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Population

Sample

Sampling

Census

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

The subset of population we collect data from.

Studying a part to gain info about the whole (studying the sa…

Contacts every individual of the population.

Population

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

Sample

The subset of population we collect data from.

Data

Statistics

Population

Sample

consists of information coming from observations, counts, mea…

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpr…

A type of data set that is the collection of all outcomes, re…

A type of data set that is a subset, or part, of a population.

Data

consists of information coming from observations, counts, mea…

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpr…

bell curve

statistic

variance

standard deviation

the shape of a normal or standard normal distribution

a data value that summarizes something about a population or…

standard deviation squared; measures the spread of the data

represented by sigma; measures the spread of the data

bell curve

the shape of a normal or standard normal distribution

statistic

a data value that summarizes something about a population or…

Symmetric

Parameter

Statistic

Median

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

value of a population (typically unknown)

a calculated value about a population from a sample(s).

the middle point of the data (50th percentile) when the data…

Symmetric

data on which both sides are fairly the same shape and size.…

Parameter

value of a population (typically unknown)

Data

Population

Categorical variable

Quantitative variable

Systematically recorded information, together with its context.

All the cases that we wish we knew about.

A variable that names categories.

A variable in which the numbers act as numerical values. Alwa…

Data

Systematically recorded information, together with its context.

Population

All the cases that we wish we knew about.

Statistics

Population

Sample

Random Sample

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpr…

A type of data set that is the collection of all outcomes, re…

A type of data set that is a subset, or part, of a population.

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpr…

Population

A type of data set that is the collection of all outcomes, re…

Mean

median

mode

range

adding numbers and then dividing the sum by the number of dig…

list orders from least to greatest; the number in the middle…

the number that appears most often in a set of data **there c…

The difference (-) between the greatest and least values in a…

Mean

adding numbers and then dividing the sum by the number of dig…

median

list orders from least to greatest; the number in the middle…

Qualitative

Quantitative

Distribution

Marginal Distribution

AKA: Categorical. A variable that places an individual into o…

A variable that takes numerical values for which it makes sen…

The distribution of a variable tells us what values the varia…

In a two-way table; is the distribution values of THAT variab…

Qualitative

AKA: Categorical. A variable that places an individual into o…

Quantitative

A variable that takes numerical values for which it makes sen…

population

sample

statistics

mode

the entire group of objects or individuals considered for a s…

a part of a population. i.e. the girls in the 10th grade class

the math of data (information)

the number or numbers that occur most frequently in a set of…

population

the entire group of objects or individuals considered for a s…

sample

a part of a population. i.e. the girls in the 10th grade class

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

population

sample

The process of organizing and summarizing data. Usually done…

procedures used to draw conclusions about populations based o…

A group of people, things, or objects that are being studied

A subset of a population

Descriptive Statistics

The process of organizing and summarizing data. Usually done…

Inferential Statistics

procedures used to draw conclusions about populations based o…

Quantitative Variable

Categorical Variable

discrete data vs continuous data

descriptive statistics vs inferential…

Variables that are numerical and represent measures of quanti…

Variables that take on values that are names or labels.

If a variable can take on any value between two specified val…

Descriptive statistics provide a concise summary of data whic…

Quantitative Variable

Variables that are numerical and represent measures of quanti…

Categorical Variable

Variables that take on values that are names or labels.

data

mean

median

mode

the pieces of information, facts and statistics collected tog…

A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by a…

The middle number of a set of numbers (must be put in order)

The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set.

data

the pieces of information, facts and statistics collected tog…

mean

A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by a…

bar graph

categorical frequency distribution

class

class boundaries

represents the data by using vertical or horizontal bars whos…

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

quantitative or qualitative category

the upper and lower values of a class for a grouped frequency…

bar graph

represents the data by using vertical or horizontal bars whos…

categorical frequency distribution

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

scatter plot

clustering

outliers

positive association (correlation)

A graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship b…

Data values occurring close together

Numbers that are much greater or much less than the other num…

An association in which high levels of one variable go with h…

scatter plot

A graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship b…

clustering

Data values occurring close together

maximum

mean

measures of center

measures of spread

the greatest value for a data set

the average of a set of data; the sum of the data divided by…

measures that represent the center of the distribution of val…

measures that represent the extent to which the values of a d…

maximum

the greatest value for a data set

mean

the average of a set of data; the sum of the data divided by…

scatter plot

clustering

outliers

positive association (correlation)

A graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship b…

Data values occurring close together

Numbers that are much greater or much less than the other num…

An association in which high levels of one variable go with h…

scatter plot

A graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship b…

clustering

Data values occurring close together

Anecdotal Evidence

Experiment

Treatment

Random Assignment

- Ideas from situations that have little scientific value ... -…

- Study in which experimenter actively imposes treatment on s…

- Explanatory variable imposed on group

- Preferred method of assigning subjects to treatments ... - Eac…

Anecdotal Evidence

- Ideas from situations that have little scientific value ... -…

Experiment

- Study in which experimenter actively imposes treatment on s…

Statistical Question

Measure of Center

Mean

Median

A question that has variable answers.

A single number used to describe a set of data.

"Average;" the sum of all the data values, divided by the num…

"Middle;" the middle value of an ordered data set.

Statistical Question

A question that has variable answers.

Measure of Center

A single number used to describe a set of data.

Association

Bivariate

Correlation

Frequency

A description of how data sets are related.

A set of data that is made of two variables.

A description of the relationship between two data sets.

The number of times a value or response appears in a data set.

Association

A description of how data sets are related.

Bivariate

A set of data that is made of two variables.

descriptive statistics

categorical data

numerical data

discrete numerical data

The branch of statistics that includes numerical, graphical,…

Data that records qualities or characteristics of an individu…

data that can be counted or measured (Also called quantitativ…

Possible values are isolated points along the number line

descriptive statistics

The branch of statistics that includes numerical, graphical,…

categorical data

Data that records qualities or characteristics of an individu…

Box-and-whisker plot

Frequency

Histogram

Interquartile range (IQR)

A diagram that summarizes data using median , upper quartile…

The number of times an item, or event , occurs in a set of da…

A way of displaying data using vertical or horizontal bars th…

The difference between the upper quartile and the lower quart…

Box-and-whisker plot

A diagram that summarizes data using median , upper quartile…

Frequency

The number of times an item, or event , occurs in a set of da…

Box and Whisker Plot... (Box Plot)

Dot Plot

Histogram

Interquartile Range (IQR)

A graphic way of showing a summary of data using the median,…

A graphical display of data using dots.

A pictorial way of representing data.

A measure of variability, based on dividing a data set into q…

Box and Whisker Plot... (Box Plot)

A graphic way of showing a summary of data using the median,…

Dot Plot

A graphical display of data using dots.

Statistical Question

Measure of Center

Mean

Median

A question that has variable answers.

A single number used to describe a set of data.

"Average;" the sum of all the data values, divided by the num…

"Middle;" the middle value of an ordered data set.

Statistical Question

A question that has variable answers.

Measure of Center

A single number used to describe a set of data.

Statistics

Population

Sample

Parameter

Science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpretin…

Collection of all outcomes, responses measurements, or counts…

Subset, or part, of a population.

Numerical description of a population characteristic.

Statistics

Science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpretin…

Population

Collection of all outcomes, responses measurements, or counts…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

population

sample

The process of organizing and summarizing data. Usually done…

procedures used to draw conclusions about populations based o…

A group of people, things, or objects that are being studied

A subset of a population

Descriptive Statistics

The process of organizing and summarizing data. Usually done…

Inferential Statistics

procedures used to draw conclusions about populations based o…

Population

Sample

Sample Survey

Convenience Sample

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

A study that uses an organized plan to choose a sample that r…

Choosing individuals from the population who are easy to reac…

Population

The ... in a statistical study is the entire group of individ…

Sample

A subset of individuals in the population from which we actua…

Individuals

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

places an individual into one of several groups or categories.

take numerical values for which it makes sense to find an ave…

Individuals

the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be pe…

Variable

any characteristic of an individual. A variable can take diff…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

population

sample

The process of organizing and summarizing data. Usually done…

procedures used to draw conclusions about populations based o…

A group of people, things, or objects that are being studied

A subset of a population

Descriptive Statistics

The process of organizing and summarizing data. Usually done…

Inferential Statistics

procedures used to draw conclusions about populations based o…

self-selected sample

random sample

systematic sample

stratified random sampling

members of the population select themselves by volunteering.

every member of the population has an equal chance of being s…

a rule is used to select members of the population.

the population is divided into distinct groups. Members are s…

self-selected sample

members of the population select themselves by volunteering.

random sample

every member of the population has an equal chance of being s…

Population

Sample

Sampling

Census

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

The subset of population we collect data from.

Studying a part to gain info about the whole (studying the sa…

Contacts every individual of the population.

Population

The entire group of individuals we want data or information a…

Sample

The subset of population we collect data from.

Quantitative Data

Qualitative Data

Univariate Data

Bivariate Data

data expressed using exact quantities or numbers

data expressed using descriptive words

gives only one type of information (one survey question was a…

gives two types of information (two survey questions were ask…

Quantitative Data

data expressed using exact quantities or numbers

Qualitative Data

data expressed using descriptive words

Tally table

Frequency table

Histogram

Line Plot

table that uses tally marks t show how frequently something o…

table that uses numbers to show how frequently something ocurrs

bar graph displaying ranges of statistical data

graph showing frequency along number line

Tally table

table that uses tally marks t show how frequently something o…

Frequency table

table that uses numbers to show how frequently something ocurrs

Area Principle

Independence

Association

Dot Plot

The area occupied by a part of a graph should correspond to t…

The occurrence of one event does not affect the other.

When variable depends on another

When you put a dot along an axis for each case in the data

Area Principle

The area occupied by a part of a graph should correspond to t…

Independence

The occurrence of one event does not affect the other.

median

first quartile

third quartile

outlier

A concept in statistics that means the middle number in a set…

symbolized Q₁, represents the median of the lower 50%/half of…

Symbolized Q3, represents the median of the greater 50%/half…

a number in a set of data that is much larger or much smaller…

median

A concept in statistics that means the middle number in a set…

first quartile

symbolized Q₁, represents the median of the lower 50%/half of…

Census

Data

Parameter

Population

An official survey of an entire population.

Facts or information used usually to calculate or analyze som…

A measurable characteristic of a population.

the total amount of people in one area that can be surveyed.

Census

An official survey of an entire population.

Data

Facts or information used usually to calculate or analyze som…

Data

Statistics

Population

Sample

consists of information coming from observations, counts, mea…

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpr…

A type of data set that is the collection of all outcomes, re…

A type of data set that is a subset, or part, of a population.

Data

consists of information coming from observations, counts, mea…

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpr…

statistics

statistical inferences

population

sample

The practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical…

The theory, methods, and practice of forming judgements about…

A complete set of items that share at least one property in c…

a set of data collected and or selected from a statistical po…

statistics

The practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical…

statistical inferences

The theory, methods, and practice of forming judgements about…

Shifting

Re-scaling

Normal model

Context

Adding a constant to each data value adds the same constant t…

Multiplying each data value by a constant multiplies both the…

A useful family of models for unimodal, symmetric distributions

Ideally tells who was measured, what was measured, how the da…

Shifting

Adding a constant to each data value adds the same constant t…

Re-scaling

Multiplying each data value by a constant multiplies both the…

Statistical Question

Not Statistical Question

Variability

Data

A question that will have variability (variety) in the answers.

A question that will not have variability (no variety) in the…

Word that means variety, or different, or multiple

Word that means numerical information

Statistical Question

A question that will have variability (variety) in the answers.

Not Statistical Question

A question that will not have variability (no variety) in the…

Random Sample

Self-selected sample

Systematic sample

Stratified sample

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being se…

When you ask people to volunteer. All members chose to be inv…

A rule is used to select members of the sample.

The population divided into groups that share a characteristi…

Random Sample

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being se…

Self-selected sample

When you ask people to volunteer. All members chose to be inv…

mean

median

mode

frequency

average; found by finding the sum of the data and then dividi…

the middle value

the data value that occurs most often within a data set

the number of times data is recorded

mean

average; found by finding the sum of the data and then dividi…

median

the middle value

Area Principle

Independence

Association

Dot Plot

The area occupied by a part of a graph should correspond to t…

The occurrence of one event does not affect the other.

When variable depends on another

When you put a dot along an axis for each case in the data

Area Principle

The area occupied by a part of a graph should correspond to t…

Independence

The occurrence of one event does not affect the other.

Statistics

Variable

Quantitative Data

Qualitative Data

the study of how to collect, organize, and interpret numerica…

a characteristic of the individual to be measured or observed.

an observation that has a value or numerical measurement for…

describes an individual by placing the individual into a cate…

Statistics

the study of how to collect, organize, and interpret numerica…

Variable

a characteristic of the individual to be measured or observed.

volunteer sample

biased sample

census

sample

A sample in which anyone who wants to participate can. This s…

This sample type occurs when the sampling method systematical…

This sample method collects data from every member of the pop…

A part of the larger population that we collect data from.

volunteer sample

A sample in which anyone who wants to participate can. This s…

biased sample

This sample type occurs when the sampling method systematical…

Observational Study

Cross-sectional study

Systematic Sampling

Confounding

to observe and measure specific characteristics, but we dont…

Data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time

To select some starting point and then select every kth(such…

Occurs in an experiment when you are not able to distinguish…

Observational Study

to observe and measure specific characteristics, but we dont…

Cross-sectional study

Data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time

Mean

Median

Mode

Range

Add all numbers and divide by the number of digits

Line up the numbers in chronological order and find the middl…

The number that appears the most

The difference between the highest and the lowest number

Mean

Add all numbers and divide by the number of digits

Median

Line up the numbers in chronological order and find the middl…

population

sample

categorical data

numerical data

entire collection of individuals or objects about which info…

subset of the population selected for study

qualitative, identifies basic differentiating characteristics…

quantitative, observations or measurements take on numerical…

population

entire collection of individuals or objects about which info…

sample

subset of the population selected for study