# Study sets matching "statistics"

x bar (mean)

sigma squared (variance)

standard deviation

x Tilde (median)

average mean... F · MP... F

standard deviation squared

the square root of the variance

number in the middle of a set (if 2, then you get the 2 middle…

x bar (mean)

average mean... F · MP... F

sigma squared (variance)

standard deviation squared

Individuals

Variable

Quantitative

Categorical

Objects for which we collect data. People, Animals, Things are…

A characteristic of an individual. The characteristics can be…

A ... variable is one that takes on numerical values where it…

A ... variable is one that places an individual in a group.

Individuals

Objects for which we collect data. People, Animals, Things are…

Variable

A characteristic of an individual. The characteristics can be…

Arcsine Transform

Average Deviation

Bimodal Frequency Distribution

Central Tendency

When the data are proportions it is usually recommended that t…

The average deviation, or the mean absolute deviation, measure…

A bimodal distribution is like a combination of two normal dis…

In statistics, a central tendency (or more commonly, a measure…

Arcsine Transform

When the data are proportions it is usually recommended that t…

Average Deviation

The average deviation, or the mean absolute deviation, measure…

Individuals

Variable

Quantitative

Categorical

Objects for which we collect data. People, Animals, Things are…

A characteristic of an individual. The characteristics can be…

A ... variable is one that takes on numerical values where it…

A ... variable is one that places an individual in a group.

Individuals

Objects for which we collect data. People, Animals, Things are…

Variable

A characteristic of an individual. The characteristics can be…

validity

outlier

Common Shapes of Distributions

What 2 statistical measures describe th…

the extent to which evidence supports the intended inferences…

an observed value that is notably distinct from the other valu…

Symmetric... Skewed to the right... Skewed to the left... Bell-shaped

mean... median

validity

the extent to which evidence supports the intended inferences…

outlier

an observed value that is notably distinct from the other valu…

Dot Plot

Range

Quartiles

Five Number Summary

a graphical display of data using dots

the difference between the lowest and highest value

the values that divide a list of numbers into quarters

a set of data showing the Minimum, 1st Quartile, Median, 3rd Q…

Dot Plot

a graphical display of data using dots

Range

the difference between the lowest and highest value

Working with charts and diagrams, alway…

Grouping data is good because,

Grouping data is not so good because,

Median is

Check the scale

it is easier to collect the data

you lose accuracy and can only estimate your statistics.

the middle number in a set once it is in order

Working with charts and diagrams, alway…

Check the scale

Grouping data is good because,

it is easier to collect the data

Box and Whisker Plot

Line Plot

Frequency

Frequency Table

A diagram that summarizes data using the mean, the upper and l…

A statistical chart consisting of data points on a number line.

The number of times an item, number, or event occurs.

The organization of data in table form with tallies and freque…

Box and Whisker Plot

A diagram that summarizes data using the mean, the upper and l…

Line Plot

A statistical chart consisting of data points on a number line.

Arcsine Transform

Average Deviation

Bimodal Frequency Distribution

Central Tendency

When the data are proportions it is usually recommended that t…

the mean absolute deviation that measures the absolute differe…

A combination of two normal distributions -there are two peaks…

In statistics, a __________________ (or more commonly, a measu…

Arcsine Transform

When the data are proportions it is usually recommended that t…

Average Deviation

the mean absolute deviation that measures the absolute differe…

Mean

Median

Mode

Statistics

The average of the data points. ... Add all the data points; divi…

The middle point.... List all the data points in numerical order;…

The number seen the most.... Look at list, count how many times t…

using data to answer questions; not yes/no or single answer qu…

Mean

The average of the data points. ... Add all the data points; divi…

Median

The middle point.... List all the data points in numerical order;…

Numerical Data

Categorical Data

Discrete Data

Continuous data

Quantitative Data, ... Data that can be gathered using numbers. E…

Qualitative Data,... Data that can be placed into categories . e.…

data that can only have particular values. In most cases, the…

data that can take any value between the smallest and largest…

Numerical Data

Quantitative Data, ... Data that can be gathered using numbers. E…

Categorical Data

Qualitative Data,... Data that can be placed into categories . e.…

parametric

non parametric

what is ordinal data

student t test

參數... continuous numerical data... from normally distributed populat…

Ordinal data... nominal data... Interval data ... not normally distribu…

顺序

- parametric test... - samples from normally distributed populati…

parametric

參數... continuous numerical data... from normally distributed populat…

non parametric

Ordinal data... nominal data... Interval data ... not normally distribu…

Bimodal Frequency Distribution

Central Tendency

Degree of Freedom

Dispersion

A combination of two normal distributions -there are two peaks…

In statistics, a __________________ (or more commonly, a measu…

In trying to measure variance we have to keep in mind that our…

We usually want to also know how closely clustered the data ar…

Bimodal Frequency Distribution

A combination of two normal distributions -there are two peaks…

Central Tendency

In statistics, a __________________ (or more commonly, a measu…

Quartile

Symmetric

IQR

Skew

Refers to 1/4 of the data points

Data Distribution that shows mirror image of left and right si…

The distance between the first and third quartiles

One side of the distribution being more elongated than the oth…

Quartile

Refers to 1/4 of the data points

Symmetric

Data Distribution that shows mirror image of left and right si…

Quartile

Symmetric

IQR

Skew

Refers to 1/4 of the data points

Data Distribution that shows mirror image of left and right si…

The distance between the first and third quartiles

One side of the distribution being more elongated than the oth…

Quartile

Refers to 1/4 of the data points

Symmetric

Data Distribution that shows mirror image of left and right si…

data

statistics

population

sample

consist of information coming from observations, counts, measu…

the science of collection, organizing, analyzing, and interpre…

collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts…

a subset, or part, of a population

data

consist of information coming from observations, counts, measu…

statistics

the science of collection, organizing, analyzing, and interpre…

Ways to Gain Information

Empiricism

Faith/Intuition

Tenacity

Empiricism, Faith/Intuition, Tenacity, Authority, Observe, Tra…

Research Based

Gut, No Source, Can not separate accurate v. inaccurate

Superstitions, "Lucky Charm"

Ways to Gain Information

Empiricism, Faith/Intuition, Tenacity, Authority, Observe, Tra…

Empiricism

Research Based

Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

bar graphs

pie graphs

Hypothesis Testing, Applying probability, discovering correlat…

Frequency Distributions, Graphing and Charting Data, Measures…

Inferential Statistics

Hypothesis Testing, Applying probability, discovering correlat…

Descriptive Statistics

Frequency Distributions, Graphing and Charting Data, Measures…

Ways to Gain Information

Empiricism

Faith/Intuition

Tenacity

Empiricism, Faith/Intuition, Tenacity, Authority, Observe, Tra…

Research Based

Gut, No Source, Can not separate accurate v. inaccurate

Superstitions, "Lucky Charm"

Ways to Gain Information

Empiricism, Faith/Intuition, Tenacity, Authority, Observe, Tra…

Empiricism

Research Based

Statistics (Singular)

Population

Sample

Statistics (Plural)

The science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data

The complete set of people or things being studied

A subset of the population from which data are actually obtain…

Numbers describing characteristics of a sample found by summar…

Statistics (Singular)

The science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data

Population

The complete set of people or things being studied

Dot Plot

Range

Quartiles

Five Number Summary

a graphical display of data using dots

the difference between the lowest and highest value

the values that divide a list of numbers into quarters

a set of data showing the Minimum, 1st Quartile, Median, 3rd Q…

Dot Plot

a graphical display of data using dots

Range

the difference between the lowest and highest value

Statistics

When did people first become interested…

Who studied the similarity of intellige…

Where were basic statistical procedures…

the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summar…

17th century

Francis Galtin (1822-1911)

agriculture, astronomy, and politics

Statistics

the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summar…

When did people first become interested…

17th century

Disjoint Events (Definition)

Disjoint Events Test Formulas

Independent Events (Definition)

Independent Events test formulas

Events (A) and (B) are disjoint or mutually exclusive if they…

P (A and B) = 0... P (A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

Two events are independent if the outcome of one does not chan…

P(A | B) = P(A)... P(A and B) = P(A) *P(B)

Disjoint Events (Definition)

Events (A) and (B) are disjoint or mutually exclusive if they…

Disjoint Events Test Formulas

P (A and B) = 0... P (A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

univariate analysis

bivariate analysis

discrete

continuous

analysis of research data that examines just one variable

analysis of research data that examines two variables

separate; unconnected

going on without stopping

univariate analysis

analysis of research data that examines just one variable

bivariate analysis

analysis of research data that examines two variables

Correlation

Evaluating Correlation

Problems with Correlation

Quasi-experimental

Relationships between two variables... -No causation... -No explanat…

-1 Strong negative correlation... 0 No correlation... 1 Strong posit…

Correlation does not mean causation. Third variables could pla…

attempts to minimize threats to internal validity

Correlation

Relationships between two variables... -No causation... -No explanat…

Evaluating Correlation

-1 Strong negative correlation... 0 No correlation... 1 Strong posit…