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Study sets matching "statistics for the behavioral sciences"

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Study sets matching "statistics for the behavioral sciences"

85 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Goal of correlational studies
How data is collected in correlational…
Strengths of correlational studies
Weaknesses of correlational studies
To establish the degree of relationship that exists between/a…
Survey instruments and/or interviews
- Large amount of info... - Short time period... - Easily generaliz…
- Cannot determine causal relationships... - Survey/interview qu…
Goal of correlational studies
To establish the degree of relationship that exists between/a…
How data is collected in correlational…
Survey instruments and/or interviews
18 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
statistics
population
sample
variable
a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing…
the set of all individuals of interest in a particular study
a set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…
a characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…
statistics
a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing…
population
the set of all individuals of interest in a particular study
20 terms
Statistics for Behavioral Sciences
What are the three measures of variabi…
Variability
Range
Range Formula: for Continuous Data
The range, the variance, and the standard deviation
The extent to which scores vary within a dataset
The distance between the smallest and largest score in a data…
URL, Xmax - LRL, Xmin
What are the three measures of variabi…
The range, the variance, and the standard deviation
Variability
The extent to which scores vary within a dataset
44 terms
Statistics for health/behavioral sciences
Two-Factor ANOVA
Factors
Fully Crossed design
Example of nested factors
compares the mean differences between groups that have been s…
independent variables, in T-F ANOVA must have 2+ levels... We in…
every combination of levels of factors
3 Public schools and 3 Private schools. All levels (schools)…
Two-Factor ANOVA
compares the mean differences between groups that have been s…
Factors
independent variables, in T-F ANOVA must have 2+ levels... We in…
14 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 8
hypothesis test
null hypothesis
alternative hypothesis
level of significance or alpha level
is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…
(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…
(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relati…
is a probability value that is used to define the concept of…
hypothesis test
is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…
null hypothesis
(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…
95 terms
Behavioral Science: Statistics
Cross-sectional study... ----- design
What does a cross-sectional study meas…
Case-control study
What does a case-control study measure?
Collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of d…
disease prevalence... Can show risk factor association with dis…
Compares a group of people with disease to a group without di…
Odds ratio (OR)... "Patients with COPD had higher odds of a his…
Cross-sectional study... ----- design
Collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of d…
What does a cross-sectional study meas…
disease prevalence... Can show risk factor association with dis…
14 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 8
hypothesis test
null hypothesis
alternative hypothesis
level of significance or alpha level
is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…
(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…
(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relati…
is a probability value that is used to define the concept of…
hypothesis test
is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…
null hypothesis
(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…
75 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (Exam 1)
Statistics
Population
Sample
Variable
Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, su…
Is the set of all the individuals of interests in a particula…
Is a set of individuals selected from a population , usually…
Is a characteristic or condition that changes or has differen…
Statistics
Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, su…
Population
Is the set of all the individuals of interests in a particula…
85 terms
Statistics for the behavioral sciences
statistics
population
sample
variable
set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing an…
all individuals of interest in a given study
set of individuals selected from a population, intended to re…
characteristic/condition that changes or has different values…
statistics
set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing an…
population
all individuals of interest in a given study
72 terms
Statistics for behavioral sciences exam #1
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Population
Parameters
describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…
takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population
the entire group that you are interested in; usually large
the numbers that we calculate or measure from a population; n…
Descriptive Statistics
describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…
Inferential Statistics
takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population
Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Construct
Operational Definition
Discrete Variable
Continuous Variable
Internal attributes that cannot be directly observed, but are…
describes a set of operations for measuring a construct, and…
consists of seperate indivisible categories. No possible shar…
there are infinite possible values that fall between any two…
Construct
Internal attributes that cannot be directly observed, but are…
Operational Definition
describes a set of operations for measuring a construct, and…
119 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Statistic
Sample
Population
Data
A single number used to describe data from a sample (values o…
A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population
A complete set of people, animals, objects, or events that sh…
The scores or measurements of behavior or characteristics obt…
Statistic
A single number used to describe data from a sample (values o…
Sample
A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population
8 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Statistics
descriptive statistics vs. inferential…
Population
Population Parameter
a branch of mathematics used to summarize, analyze, and inter…
descriptive: organize and summarize information such that the…
A set of all individuals, items, or data of interest, This is…
a characteristic (usually numeric) that describes a population
Statistics
a branch of mathematics used to summarize, analyze, and inter…
descriptive statistics vs. inferential…
descriptive: organize and summarize information such that the…
51 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Sampling Distribution
Central Limit Theorem
Standard Error
Repeated-Measures Design
A distribution of all possible sample means for a given sampl…
As sample size, n, increases, the distribution of sample mean…
The standard deviation of the sampling distribution
Each participant is measured multiple times. The scores in th…
Sampling Distribution
A distribution of all possible sample means for a given sampl…
Central Limit Theorem
As sample size, n, increases, the distribution of sample mean…
30 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Statistics
Population
Sample
Variable
Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, su…
The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…
A set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…
A characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…
Statistics
Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, su…
Population
The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…
26 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
nominal scale
ordinal scale
interval scale
ratio scale
the values are simply named rather ran numbers
a quantitative level of measurement for when the different va…
scale based on the units of measurement where one part is big…
order matters, intervals are equal, also has a true or absolu…
nominal scale
the values are simply named rather ran numbers
ordinal scale
a quantitative level of measurement for when the different va…
75 terms
Statistics for Behavioral Science
In a sample of women, the number of ch…
Military ranks are an example of what…
Gender is an example of what level of…
In which of the following situations i…
Ratio
Ordinal
Nominal
The researcher has ordinal data
In a sample of women, the number of ch…
Ratio
Military ranks are an example of what…
Ordinal
85 terms
Behavioral Science Statistics
what question do cross-sectional studi…
what do cross-sectional studies measure
what do case-control studies look for
what question do case-control studies…
what is happening?
prevalence
prior exposure/risk factor in groups of people either with th…
what happened?
what question do cross-sectional studi…
what is happening?
what do cross-sectional studies measure
prevalence
64 terms
Statistics for Behavioral Sciences Final Exam
What is the null hypothesis for ANOVA?
What is the alternate hypothesis for A…
What are the 7 steps for hypothesis te…
How is Mean square (MS) related to deg…
H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... The means are all the same.
H1 :μ1 ≠μ2 ≠μ3... The means differ
Step 1: State null hypothesis H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... Step 2: State a…
MSw = SSw/dfw
What is the null hypothesis for ANOVA?
H0 :μ1 =μ2 =μ3... The means are all the same.
What is the alternate hypothesis for A…
H1 :μ1 ≠μ2 ≠μ3... The means differ
31 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Ch. 1
Statistics
Population
Sample
Variable
A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…
The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…
A set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…
A characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…
Statistics
A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…
Population
The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…
Statistics for Behavioral Sciences
Who uses statistics
Scientific Method
Empirical approach
Population
...
collecting and observing... 1. A procedure observes and determin…
...
all possible subjects in your study
Who uses statistics
...
Scientific Method
collecting and observing... 1. A procedure observes and determin…
36 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 10
How do you conduct an experiment?
experimental group
control group
treatment
1. begin with 2 equivalent groups... 2. treat them exactly alike…
the group that receives treatment in an experiment and whose…
no-treatment group to which other groups are compared
one value (or level) of the independent variable
How do you conduct an experiment?
1. begin with 2 equivalent groups... 2. treat them exactly alike…
experimental group
the group that receives treatment in an experiment and whose…
72 terms
Statistics for behavioral sciences exam #1
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Population
Parameters
describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…
takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population
the entire group that you are interested in; usually large
the numbers that we calculate or measure from a population; n…
Descriptive Statistics
describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…
Inferential Statistics
takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population
75 terms
Statistics for Behavioral Science
In a sample of women, the number of ch…
Military ranks are an example of what…
Gender is an example of what level of…
In which of the following situations i…
Ratio
Ordinal
Nominal
The researcher has ordinal data
In a sample of women, the number of ch…
Ratio
Military ranks are an example of what…
Ordinal
69 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 6
quantification
correlation
regression
What does correlation allow you to do?
the concept that translating a phenomenon into numbers promot…
a statistical technique that describes *the degree of relatio…
a technique that draws the line that best fits the data & pre…
to express the degree of relationship between any two paired…
quantification
the concept that translating a phenomenon into numbers promot…
correlation
a statistical technique that describes *the degree of relatio…
129 terms
Statistics of Behavioral Sciences Final Review
Population
Sample
Random Sampling
Sampling Error
The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study
A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…
Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in…
The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists be…
Population
The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study
Sample
A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…
21 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 7
empirical distribution
theoretical distribution
What are theoretical distributions use…
probability
scores that come from observations
hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic
They're used to determine probabilities; when there is a corr…
the degree of possibility that an event will occur
empirical distribution
scores that come from observations
theoretical distribution
hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic
25 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 12
What kind testing type do independent…
What's the difference b/w independent…
When do you use one-way ANOVA?
If one-way ANOVA is the multilevel cou…
Null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) techniques that ar…
with paired samples t tests, you have a reason to pair the sc…
when the treatment levels are independent of each other.... *…
repeated-measures ANOVA
What kind testing type do independent…
Null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) techniques that ar…
What's the difference b/w independent…
with paired samples t tests, you have a reason to pair the sc…
35 terms
Fundamental Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Ch1
Absolute Zero Point
Categorization
Constant
Continuous Variable
A value that indicates nothing at all exists of the attribute…
Judgment that a person, object, or score fits into a category…
Quantity that does not change its value within a given contex…
A variable that theoretically can assume an infinite number o…
Absolute Zero Point
A value that indicates nothing at all exists of the attribute…
Categorization
Judgment that a person, object, or score fits into a category…
31 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 4
What are the 3 features present in all…
variability
What are the 4 measures of variability?
range
-form... -central tendency... -variability... These are independent of…
having more than one value; there are 4 measures of variability
range, interquartile range (IQR), standard deviation, & varia…
the highest score minus the lowest score... Range = Xh - Xl wher…
What are the 3 features present in all…
-form... -central tendency... -variability... These are independent of…
variability
having more than one value; there are 4 measures of variability
20 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 8
Hypothesis test
Null hypothesis (H0)
Alternative hypothesis H1
Alpha level, or the level of significa…
(INFERENTIAL PROCEDURE) Is a statistical method that uses sam…
States that in general population there is no change, no diff…
States that there is a change, a difference, or a relationshi…
Is a probability value that is used to define the concept of…
Hypothesis test
(INFERENTIAL PROCEDURE) Is a statistical method that uses sam…
Null hypothesis (H0)
States that in general population there is no change, no diff…
66 terms
Fundamental Statistics/Behavioral Sciences
Population
Sample
Statistic
Parameters
Complete set of objects or events in which you are interested…
Set of actual observations; subset of a population.... Use Roman…
Numerical values summarizing sample data.
Numerical values summarizing population data.
Population
Complete set of objects or events in which you are interested…
Sample
Set of actual observations; subset of a population.... Use Roman…
37 terms
Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Ch.1
Statistics
Population
Sample
Variable
A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…
The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…
A set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…
A characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…
Statistics
A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…
Population
The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…
45 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 1
What is statistics?
What are the two different statistics…
descriptive statistics
What's an example of descriptive stati…
Tools for behavioral scientists to use because there's always…
descriptive statistics and inferential statistics
a technique that produces a number or a figure that summarize…
mean
What is statistics?
Tools for behavioral scientists to use because there's always…
What are the two different statistics…
descriptive statistics and inferential statistics
75 terms
Statistics for Behavioral Science
In a sample of women, the number of ch…
Military ranks are an example of what…
Gender is an example of what level of…
In which of the following situations i…
Ratio
Ordinal
Nominal
The researcher has ordinal data
In a sample of women, the number of ch…
Ratio
Military ranks are an example of what…
Ordinal
41 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 14
What is a chi square test?
What is a chi square distribution?
What does the chi square distribution…
What is the characteristic that distin…
an NHST technique that compares observed frequencies to expec…
a theoretical sampling distribution of chi square values
the probabilities needed for decision making about the differ…
the kind of data being tested! for t tests and ANOVA, the dat…
What is a chi square test?
an NHST technique that compares observed frequencies to expec…
What is a chi square distribution?
a theoretical sampling distribution of chi square values
35 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 8
What sample is best to use when findin…
random sample
How can someone obtain a random sample?
biased sample
a random sample
a subset of a population chosen so that all samples of the sp…
1. Define the population (explain what numbers are in the pop…
a sample selected in such a way that not all samples from the…
What sample is best to use when findin…
a random sample
random sample
a subset of a population chosen so that all samples of the sp…
49 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 3
central tendency
What signifies a good statistic?
What are the most popular measures of…
mean
descriptive statistics that indicate *one number or descripto…
one that mimics its parameter
mean, median, & mode
the arithmetic avg; the sum of the scores divided by the # of…
central tendency
descriptive statistics that indicate *one number or descripto…
What signifies a good statistic?
one that mimics its parameter
49 terms
Statistics for Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 9
null hypothesis statistical testing
How does NHST begin?
μ₀
μ1
a.k.a NHST; a process that produces probabilities that are ac…
it always begins with a claim about a parameter!
the known population mean
the symbol for the unknown population mean; this value can be…
null hypothesis statistical testing
a.k.a NHST; a process that produces probabilities that are ac…
How does NHST begin?
it always begins with a claim about a parameter!
23 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 13
What's the most widely used NHST? Out…
What is a factor?
What is factorial ANOVA?
What is a convenient feature of factor…
most widely used: ANOVA... most popular type of ANOVA: Factorial…
an independent variable
an experimental design w/ two or more independent variables
this ANOVA not only gives you an NHST test of each separate f…
What's the most widely used NHST? Out…
most widely used: ANOVA... most popular type of ANOVA: Factorial…
What is a factor?
an independent variable
54 terms
Statistical Concepts for the Behavioral Sciences
Population
Sample
Parameter
Normal Distribution
A complete set of people, animals, objects, or events that sh…
A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population.
A number that describes a characteristic of population.
A theoretical mathematical distribution that specifies the re…
Population
A complete set of people, animals, objects, or events that sh…
Sample
A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population.
28 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 11
What is variance?
What is an analysis of variance?
one-way ANOVA
What question does ANOVA address?
a squared stdev
an inferential statistics technique for comparing means, comp…
at the simplest analysis of variance design; a statistical te…
whether the populations that the samples come from have the s…
What is variance?
a squared stdev
What is an analysis of variance?
an inferential statistics technique for comparing means, comp…
38 terms
Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 1
statistics
population (i.e. 1000 people, one samp…
sample
variable
a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…
the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…
a set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…
a characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…
statistics
a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…
population (i.e. 1000 people, one samp…
the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…
129 terms
Statistics of Behavioral Sciences Final Review
Population
Sample
Random Sampling
Sampling Error
The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study
A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…
Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in…
The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists be…
Population
The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study
Sample
A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…
7 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Chapter 6
Probability
Random Sample
Independent random sample
Sampling with replacement
For a situation in which several different outcomes are possi…
requires that each individual in the population has an equal…
requires that each individual has an equal chance of being se…
To keep probabilities from changing from one selection to the…
Probability
For a situation in which several different outcomes are possi…
Random Sample
requires that each individual in the population has an equal…
166 terms
Statistics of Behavioral Sciences Final Review
Population
Sample
Random Sampling
Sampling Error
The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study…
A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…
Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in…
The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists be…
Population
The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study…
Sample
A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…
21 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 7
empirical distribution
theoretical distribution
What are theoretical distributions use…
probability
scores that come from observations
hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic
They're used to determine probabilities; when there is a corr…
the degree of possibility that an event will occur
empirical distribution
scores that come from observations
theoretical distribution
hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic
21 terms
Behavioral science statistics
Population
Sample
Participan
Variable
Entire group t which laws of nature apply
A subset of a population
Individuals in a sample
Anything that can produce 2 or more scores
Population
Entire group t which laws of nature apply
Sample
A subset of a population
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (Exam 1)
Statistics
scientific method
empirical approach
Population
The organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information.
is a procedure to observe an identified topic, determine a po…
the empirical approach indicates information is gained by obs…
The population includes all possible subjects to participants…
Statistics
The organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information.
scientific method
is a procedure to observe an identified topic, determine a po…
33 terms
Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences - Chapter 1
Population
Sample
Variable
Data
The Set of all individuals interested in a particular study
the set of individuals selected from a population usually int…
a characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…
measurement of observations
Population
The Set of all individuals interested in a particular study
Sample
the set of individuals selected from a population usually int…
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