# Study sets matching "statistics for the behavioral sciences"

statistics

population

sample

variable

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing a…

the set of all individuals of interest in a particular study

a set of individuals selected from a population, usually inten…

a characteristic or condition that changes or has different va…

statistics

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing a…

population

the set of all individuals of interest in a particular study

What are the three measures of variabil…

Variability

Range

Range Formula: for Continuous Data

The range, the variance, and the standard deviation

The extent to which scores vary within a dataset

The distance between the smallest and largest score in a data…

URL, Xmax - LRL, Xmin

What are the three measures of variabil…

The range, the variance, and the standard deviation

Variability

The extent to which scores vary within a dataset

estimated standard error

t statistic

degrees of freedom (df)

t distribution

Estimate of the real standard error, when the population mean…

Is used to test hypothesis about an unknown population mean, w…

The number of individual scores that can vary without changing…

is the complete set of t values computed for every possible ra…

estimated standard error

Estimate of the real standard error, when the population mean…

t statistic

Is used to test hypothesis about an unknown population mean, w…

Statistics

scientific method

empirical approach

Population

The organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information.

is a procedure to observe an identified topic, determine a pos…

the empirical approach indicates information is gained by obse…

The population includes all possible subjects to participants…

Statistics

The organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information.

scientific method

is a procedure to observe an identified topic, determine a pos…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Population

Parameters

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and ca…

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

the entire group that you are interested in; usually large

the numbers that we calculate or measure from a population; no…

Descriptive Statistics

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and ca…

Inferential Statistics

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

Strength

Direction

Positive relationship

Negative relationship

How closely related variables are... How strong

Let's you know what happens to one variable as the other varia…

Two variables moving in the same direction

As one variable goes up the other goes down. (Visversa)

Strength

How closely related variables are... How strong

Direction

Let's you know what happens to one variable as the other varia…

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

level of significance or alpha level

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relatio…

is a probability value that is used to define the concept of "…

hypothesis test

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

null hypothesis

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

level of significance or alpha level

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relatio…

is a probability value that is used to define the concept of "…

hypothesis test

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

null hypothesis

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, sum…

Is the set of all the individuals of interests in a particular…

Is a set of individuals selected from a population , usually i…

Is a characteristic or condition that changes or has different…

Statistics

Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, sum…

Population

Is the set of all the individuals of interests in a particular…

sampling error

distribution of sample means

sampling distribution

central limit theorem

is the natural discrepancy, or amount of error, between a samp…

collection of sample means for all possible random samples of…

is a distribution of statistics obtained by selecting all the…

As the size n of a simple random sample increases, the shape o…

sampling error

is the natural discrepancy, or amount of error, between a samp…

distribution of sample means

collection of sample means for all possible random samples of…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, sum…

entire set of individuals of interest for a particular researc…

set of individuals selected from a pop usually intended to rep…

characteristic or condition that changes or has different valu…

Statistics

refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, sum…

Population

entire set of individuals of interest for a particular researc…

Statistic

Sample

Population

Data

A single number used to describe data from a sample (values ob…

A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population

A complete set of people, animals, objects, or events that sha…

The scores or measurements of behavior or characteristics obta…

Statistic

A single number used to describe data from a sample (values ob…

Sample

A subset, or subgroup, selected from a population

Statistics

descriptive statistics vs. inferential…

Population

Population Parameter

a branch of mathematics used to summarize, analyze, and interp…

descriptive: organize and summarize information such that the…

A set of all individuals, items, or data of interest, This is…

a characteristic (usually numeric) that describes a population

Statistics

a branch of mathematics used to summarize, analyze, and interp…

descriptive statistics vs. inferential…

descriptive: organize and summarize information such that the…

Inferential Statistics

Sampling Error

Data

Variable

Techniques that allow us to make mathematics generalizations a…

Discrepancy that exists naturally between a statistic and the…

Measurements or observations

Characteristic or state that changes or has different values f…

Inferential Statistics

Techniques that allow us to make mathematics generalizations a…

Sampling Error

Discrepancy that exists naturally between a statistic and the…

statistics

population

sample

variable

set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing and…

all individuals of interest in a given study

set of individuals selected from a population, intended to rep…

characteristic/condition that changes or has different values…

statistics

set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing and…

population

all individuals of interest in a given study

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, sum…

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular stu…

A set of individuals selected from a population, usually inten…

A characteristic or condition that changes or has different va…

Statistics

Refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, sum…

Population

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular stu…

Frequency Distribution

Range

Grouped Frequency Distribution

Class Interval

An organized tabulation of the number of individuals located i…

The distance between the lower real limit and the upper real l…

Groups of scores presented rather than individual values.

What groups, or intervals, are called in a grouped frequency d…

Frequency Distribution

An organized tabulation of the number of individuals located i…

Range

The distance between the lower real limit and the upper real l…

nominal scale

ordinal scale

interval scale

ratio scale

the values are simply named rather ran numbers

a quantitative level of measurement for when the different val…

scale based on the units of measurement where one part is bigg…

order matters, intervals are equal, also has a true or absolut…

nominal scale

the values are simply named rather ran numbers

ordinal scale

a quantitative level of measurement for when the different val…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

The Set of all individuals interested in a particular study

the set of individuals selected from a population usually inte…

a characteristic or condition that changes or has different va…

Statistics

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

Population

The Set of all individuals interested in a particular study

Probability

Random Sample

Independent random sample

Sampling with replacement

For a situation in which several different outcomes are possib…

requires that each individual in the population has an equal c…

requires that each individual has an equal chance of being sel…

To keep probabilities from changing from one selection to the…

Probability

For a situation in which several different outcomes are possib…

Random Sample

requires that each individual in the population has an equal c…

Dependent variable

Independent variable

Operational definition

quantitative independent variable

A variable that is observed and measured in response to anothe…

Is selected and manipulated by the experimentor to observe it'…

The concrete measurement of a concept

Means that subjects are exposed to different amounts of the in…

Dependent variable

A variable that is observed and measured in response to anothe…

Independent variable

Is selected and manipulated by the experimentor to observe it'…

Statistic

Independent variable

Dependent Variable

"The effect of (blank) on (blank)"

A quantity calculated from a set of numbers in order to descri…

Hypothesized to influence another variable; often manipulated…

Hypothesized to be influenced by independent variable

Independent on dependent

Statistic

A quantity calculated from a set of numbers in order to descri…

Independent variable

Hypothesized to influence another variable; often manipulated…

chi squared

Chi Squared Critical Value

Goodness of Fit Test

Hypothesis of Test of Independence (Chi…

used to find the appropriate critical value, always positively…

Χ^2cv increases as alpha decreases... Χ^2cv increases as df incr…

One way Chi Squared test. Used to compare the observed sample…

H0: there is no association or correlation between the two var…

chi squared

used to find the appropriate critical value, always positively…

Chi Squared Critical Value

Χ^2cv increases as alpha decreases... Χ^2cv increases as df incr…

Who uses statistics

Scientific Method

Empirical approach

Population

...

collecting and observing... 1. A procedure observes and determine…

...

all possible subjects in your study

Who uses statistics

...

Scientific Method

collecting and observing... 1. A procedure observes and determine…

what question do cross-sectional studie…

what do cross-sectional studies measure

what do case-control studies look for

what question do case-control studies a…

what is happening?

prevalence

prior exposure/risk factor in groups of people either with the…

what happened?

what question do cross-sectional studie…

what is happening?

what do cross-sectional studies measure

prevalence