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Goal of correlational studies

How data is collected in correlational…

Strengths of correlational studies

Weaknesses of correlational studies

To establish the degree of relationship that exists between/a…

Survey instruments and/or interviews

- Large amount of info... - Short time period... - Easily generaliz…

- Cannot determine causal relationships... - Survey/interview qu…

Goal of correlational studies

To establish the degree of relationship that exists between/a…

How data is collected in correlational…

Survey instruments and/or interviews

statistics

population

sample

variable

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing…

the set of all individuals of interest in a particular study

a set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…

a characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…

statistics

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing…

population

the set of all individuals of interest in a particular study

What are the three measures of variabi…

Variability

Range

Range Formula: for Continuous Data

The range, the variance, and the standard deviation

The extent to which scores vary within a dataset

The distance between the smallest and largest score in a data…

URL, Xmax - LRL, Xmin

What are the three measures of variabi…

The range, the variance, and the standard deviation

Variability

The extent to which scores vary within a dataset

Two-Factor ANOVA

Factors

Fully Crossed design

Example of nested factors

compares the mean differences between groups that have been s…

independent variables, in T-F ANOVA must have 2+ levels... We in…

every combination of levels of factors

3 Public schools and 3 Private schools. All levels (schools)…

Two-Factor ANOVA

compares the mean differences between groups that have been s…

Factors

independent variables, in T-F ANOVA must have 2+ levels... We in…

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

level of significance or alpha level

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…

(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relati…

is a probability value that is used to define the concept of…

hypothesis test

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…

null hypothesis

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…

Cross-sectional study... ----- design

What does a cross-sectional study meas…

Case-control study

What does a case-control study measure?

Collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of d…

disease prevalence... Can show risk factor association with dis…

Compares a group of people with disease to a group without di…

Odds ratio (OR)... "Patients with COPD had higher odds of a his…

Cross-sectional study... ----- design

Collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of d…

What does a cross-sectional study meas…

disease prevalence... Can show risk factor association with dis…

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

level of significance or alpha level

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…

(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relati…

is a probability value that is used to define the concept of…

hypothesis test

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…

null hypothesis

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, su…

Is the set of all the individuals of interests in a particula…

Is a set of individuals selected from a population , usually…

Is a characteristic or condition that changes or has differen…

Statistics

Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, su…

Population

Is the set of all the individuals of interests in a particula…

statistics

population

sample

variable

set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing an…

all individuals of interest in a given study

set of individuals selected from a population, intended to re…

characteristic/condition that changes or has different values…

statistics

set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing an…

population

all individuals of interest in a given study

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Population

Parameters

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

the entire group that you are interested in; usually large

the numbers that we calculate or measure from a population; n…

Descriptive Statistics

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…

Inferential Statistics

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

Construct

Operational Definition

Discrete Variable

Continuous Variable

Internal attributes that cannot be directly observed, but are…

describes a set of operations for measuring a construct, and…

consists of seperate indivisible categories. No possible shar…

there are infinite possible values that fall between any two…

Construct

Internal attributes that cannot be directly observed, but are…

Operational Definition

describes a set of operations for measuring a construct, and…

Statistic

Sample

Population

Data

A single number used to describe data from a sample (values o…

A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population

A complete set of people, animals, objects, or events that sh…

The scores or measurements of behavior or characteristics obt…

Statistic

A single number used to describe data from a sample (values o…

Sample

A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population

Statistics

descriptive statistics vs. inferential…

Population

Population Parameter

a branch of mathematics used to summarize, analyze, and inter…

descriptive: organize and summarize information such that the…

A set of all individuals, items, or data of interest, This is…

a characteristic (usually numeric) that describes a population

Statistics

a branch of mathematics used to summarize, analyze, and inter…

descriptive statistics vs. inferential…

descriptive: organize and summarize information such that the…

Sampling Distribution

Central Limit Theorem

Standard Error

Repeated-Measures Design

A distribution of all possible sample means for a given sampl…

As sample size, n, increases, the distribution of sample mean…

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution

Each participant is measured multiple times. The scores in th…

Sampling Distribution

A distribution of all possible sample means for a given sampl…

Central Limit Theorem

As sample size, n, increases, the distribution of sample mean…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, su…

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

A set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…

A characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…

Statistics

Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, su…

Population

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

nominal scale

ordinal scale

interval scale

ratio scale

the values are simply named rather ran numbers

a quantitative level of measurement for when the different va…

scale based on the units of measurement where one part is big…

order matters, intervals are equal, also has a true or absolu…

nominal scale

the values are simply named rather ran numbers

ordinal scale

a quantitative level of measurement for when the different va…

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Military ranks are an example of what…

Gender is an example of what level of…

In which of the following situations i…

Ratio

Ordinal

Nominal

The researcher has ordinal data

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Ratio

Military ranks are an example of what…

Ordinal

what question do cross-sectional studi…

what do cross-sectional studies measure

what do case-control studies look for

what question do case-control studies…

what is happening?

prevalence

prior exposure/risk factor in groups of people either with th…

what happened?

what question do cross-sectional studi…

what is happening?

what do cross-sectional studies measure

prevalence

What is the null hypothesis for ANOVA?

What is the alternate hypothesis for A…

What are the 7 steps for hypothesis te…

How is Mean square (MS) related to deg…

H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... The means are all the same.

H1 :μ1 ≠μ2 ≠μ3... The means differ

Step 1: State null hypothesis H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... Step 2: State a…

MSw = SSw/dfw

What is the null hypothesis for ANOVA?

H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... The means are all the same.

What is the alternate hypothesis for A…

H1 :μ1 ≠μ2 ≠μ3... The means differ

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

A set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…

A characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…

Statistics

A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

Population

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

Who uses statistics

Scientific Method

Empirical approach

Population

...

collecting and observing... 1. A procedure observes and determin…

...

all possible subjects in your study

Who uses statistics

...

Scientific Method

collecting and observing... 1. A procedure observes and determin…

How do you conduct an experiment?

experimental group

control group

treatment

1. begin with 2 equivalent groups... 2. treat them exactly alike…

the group that receives treatment in an experiment and whose…

no-treatment group to which other groups are compared

one value (or level) of the independent variable

How do you conduct an experiment?

1. begin with 2 equivalent groups... 2. treat them exactly alike…

experimental group

the group that receives treatment in an experiment and whose…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Population

Parameters

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

the entire group that you are interested in; usually large

the numbers that we calculate or measure from a population; n…

Descriptive Statistics

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…

Inferential Statistics

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Military ranks are an example of what…

Gender is an example of what level of…

In which of the following situations i…

Ratio

Ordinal

Nominal

The researcher has ordinal data

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Ratio

Military ranks are an example of what…

Ordinal

quantification

correlation

regression

What does correlation allow you to do?

the concept that translating a phenomenon into numbers promot…

a statistical technique that describes *the degree of relatio…

a technique that draws the line that best fits the data & pre…

to express the degree of relationship between any two paired…

quantification

the concept that translating a phenomenon into numbers promot…

correlation

a statistical technique that describes *the degree of relatio…

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists be…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

empirical distribution

theoretical distribution

What are theoretical distributions use…

probability

scores that come from observations

hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic

They're used to determine probabilities; when there is a corr…

the degree of possibility that an event will occur

empirical distribution

scores that come from observations

theoretical distribution

hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic

What kind testing type do independent…

What's the difference b/w independent…

When do you use one-way ANOVA?

If one-way ANOVA is the multilevel cou…

Null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) techniques that ar…

with paired samples t tests, you have a reason to pair the sc…

when the treatment levels are independent of each other.... *…

repeated-measures ANOVA

What kind testing type do independent…

Null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) techniques that ar…

What's the difference b/w independent…

with paired samples t tests, you have a reason to pair the sc…

Absolute Zero Point

Categorization

Constant

Continuous Variable

A value that indicates nothing at all exists of the attribute…

Judgment that a person, object, or score fits into a category…

Quantity that does not change its value within a given contex…

A variable that theoretically can assume an infinite number o…

Absolute Zero Point

A value that indicates nothing at all exists of the attribute…

Categorization

Judgment that a person, object, or score fits into a category…

What are the 3 features present in all…

variability

What are the 4 measures of variability?

range

-form... -central tendency... -variability... These are independent of…

having more than one value; there are 4 measures of variability

range, interquartile range (IQR), standard deviation, & varia…

the highest score minus the lowest score... Range = Xh - Xl wher…

What are the 3 features present in all…

-form... -central tendency... -variability... These are independent of…

variability

having more than one value; there are 4 measures of variability

Hypothesis test

Null hypothesis (H0)

Alternative hypothesis H1

Alpha level, or the level of significa…

(INFERENTIAL PROCEDURE) Is a statistical method that uses sam…

States that in general population there is no change, no diff…

States that there is a change, a difference, or a relationshi…

Is a probability value that is used to define the concept of…

Hypothesis test

(INFERENTIAL PROCEDURE) Is a statistical method that uses sam…

Null hypothesis (H0)

States that in general population there is no change, no diff…

Population

Sample

Statistic

Parameters

Complete set of objects or events in which you are interested…

Set of actual observations; subset of a population.... Use Roman…

Numerical values summarizing sample data.

Numerical values summarizing population data.

Population

Complete set of objects or events in which you are interested…

Sample

Set of actual observations; subset of a population.... Use Roman…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

A set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…

A characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…

Statistics

A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

Population

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

What is statistics?

What are the two different statistics…

descriptive statistics

What's an example of descriptive stati…

Tools for behavioral scientists to use because there's always…

descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

a technique that produces a number or a figure that summarize…

mean

What is statistics?

Tools for behavioral scientists to use because there's always…

What are the two different statistics…

descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Military ranks are an example of what…

Gender is an example of what level of…

In which of the following situations i…

Ratio

Ordinal

Nominal

The researcher has ordinal data

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Ratio

Military ranks are an example of what…

Ordinal

What is a chi square test?

What is a chi square distribution?

What does the chi square distribution…

What is the characteristic that distin…

an NHST technique that compares observed frequencies to expec…

a theoretical **sampling distribution** of chi square values

the probabilities needed for decision making about the differ…

the kind of data being tested! for t tests and ANOVA, the dat…

What is a chi square test?

an NHST technique that compares observed frequencies to expec…

What is a chi square distribution?

a theoretical **sampling distribution** of chi square values

What sample is best to use when findin…

random sample

How can someone obtain a random sample?

biased sample

a random sample

a subset of a population chosen so that all samples of the sp…

1. Define the population (explain what numbers are in the pop…

a sample selected in such a way that not all samples from the…

What sample is best to use when findin…

a random sample

random sample

a subset of a population chosen so that all samples of the sp…

central tendency

What signifies a good statistic?

What are the most popular measures of…

mean

descriptive statistics that indicate *one number or descripto…

one that mimics its parameter

mean, median, & mode

the arithmetic avg; the sum of the scores divided by the # of…

central tendency

descriptive statistics that indicate *one number or descripto…

What signifies a good statistic?

one that mimics its parameter

null hypothesis statistical testing

How does NHST begin?

μ₀

μ1

a.k.a NHST; a process that produces probabilities that are ac…

it **always** begins with a claim about a parameter!

the known population mean

the symbol for the unknown population mean; this value can be…

null hypothesis statistical testing

a.k.a NHST; a process that produces probabilities that are ac…

How does NHST begin?

it **always** begins with a claim about a parameter!

What's the most widely used NHST? Out…

What is a factor?

What is factorial ANOVA?

What is a convenient feature of factor…

most widely used: ANOVA... most popular type of ANOVA: Factorial…

an independent variable

an experimental design w/ **two or more** independent variables

this ANOVA not only gives you an NHST test of each separate f…

What's the most widely used NHST? Out…

most widely used: ANOVA... most popular type of ANOVA: Factorial…

What is a factor?

an independent variable

Population

Sample

Parameter

Normal Distribution

A complete set of people, animals, objects, or events that sh…

A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population.

A number that describes a characteristic of population.

A theoretical mathematical distribution that specifies the re…

Population

A complete set of people, animals, objects, or events that sh…

Sample

A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population.

What is variance?

What is an analysis of variance?

one-way ANOVA

What question does ANOVA address?

a squared stdev

an inferential statistics technique for comparing means, comp…

at the simplest analysis of variance design; a statistical te…

whether the populations that the samples come from have the s…

What is variance?

a squared stdev

What is an analysis of variance?

an inferential statistics technique for comparing means, comp…

statistics

population (i.e. 1000 people, one samp…

sample

variable

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

a set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…

a characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…

statistics

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

population (i.e. 1000 people, one samp…

the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists be…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

Probability

Random Sample

Independent random sample

Sampling with replacement

For a situation in which several different outcomes are possi…

requires that each individual in the population has an equal…

requires that each individual has an equal chance of being se…

To keep probabilities from changing from one selection to the…

Probability

For a situation in which several different outcomes are possi…

Random Sample

requires that each individual in the population has an equal…

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study…

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists be…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study…

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

empirical distribution

theoretical distribution

What are theoretical distributions use…

probability

scores that come from observations

hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic

They're used to determine probabilities; when there is a corr…

the degree of possibility that an event will occur

empirical distribution

scores that come from observations

theoretical distribution

hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic

Statistics

scientific method

empirical approach

Population

The organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information.

is a procedure to observe an identified topic, determine a po…

the empirical approach indicates information is gained by obs…

The population includes all possible subjects to participants…

Statistics

The organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information.

scientific method

is a procedure to observe an identified topic, determine a po…

Population

Sample

Variable

Data

The Set of all individuals interested in a particular study

the set of individuals selected from a population usually int…

a characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…

measurement of observations

Population

The Set of all individuals interested in a particular study

Sample

the set of individuals selected from a population usually int…