represents reality

linear model

an equation of a line. To interpret a linear model, we need t…

Scatterplot

Lurking variable

What can create a cause and effect rel…

Shape

A graphical display used for 2 QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES

A variable that is related to both the explanatory variable a…

Only an experiment

Roughly linear

Scatterplot

A graphical display used for 2 QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES

Lurking variable

A variable that is related to both the explanatory variable a…

Sampling error

error=

Sampling distribution

Important characteristics of sampling…

two samples are rarely identical

not a mistake

The collection of sample means for all the possible random sa…

1)sample mean always pile up around mean... 2)distributions of s…

Sampling error

two samples are rarely identical

error=

not a mistake

Statistical inference

Population

Sample

Estimates

The purpose of STATISTICAL INFERENCE is to obtain ... informatio…

A POPULATION is the set of all the elements of ... interest.

A SAMPLE is a subset of the population.

The sample results provide only ESTIMATES of ... the values of t…

Statistical inference

The purpose of STATISTICAL INFERENCE is to obtain ... informatio…

Population

A POPULATION is the set of all the elements of ... interest.