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Statistics

Descriptive statistic

Inferential statistic

Population

How to collect, organize, summarize and analyze information s…

Organizing and summarizing collected data

Methods that take sample results to extend it to (generalize…

Entire group of interest being studied

Statistics

How to collect, organize, summarize and analyze information s…

Descriptive statistic

Organizing and summarizing collected data

data

statistics

population

census

collections of observations like measurements, genders, or su…

the science of planning studies and experiments

complete collection of all measurements or data that are bein…

data from everyone ,100%

data

collections of observations like measurements, genders, or su…

statistics

the science of planning studies and experiments

The Goal of statistics is:

Data is:

Datum is:

Statistics is:

Learn about a large group by examining sample data from its m…

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, o…

A single data value is called a datum

The science of planning studies and experiments; obtaining da…

The Goal of statistics is:

Learn about a large group by examining sample data from its m…

Data is:

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, o…

What are the 4 methods of data collect…

What is an observational study?

What is an experiment?

What is a simulation?

Observation, Experiment, Simulation, Survey

Researcher observes, but does NOT change existing conditions.

A treatment is applied to part of a population, so existing c…

The use of a mathematical or physical model to reproduce the…

What are the 4 methods of data collect…

Observation, Experiment, Simulation, Survey

What is an observational study?

Researcher observes, but does NOT change existing conditions.

Data

Statistics

Population

Sample

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make decis…

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analy…

The entire group of individuals to be studied is called the p…

is a subset of the population being studied.

Data

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make decis…

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analy…

Different types of hypothesis testing…

t-Test Test Statistic

Z-Test Test Statistic

Two variable Z-Test Test Statistic

z-test (one sample): when comparing population to a single nu…

(sample statistic-#)/SE+

(sample statistic-#)/SE

(Sample A statistic-Sample B statistic)/SEdiff

Different types of hypothesis testing…

z-test (one sample): when comparing population to a single nu…

t-Test Test Statistic

(sample statistic-#)/SE+

parsimony

reification

empirical method

scientific method

the goal of accounting for the maximum number of empirical fi…

treating empirical findings as if it were a straightforward e…

obtaining info on the basis of observation

acquiring and testing knowledge through systematic observatio…

parsimony

the goal of accounting for the maximum number of empirical fi…

reification

treating empirical findings as if it were a straightforward e…

Types of knowledge

objectivity

skepticism

open mindedness

-personal experience (not reliable)... -rationalism (reliable bu…

supporting evid must be observable by anyone

claims must be backed up by evidence and critically evaluated

open to new evidence & replication

Types of knowledge

-personal experience (not reliable)... -rationalism (reliable bu…

objectivity

supporting evid must be observable by anyone

Population

Parameters

Sample

Statistics

Tickets in the box

Describes the percentage or average of the box

A small group of subjects gathered from a larger population

A numerical value measured from a sample

Population

Tickets in the box

Parameters

Describes the percentage or average of the box

Market Basket

Price Index

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

CPI

List of specific goods and services in fixed quantities.

Measure showing how much the cost of a market basket has chan…

Measure that tracks changes in the cost of a basket of goods…

(Cost of desired-year basket in base-year prices) / (cost of…

Market Basket

List of specific goods and services in fixed quantities.

Price Index

Measure showing how much the cost of a market basket has chan…

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mean

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Median

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mode

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Resi…

- The average.... - Used when data are quantitative and the freq…

- The data value "in the middle"... - Used when the data are qua…

- The most frequently occurring value... - Can be applied to bot…

Resistant statistic is a numerical summary (statistic or para…

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mean

- The average.... - Used when data are quantitative and the freq…

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Median

- The data value "in the middle"... - Used when the data are qua…

What is QUALITATIVE data?

What is QUANTITATIVE data?

What is a good way to remember the lev…

What is the NOMINAL level of measureme…

Attributes, labels or NON-NUMERICAL entries

Consists of NUMERICAL measurements or counts

N.O.I.R (Think Pinot Noir)

Qualitative only! No mathematical computations can be made at…

What is QUALITATIVE data?

Attributes, labels or NON-NUMERICAL entries

What is QUANTITATIVE data?

Consists of NUMERICAL measurements or counts

Data

Statistics

Population

Census

Numeric measurements for certain variables; collections of ob…

Science of planning studies and experiments and then observin…

Complete collection ofall measurements that are being conside…

Collection of data from every member of population

Data

Numeric measurements for certain variables; collections of ob…

Statistics

Science of planning studies and experiments and then observin…

Define Statistics [C-O-S-A]

Define Individual

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analy…

A person or object that is a member of the population being s…

Consists of organizing and summarizing information collected

Uses methods that generalize results obtained from a sample t…

Define Statistics [C-O-S-A]

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analy…

Define Individual

A person or object that is a member of the population being s…

Define statistics

Why is it important to study statistics?

What are the four forms in which psych…

What is scientific method? (Chapter 2,…

Statistics: Focuses on organisation, analysis and interpretat…

To correctly substantiate claims with empirical evidence

1. Description - mapping out and understanding regularities i…

A procedure for acquiring and testing knowledge through syste…

Define statistics

Statistics: Focuses on organisation, analysis and interpretat…

Why is it important to study statistics?

To correctly substantiate claims with empirical evidence

Standard Unit

normal approximation

Interquartile Range

percentile

a value is converted to this by seeing how many SDs it is abo…

consists of replacing the original histogram by the normal cu…

75th percentile--25th percentile

score

Standard Unit

a value is converted to this by seeing how many SDs it is abo…

normal approximation

consists of replacing the original histogram by the normal cu…

Parameter

Statistic

Quantitative Data

Qualitative or Categorical Data

A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a p…

A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a s…

Numbers representing counts or measurements

Names or labels that are not numbers representing counts or m…

Parameter

A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a p…

Statistic

A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a s…

What is Statistics?

Why do we need statistics?

Statistical Solving Process

Observational Study

The methodology for appropriately collecting data, summarizin…

Helps us deal w/ the variation that is everywhere in life by…

1. State 2. Formulate 3. Solve 4. Conclude

A study that merely observes conditions of individuals in a p…

What is Statistics?

The methodology for appropriately collecting data, summarizin…

Why do we need statistics?

Helps us deal w/ the variation that is everywhere in life by…

Population

Variable

Individuals

Observational Study

In a statistical study is the entire group of individuals abo…

Any characteristic of an individual. It can take different va…

Objects described by a set of data.

observes individuals and measures variables of interest but d…

Population

In a statistical study is the entire group of individuals abo…

Variable

Any characteristic of an individual. It can take different va…

Statistical Study

Variables

Most Important Stat. Fact

Observational Studies

is any study that records data about individuals.

are values that are given to individuals during studies that…

is how the data was produced.

try to gather information without disturbing the scene they w…

Statistical Study

is any study that records data about individuals.

Variables

are values that are given to individuals during studies that…

Double Blind

Stratified

Ordinal

Nominal

An experiment in which both the person administering the trea…

This kind of sampling involves defining homogeneous subgroups…

A level of measurement that indicates only an order, or rank.…

A level of measurement that consists of names, labels or cate…

Double Blind

An experiment in which both the person administering the trea…

Stratified

This kind of sampling involves defining homogeneous subgroups…

1960s

Vet Tech duties

Dr. Walt Collins

animal health technicians

Veterinary technician profession began to take form in what y…

-radiology tech... -laboratory tech... -medical nurse ... -surgical nu…

Father of veterinary technology

veterinary technicians were first called...

1960s

Veterinary technician profession began to take form in what y…

Vet Tech duties

-radiology tech... -laboratory tech... -medical nurse ... -surgical nu…

Statistics

Population

Individual

Sample

Science of collecting organizing summarizing analyzing info t…

Whole group to be studied

Member of group being studied person or object

...subset of population being studied

Statistics

Science of collecting organizing summarizing analyzing info t…

Population

Whole group to be studied

Audience Analysis

Audience-centered perspective

Attitudes

Beliefs

The process of gathering and analyzing information about audi…

Assuming an audience-centered perspective will help you prepa…

our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events

Attitudes are based on beliefs, the ways in which people perc…

Audience Analysis

The process of gathering and analyzing information about audi…

Audience-centered perspective

Assuming an audience-centered perspective will help you prepa…

1960s

Dr. Walt Collins

animal health technicians

200

Veterinary technician profession began to take form in what y…

Father of veterinary technology

veterinary technicians were first called...

How many accredited AVMA programs of veterinary technology

1960s

Veterinary technician profession began to take form in what y…

Dr. Walt Collins

Father of veterinary technology

Data

Statistics

Population

Sample

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make decis…

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analy…

The entire group of individuals to be studied is called the p…

is a subset of the population being studied.

Data

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make decis…

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analy…

The causes of changes in prices

business

profits

external environment

supply, demand, global trends, uncertainty

organization that provides goods or services to earn profits

difference between a business's revenues and expenses

everything outside an organization's boundaries that might af…

The causes of changes in prices

supply, demand, global trends, uncertainty

business

organization that provides goods or services to earn profits

Statistics

Data

Population

Individual

Collecting information to answer a question

Fact to make conclusion or decision (data can vary)

Group of individuals being studied

A person or object that is a member of population being studied

Statistics

Collecting information to answer a question

Data

Fact to make conclusion or decision (data can vary)

Producer Price Index measures the cost…

When constructing CPI, Bureau of Labor…

When relative price of a good increase…

Recent changes in methods used to comp…

Bought by Firms

survey sellers to determine what the typical consumer buys

buying smaller quantity of that good & a larger quantity of s…

upward bias in the CPI inflation rate less severe than it use…

Producer Price Index measures the cost…

Bought by Firms

When constructing CPI, Bureau of Labor…

survey sellers to determine what the typical consumer buys

(X-bar)

∑ (sigma)

∑Χ (sigma X)

alpha level

Statistical notation for the mean of X. The mean of Y would be

Statistical notation indicating summation (i.e. 'the sum of .…

Statistical notation for the sum of all the scores of a given…

The largest probability that the researcher is prepared to ac…

(X-bar)

Statistical notation for the mean of X. The mean of Y would be

∑ (sigma)

Statistical notation indicating summation (i.e. 'the sum of .…

Unemployed and in the labor force

80%

8.3%

28.5%

Eric was laid off two months ago. He has not searched for oth…

The adult Population in the town of Shelbyville is 150 thousa…

Suppose that the adult population is 4 million, the number of…

Suppose the same country had an adult population of about 50…

Unemployed and in the labor force

Eric was laid off two months ago. He has not searched for oth…

80%

The adult Population in the town of Shelbyville is 150 thousa…

Hypothesis

Controlled Experiment

Experimental Group vs. Controlled Group

Independent vs. Dependent Variable

Explanation for Scientific Observation

Test for hypothesis

Manipulation vs. No Manipulation

Factor being Manipulated vs. Measured Result

Hypothesis

Explanation for Scientific Observation

Controlled Experiment

Test for hypothesis

real GDP per capita

real GDP per capita growth rate =

Compounding

GDP per capita in any year

describes the change in purchasing power for each person over…

nominal GDP growth rate - inflation rate - population growth…

Economic growth builds on itself over time.... This process is s…

GDPyear A= GDPyearB*(1=growth rate)^(year A-year B)

real GDP per capita

describes the change in purchasing power for each person over…

real GDP per capita growth rate =

nominal GDP growth rate - inflation rate - population growth…

science

anecdotal evidence

peer review

scientific method

knowledge based on observation and experimentation to explain…

informal observation that hasn't been systematically tested

process in which scientific experts read scientific studies b…

observations -> hypothesis -> testable prediction (if/then) -…

science

knowledge based on observation and experimentation to explain…

anecdotal evidence

informal observation that hasn't been systematically tested

marketing research

marketing research problem

marketing research objective

management decisions problem

the process of planning, collecting, and analyzing data relev…

determining what information is needed and how that informati…

the specific information needed to solve a marketing research…

a broad-based problem that uses marketing research in order f…

marketing research

the process of planning, collecting, and analyzing data relev…

marketing research problem

determining what information is needed and how that informati…

government

monarchy

totalitarianism

oligrachy

the formal vehicle through which policies are made and affair…

a form of government is vested in hereditary kings and queens…

a form of government in which power resides in a leader who r…

a form of government in which the right to participate depend…

government

the formal vehicle through which policies are made and affair…

monarchy

a form of government is vested in hereditary kings and queens…

Arithmetic Mean

Parameter

Statistic

Median

Computed by determining the sum of all the values of a variab…

Population Mean (mew)

Sample Mean (x-bar)

The value that lies in the middle of the data when arranged i…

Arithmetic Mean

Computed by determining the sum of all the values of a variab…

Parameter

Population Mean (mew)

1040 EZ Form

Asset

Barter

Budget

income tax return for single and joint filers with no depende…

Anything of value that is owned

(n.) an exchange in trade; (v.) to exchange goods

A plan for making and spending money

1040 EZ Form

income tax return for single and joint filers with no depende…

Asset

Anything of value that is owned

How is the Arithmetic Mean Computed?

How is the population arithmetic mean…

How is the sample arithmetic mean comp…

What is the arithmetic mean generally…

Is computed by adding all the values of the variable in the d…

Is computed by using all the individuals in a population, the…

By using sample data. The sample mean is the arithmetic.

The mean

How is the Arithmetic Mean Computed?

Is computed by adding all the values of the variable in the d…

How is the population arithmetic mean…

Is computed by using all the individuals in a population, the…

Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Data

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analy…

Methods for organizing and summarizing information

Methods of using sample data to draw conclusions about the po…

are information coming from observations, counts, measurement…

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analy…

Descriptive Statistics

Methods for organizing and summarizing information

Empirical results:... A. must support the…

Science is:... A. a process that can only…

All of the following are elements of b…

The scientific method can be more powe…

D. are based on observation.

D. both a body of knowledge and an intellectual activity enco…

C. having read the most important books in biology.

E. All except choice D are correct.

Empirical results:... A. must support the…

D. are based on observation.

Science is:... A. a process that can only…

D. both a body of knowledge and an intellectual activity enco…

What is Statistics?

Four steps to statistical solving?

Types of statistical studies?

What is the difference between Observa…

Methodology for collecting, summarizing, and drawing conclusi…

State, formulate, solve, conclude

Observational and Experimental

Who gives the treatment. Ask yourself, is I was the participa…

What is Statistics?

Methodology for collecting, summarizing, and drawing conclusi…

Four steps to statistical solving?

State, formulate, solve, conclude

Consider a small economy in which cons…

If 2012 is the base year, then the inf…

Indexation refers to

The nominal interest rate tells you

...

...

using a law or contract to automatically correct a dollar amo…

how fast the number of dollars in your bank account rises ove…

Consider a small economy in which cons…

...

If 2012 is the base year, then the inf…

...

Consider a small economy in which cons…

If 2012 is the base year, then the inf…

Suppose a basket of goods and services…

If the consumer price index was 100 in…

neither the number of pretzels nor the number of cookies boug…

CPI in 2013-CPI in 2012/CPI in 2012 x 100

110.0. (100x55/50)

6 percent.

Consider a small economy in which cons…

neither the number of pretzels nor the number of cookies boug…

If 2012 is the base year, then the inf…

CPI in 2013-CPI in 2012/CPI in 2012 x 100

Gideon V. Wainwright

Miranda V. Arizona

FCC regulatory oversight

Higher education influence

Gideon was forced to represent himself in court and it led to…

Led to the Miranda rights.

Federal Communications Commission that regulates interstate c…

People with higher levels of education tend to hold steadier…

Gideon V. Wainwright

Gideon was forced to represent himself in court and it led to…

Miranda V. Arizona

Led to the Miranda rights.

Productivity is

The only way to consume more and enjoy…

Convergence theory states that

Investment trade-off is

a measure of the output per worker and is what drives growth.

Increase

countries that start out poor will grow faster than rich ones…

a reduction in current consumption to pay for investment in c…

Productivity is

a measure of the output per worker and is what drives growth.

The only way to consume more and enjoy…

Increase

Response Variable ... Chapter 5

Explanatory Variable ... Chapter 5

Subjects ... Chapter 5

Treatment... Chapter 5

variable that measures an outcome or result of a study

variable that we think explains or causes changes in the resp…

individuals studied in an experiment

any specific experimental condition applied to the experiment…

Response Variable ... Chapter 5

variable that measures an outcome or result of a study

Explanatory Variable ... Chapter 5

variable that we think explains or causes changes in the resp…