# Study sets matching "stats 1040"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Observational Study

Controlled Experiment

Association

Causation

A statistical study comparing two groups (treatment and contro…

A statistical study comparing two groups (treatment and contro…

The only relationship that can be established with observation…

A definitive relationship that can be established only with co…

Observational Study

A statistical study comparing two groups (treatment and contro…

Controlled Experiment

A statistical study comparing two groups (treatment and contro…

Statistics

Descriptive statistic

Inferential statistic

Population

How to collect, organize, summarize and analyze information so…

Organizing and summarizing collected data

Methods that take sample results to extend it to (generalize a…

Entire group of interest being studied

Statistics

How to collect, organize, summarize and analyze information so…

Descriptive statistic

Organizing and summarizing collected data

The Goal of statistics is:

Data is:

Datum is:

Statistics is:

Learn about a large group by examining sample data from its me…

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, or…

A single data value is called a datum

The science of planning studies and experiments; obtaining dat…

The Goal of statistics is:

Learn about a large group by examining sample data from its me…

Data is:

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, or…

Different types of hypothesis testing a…

t-Test Test Statistic

Z-Test Test Statistic

Two variable Z-Test Test Statistic

z-test (one sample): when comparing population to a single num…

(sample statistic-#)/SE+

(sample statistic-#)/SE

(Sample A statistic-Sample B statistic)/SEdiff

Different types of hypothesis testing a…

z-test (one sample): when comparing population to a single num…

t-Test Test Statistic

(sample statistic-#)/SE+

Population

Sample

Parameter

Statistic

The entire set of existing units that investigators wish to st…

A portion or subset of the population

A number that describes a population characteristic

A number that describes a sample characteristic

Population

The entire set of existing units that investigators wish to st…

Sample

A portion or subset of the population

PRODUCT

no effect

1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4

1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2= 1/8

If two events are independent, the chance they BOTH happen is…

Two events (A and B) are independent if the occurrence of even…

Toss a dime and a nickel. What is the chance both coins land o…

A coin is tossed 3 times, what's the chance of getting a H, th…

PRODUCT

If two events are independent, the chance they BOTH happen is…

no effect

Two events (A and B) are independent if the occurrence of even…

individual

variable

quantitative variable

categorical (qualitative) variable

An object about which data are collected

A characteristic of an individual that is of interest to the r…

A variable with numeric value that has meaning and for which a…

A variable with word descriptors that reflect the classificati…

individual

An object about which data are collected

variable

A characteristic of an individual that is of interest to the r…

Confounder

Simpson's Paradox

Weighted Average

Causation

A third variable, associated with both the treatment and the r…

When relationships between percentages in subgroups are revers…

A technique for computing an average rate that takes into acco…

A definitive relationship that can be established only with co…

Confounder

A third variable, associated with both the treatment and the r…

Simpson's Paradox

When relationships between percentages in subgroups are revers…

Data

Statistics

Population

Sample

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make decisi…

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyz…

The entire group of individuals to be studied is called the po…

is a subset of the population being studied.

Data

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make decisi…

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyz…

What is the main difference between qua…

What do parameters describe?

What is a statistic?

What a Simple Random Sample (SRS)?

Quantitative variables can be averaged while categorical varia…

Population characteristics

A number that describes a sample

Size (n) consists of (n) individuals from the population chose…

What is the main difference between qua…

Quantitative variables can be averaged while categorical varia…

What do parameters describe?

Population characteristics

Data

Statistics

Population

Sample

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make decisi…

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyz…

The entire group of individuals to be studied is called the po…

is a subset of the population being studied.

Data

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make decisi…

Statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyz…

Observational Studies

Sample Surveys

Census

Experiments

Try to gather information without disturbing the scene they ar…

Chooses a sample from a specific population and uses the sampl…

Attempts to measure every individual in a population

Goal is to learn whether some treatment actually causes a cert…

Observational Studies

Try to gather information without disturbing the scene they ar…

Sample Surveys

Chooses a sample from a specific population and uses the sampl…

variability

population

sample

descriptive statistics

measure of the spread of a data set

entire set of measurements for responses about which informati…

a subset of measurements or responses selected from the popula…

The branch of statistics that includes numerical, graphical, a…

variability

measure of the spread of a data set

population

entire set of measurements for responses about which informati…

Why Stats?

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Difference between Inferential & Descri…

- Used to make sense of data collected ... - Provide a quantitive…

Statistical procedures that are used to describe different num…

Statistical procedures that allow researchers to determine whe…

Descriptive statistics are used objectively, to do with the me…

Why Stats?

- Used to make sense of data collected ... - Provide a quantitive…

Descriptive statistics

Statistical procedures that are used to describe different num…

Randomized controlls

Placebo

Double-blind controls

what is the best design of controlled e…

A random process (like a coin flip) assigns subjects to treatm…

A neutral agent that resembles the treatment but lacks the act…

When neither subjects nor those who evaluate the response know…

randomized controlled double-blind experiment

Randomized controlls

A random process (like a coin flip) assigns subjects to treatm…

Placebo

A neutral agent that resembles the treatment but lacks the act…

Statistical Study

Variables

Most Important Stat. Fact

Observational Studies

is any study that records data about individuals.

are values that are given to individuals during studies that a…

is how the data was produced.

try to gather information without disturbing the scene they we…

Statistical Study

is any study that records data about individuals.

Variables

are values that are given to individuals during studies that a…

How many hereditary conditions are there

What is the leading cause of death amon…

What is the leading cause of death amon…

What percentage of total nations medica…

3000-4000

Accidents (41.8%)

Heart disease (24.2%)

75%

How many hereditary conditions are there

3000-4000

What is the leading cause of death amon…

Accidents (41.8%)

**probabilities**are used when..

**confidence intervals**are used when..

The probability that the parameter is i…

The

**population**is....you reason forward, from the box to the draws.

you are reasoning backwards, from the draws to the box.

0% or 100%

the tickets in the box.

**probabilities**are used when..

you reason forward, from the box to the draws.

**confidence intervals**are used when..

you are reasoning backwards, from the draws to the box.

Treatment Group

Control Group

Response

Blind Controls

Subjects in an experiment who are given the treatment under st…

Subjects in an experiment NOT given the treatment; often they…

The outcome measured on all subjects in a statistical experime…

An experiment where ONLY the SUBJECTS are UNaware if they rece…

Treatment Group

Subjects in an experiment who are given the treatment under st…

Control Group

Subjects in an experiment NOT given the treatment; often they…

histogram

outlier

stemplot

symmetric distribution

graph that shows the distribution of a quantitative variable.…

an individual observation that falls outside the overall patte…

graph displaying smaller data sets. preferred over histograms.

histogram

graph that shows the distribution of a quantitative variable.…

outlier

an individual observation that falls outside the overall patte…

distribution

pie chart

qualitative/ categorical variable

quantitative variable

of a variable tells us what values it takes and how often it t…

used to display distribution of categorical variable. always s…

places and individual into one of several groups or categories…

takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations such as…

distribution

of a variable tells us what values it takes and how often it t…

pie chart

used to display distribution of categorical variable. always s…

Conducting a Statistical Study

Observational Study

Experiment

Representative Sample

1. Determine the design of the study... a. state the question to…

observes the data that already exists

generates data to help identify cause-and-effect relationships

has the same relevant characteristics as the population and do…

Conducting a Statistical Study

1. Determine the design of the study... a. state the question to…

Observational Study

observes the data that already exists

Statistics

Population

Sample

Descriptive Statistics

Science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing…

group being studies

subset of population

Consist of organizing and summarizing data. Describe basic fea…

Statistics

Science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing…

Population

group being studies