# Study sets matching "statistics for the behavioral sciences"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Variability

Purpose of measuring variability

Range

Deviation

quantitative measure of the difference between scores in a dis…

1. Describes the distribution... 2. Describes how well an individ…

distance covered in the distribution from lowest to highest sc…

distance from the mean

Variability

quantitative measure of the difference between scores in a dis…

Purpose of measuring variability

1. Describes the distribution... 2. Describes how well an individ…

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

level of significance or alpha level

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relatio…

is a probability value that is used to define the concept of "…

hypothesis test

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

null hypothesis

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

Frequency distribution

Proportion

Percentage

Grouped frequency distribution

an organized tabulation of the number of individuals located i…

p=f/N

p(100)=f/N(100)

Frequency distribution in which scores are grouped into interv…

Frequency distribution

an organized tabulation of the number of individuals located i…

Proportion

p=f/N

estimated standard error

t statistic

degrees of freedom (df)

t distribution

Estimate of the real standard error, when the population mean…

Is used to test hypothesis about an unknown population mean, w…

The number of individual scores that can vary without changing…

is the complete set of t values computed for every possible ra…

estimated standard error

Estimate of the real standard error, when the population mean…

t statistic

Is used to test hypothesis about an unknown population mean, w…

Hypothesis test

Four steps of a hypothesis test

Null hypothesis

Null hypothesis symbol

statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothe…

1. State the hypothesis... 2. Set the criteria for a decision... 3.…

states there is no change in the general population or the IV…

Hypothesis test

statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothe…

Four steps of a hypothesis test

1. State the hypothesis... 2. Set the criteria for a decision... 3.…

Central Tendency

Goal of Central Tendency

Mean

Mean of population

statistical measure to determine a single score that defines t…

to find the single score that is most typical or most represen…

sum of the scores in a distribution divided by the number of s…

Central Tendency

statistical measure to determine a single score that defines t…

Goal of Central Tendency

to find the single score that is most typical or most represen…

Statistic

Independent variable

Dependent Variable

"The effect of (blank) on (blank)"

A quantity calculated from a set of numbers in order to descri…

Hypothesized to influence another variable; often manipulated…

Hypothesized to be influenced by independent variable

Independent on dependent

Statistic

A quantity calculated from a set of numbers in order to descri…

Independent variable

Hypothesized to influence another variable; often manipulated…

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or s…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being inc…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists bet…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or s…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Population

Parameters

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and ca…

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

the entire group that you are interested in; usually large

the numbers that we calculate or measure from a population; no…

Descriptive Statistics

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and ca…

Inferential Statistics

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

level of significance or alpha level

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relatio…

is a probability value that is used to define the concept of "…

hypothesis test

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

null hypothesis

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

sampling error

distribution of sample means

sampling distribution

central limit theorem

is the natural discrepancy, or amount of error, between a samp…

collection of sample means for all possible random samples of…

is a distribution of statistics obtained by selecting all the…

As the size n of a simple random sample increases, the shape o…

sampling error

is the natural discrepancy, or amount of error, between a samp…

distribution of sample means

collection of sample means for all possible random samples of…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study

a set of individuals selected from the population, usually int…

a characteristic or condition that changes or has different va…

Statistics

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

Population

set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study

sampling error

distribution of sample means

sampling distribution

central limit theorem

is the natural discrepancy, or amount of error, between a samp…

collection of sample means for all possible random samples of…

is a distribution of statistics obtained by selecting all the…

As the size n of a simple random sample increases, the shape o…

sampling error

is the natural discrepancy, or amount of error, between a samp…

distribution of sample means

collection of sample means for all possible random samples of…

Statistics

scientific method

empirical approach

Population

The organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information.

is a procedure to observe an identified topic, determine a pos…

the empirical approach indicates information is gained by obse…

The population includes all possible subjects to participants…

Statistics

The organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information.

scientific method

is a procedure to observe an identified topic, determine a pos…

Probability

Random Sample

Independent random sample

Sampling with replacement

For a situation in which several different outcomes are possib…

requires that each individual in the population has an equal c…

requires that each individual has an equal chance of being sel…

To keep probabilities from changing from one selection to the…

Probability

For a situation in which several different outcomes are possib…

Random Sample

requires that each individual in the population has an equal c…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, sum…

entire set of individuals of interest for a particular researc…

set of individuals selected from a pop usually intended to rep…

characteristic or condition that changes or has different valu…

Statistics

refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, sum…

Population

entire set of individuals of interest for a particular researc…

Estimated standard error

t statistic

t distribution

Percentage of variance accounted for by…

estimate of the real standard error when the value of the stan…

used to test hypotheses about an unknown population mean, when…

complete set of t values computed for every possible random sa…

Estimated standard error

estimate of the real standard error when the value of the stan…

t statistic

used to test hypotheses about an unknown population mean, when…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Population

Parameters

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and ca…

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

the entire group that you are interested in; usually large

the numbers that we calculate or measure from a population; no…

Descriptive Statistics

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and ca…

Inferential Statistics

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

estimated standard error

t statistic

degrees of freedom (df)

t distribution

Estimate of the real standard error, when the population mean…

Is used to test hypothesis about an unknown population mean, w…

The number of individual scores that can vary without changing…

is the complete set of t values computed for every possible ra…

estimated standard error

Estimate of the real standard error, when the population mean…

t statistic

Is used to test hypothesis about an unknown population mean, w…

Strength

Direction

Positive relationship

Negative relationship

How closely related variables are... How strong

Let's you know what happens to one variable as the other varia…

Two variables moving in the same direction

As one variable goes up the other goes down. (Visversa)

Strength

How closely related variables are... How strong

Direction

Let's you know what happens to one variable as the other varia…

What is the formula for the sample stan…

what is the name of the scores obtained…

What is the name of the value you get b…

what is n

s= the square root of sigma (x-m) squared all over n

deviation scores

sum of squares

the number of scores (how many scores there are)

What is the formula for the sample stan…

s= the square root of sigma (x-m) squared all over n

what is the name of the scores obtained…

deviation scores

What is the null hypothesis for ANOVA?

What is the alternate hypothesis for AN…

What are the 7 steps for hypothesis tes…

How is Mean square (MS) related to degr…

H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... The means are all the same.

H1 :μ1 ≠μ2 ≠μ3... The means differ

Step 1: State null hypothesis H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... Step 2: State al…

MSw = SSw/dfw

What is the null hypothesis for ANOVA?

H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... The means are all the same.

What is the alternate hypothesis for AN…

H1 :μ1 ≠μ2 ≠μ3... The means differ

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or s…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being inc…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists bet…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or s…

Correlation does not imply...

The covariance ___ as the two variables…

If your null hypotheses is ____ then th…

What are the degrees of freedom for Pea…

causation

increases, greater tendency, vary

(rho) = 0, no correlation

df = N-2

Correlation does not imply...

causation

The covariance ___ as the two variables…

increases, greater tendency, vary

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or s…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being inc…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists bet…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or s…