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bimodal

boxplot

Chebyshev's Theorem

co-efficient of variation

a data set with 2 modes

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

theorem stating that the proportion of values from a data set…

standard deviation divided by the mean with the result expres…

bimodal

a data set with 2 modes

boxplot

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

Measure of Center

Arithmetic Mean (Mean)

Median

Mode

The value at the center or middle of a data set

The measure of center obtained by adding the values and divid…

The middle value when the original data values are arranged i…

The value that occurs with the greatest frequency

Measure of Center

The value at the center or middle of a data set

Arithmetic Mean (Mean)

The measure of center obtained by adding the values and divid…

Bi variate Data

Correlation

Input Variable

Least Squares Criterion

The values of two different variables that are obtained from…

As the input variable increases there is a definite shift in…

The independent variable

Says that we find constants such that the sums of the least s…

Bi variate Data

The values of two different variables that are obtained from…

Correlation

As the input variable increases there is a definite shift in…

measures of average

measures of variation

measures of variation:

measures of position

mean, median, mode and mdirange

measures that determine the spread of the data values

range, variance, standard deviation.

percentiles, deciles and quartiles

measures of average

mean, median, mode and mdirange

measures of variation

measures that determine the spread of the data values

mean

population mean

sample mean

median

computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data…

denoted by a u (1st line is longer)... computed by using all th…

(x with line on top) called "x-bar"... computed using SAMPLE da…

the value that lies in the MIDDLE of the data when arranged i…

mean

computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data…

population mean

denoted by a u (1st line is longer)... computed by using all th…

Measure of center

What are four different ways to calcul…

Mean

Resistant measure of center

a value at the center or middle of a data set

Mean... Median... Mode ... Midrange

(average) the mean of a set of data is the measure of center…

can resist substantial changes caused by extreme values. ... mea…

Measure of center

a value at the center or middle of a data set

What are four different ways to calcul…

Mean... Median... Mode ... Midrange

bimodal

boxplot

Chebyshev's Theorem

co-efficient of variation

a data set with 2 modes

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

theorem stating that the proportion of values from a data set…

standard deviation divided by the mean with the result expres…

bimodal

a data set with 2 modes

boxplot

a graph used to represent a data set when the data set contai…

measure of center

Mean

sample size

Median

a value at the center or middle of a data set

- generally the most important of all numerical measurements…

number of data values

- is a resistant measure of center... - is the measure of center…

measure of center

a value at the center or middle of a data set

Mean

- generally the most important of all numerical measurements…

measure of center

mean

median

mode

a value at the center of a data set

the measure of center found by adding the data values and div…

the measure of center that is the middle value when the origi…

the value that occurs with the greatest frequency in a data s…

measure of center

a value at the center of a data set

mean

the measure of center found by adding the data values and div…

Parameter

Statistic

Bias

Variability

a number that describes population; a fixed number, but in pr…

a number that describes a sample; the value of a statistic is…

consisted, repeated deviation of the sample statistic from th…

describes how spread out the values of the sample statistic a…

Parameter

a number that describes population; a fixed number, but in pr…

Statistic

a number that describes a sample; the value of a statistic is…

Z-score

Quartiles

Percentile

Quartiles

Represents the number of standard deviations an observation i…

The most common percentiles are quartiles. Quartiles divide d…

a set of data is a value such that k percent of the observati…

The kth percentile of a set of data is a value such that k pe…

Z-score

Represents the number of standard deviations an observation i…

Quartiles

The most common percentiles are quartiles. Quartiles divide d…

Dispersion

Range, R

Deviation about the mean

Population Standard Deviation

The degree to which the data are spread out.

The range, R, of a variable is the difference between the lar…

Standard deviation is based on this. For a population, the de…

The square root of the sum of squared deviations about the po…

Dispersion

The degree to which the data are spread out.

Range, R

The range, R, of a variable is the difference between the lar…

anecdotal data

available data

population

parameter

based on an unorganized selection of individual cases, which…

data that were produced in the past for some other purpose bu…

the entire group of individuals in which we are interested bu…

a number describing a characteristic of the POPULATION

anecdotal data

based on an unorganized selection of individual cases, which…

available data

data that were produced in the past for some other purpose bu…

Probability sample

Outcome

Sample Space

Event

A sample chosen by chance; we must know what samples are poss…

The result of a single trial in a probability experiment.

The set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment.

A subset of the sample space.

Probability sample

A sample chosen by chance; we must know what samples are poss…

Outcome

The result of a single trial in a probability experiment.

Sample Space

P(E)= Probability of an Event

Rounding Rule for Probability

Rule for Complementary Events

The set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment.

n(E)/n(s) = Number of outcomes divided by total in the sample…

Four decimal places

1 - P(E)

Sample Space

The set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment.

P(E)= Probability of an Event

n(E)/n(s) = Number of outcomes divided by total in the sample…

continuous variables

data

data set

data value or datum

variables that can assume an infinite number of values betwee…

the values (measurements or observations) that variables can…

a collection of data values

a value in the data set

continuous variables

variables that can assume an infinite number of values betwee…

data

the values (measurements or observations) that variables can…

MEASURE OF CENTER

MEAN (arithmetic mean)

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

NOTATION

value at center or middle of a DATA set

measure of center found by... adding DATA values ... dividing the t…

summarize or describe characteristics of DATA

symbols used for equations

MEASURE OF CENTER

value at center or middle of a DATA set

MEAN (arithmetic mean)

measure of center found by... adding DATA values ... dividing the t…

Frequency Distribution

Lower Class Limit

Upper Class Limit

Class Width

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Least number that can belong to a class

Greatest number that can belong to a class

Distance between lower and upper limits of a consecutive clas…

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Lower Class Limit

Least number that can belong to a class

a characteristic or measure obtained b…

a characteristic or measure obtained b…

the midpoint of the data array (MD).

the value that occurs most often in a…

statistic

parameter

median

mode

a characteristic or measure obtained b…

statistic

a characteristic or measure obtained b…

parameter

statistic

parameter

continuous (numerical) data

discrete data

numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sam…

numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a pop…

result from infinitely many possible values that correspond t…

result when the number of possible values is either a finite…

statistic

numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sam…

parameter

numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a pop…

statistic

parameter

continuous (numerical) data

discrete data

numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sam…

numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a pop…

result from infinitely many possible values that correspond t…

result when the number of possible values is either a finite…

statistic

numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sam…

parameter

numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a pop…

Experiment

Outcomes

Sample space

Tree Diagram

A process that, when performed, results in one and only one o…

These observations are called the outcomes of the experiment.

The collection of all outcomes for an experiment is called a…

Experiment

A process that, when performed, results in one and only one o…

Outcomes

These observations are called the outcomes of the experiment.

central limit theory

correction for continuity

negatively or left-skewed

positively or right-skewed

theorem that states as the sample size increases, the shape o…

correction used when a continuous distribution is used to app…

distribution where the majority of the data values are to the…

distribution where the majority of the data values are to the…

central limit theory

theorem that states as the sample size increases, the shape o…

correction for continuity

correction used when a continuous distribution is used to app…

Frequency Distribution

Lower Class Limit

Upper Class Limit

Class Width

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Least number that can belong to a class

Greatest number that can belong to a class

Distance between lower and upper limits of a consecutive clas…

Frequency Distribution

Table that shows classes or intervals of data entries with a…

Lower Class Limit

Least number that can belong to a class

Data

Statistics

Population

Census

Collection of observations (such as measurements, genders, su…

The science of planning studies and experiments, obtaining da…

The complete collection of all individuals (score, people, me…

The collection of data from every member of the population.

Data

Collection of observations (such as measurements, genders, su…

Statistics

The science of planning studies and experiments, obtaining da…

binomial distribution

binomial experiment

discrete probability distribution

expected value

outcomes of a binomial experiment and the corresponding proba…

probability experiment in which... 1. each trial has 2 outcomes…

consists of the values of a random variable and the correspon…

theoretical average of a variable that has a probability dist…

binomial distribution

outcomes of a binomial experiment and the corresponding proba…

binomial experiment

probability experiment in which... 1. each trial has 2 outcomes…

categorical frequency distribution

class

class boundaries

class midpoint

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

quantitative or qualitative category

the upper and lower values of a class for a grouped frequency…

value for a class in a grouped frequency distribution obtaine…

categorical frequency distribution

a frequency distribution used when the data are categorical (…

class

quantitative or qualitative category

MEASURE OF CENTER

MEAN (arithmetic mean)

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

NOTATION

value at center or middle of a DATA set

measure of center found by... adding DATA values ... dividing the t…

summarize or describe characteristics of DATA

symbols used for equations

MEASURE OF CENTER

value at center or middle of a DATA set

MEAN (arithmetic mean)

measure of center found by... adding DATA values ... dividing the t…

cluster sample

confounding variable

continuous variables

control group

subjects are selected by using an intact group that is repres…

a variable that influences the dependent or outcome variable…

variables that can assume an infinite number of values betwee…

the group that does not receive special instructions or does…

cluster sample

subjects are selected by using an intact group that is repres…

confounding variable

a variable that influences the dependent or outcome variable…

Q. Statistics

Q. What are the two major areas of sta…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

The Science of conducting studies to: collect, organize, anal…

1.Descriptive Statistics ... 2. Inferential Statistics

Describes a situation; consist of the collection, organizatio…

Consist of generalizing from samples to population, performin…

Q. Statistics

The Science of conducting studies to: collect, organize, anal…

Q. What are the two major areas of sta…

1.Descriptive Statistics ... 2. Inferential Statistics

Two branches of statistics

A group of subjects selected from the…

Consists of all subjects being studied

In a research study, participants shou…

Descriptive and Inferential

sample

population

random

Two branches of statistics

Descriptive and Inferential

A group of subjects selected from the…

sample

Data

statistics

population

sample

consist of information coming from observations, counts, meas…

the science of collecting organizing analyzing and interpreti…

the collection of all outcomes responses measurements or coun…

subset, or part of a populaiton

Data

consist of information coming from observations, counts, meas…

statistics

the science of collecting organizing analyzing and interpreti…

Center

Variation

Distribution

Outliers

A representative value that indicates where the middle of the…

A measure of the amount that the data values vary

The nature or shape of the spread of data over the range of v…

Sample values that lie very far away from the vast majority o…

Center

A representative value that indicates where the middle of the…

Variation

A measure of the amount that the data values vary

Data

Statistics

Population

Census

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, o…

The science of planning studies and experiments, obtaining da…

The complete collection of all measurements or data that are…

Collection of data from every member of a population

Data

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, o…

Statistics

The science of planning studies and experiments, obtaining da…

Individual

Variable

Categorical Variable

Quantitative Variable

an object described by data

characteristic of the individual

places individual into one of several groups or categories

takes numerical value for which arithmetic operations make se…

Individual

an object described by data

Variable

characteristic of the individual

Random Variable

Discrete Random Variable

Continuous Random Variable

Probability Distribution

A numerical measure of the outcome from a probability experim…

Ether a finite or countable number of values. The values of a…

Infinitely many values, the values of a continuous random var…

Provides the possible values of the random variable x and the…

Random Variable

A numerical measure of the outcome from a probability experim…

Discrete Random Variable

Ether a finite or countable number of values. The values of a…

Data

Statistics

Population

Census

observations (measurements or survey response) that has been…

collection of methods for planning surveys and experiments, c…

the complete collection of all objects being studied (ex. all…

data drawn from EVERY member of a population

Data

observations (measurements or survey response) that has been…

Statistics

collection of methods for planning surveys and experiments, c…

Mutually Exclusive Events

Probability of mutually exclusive events

Probability of NOT mutually exclusive…

P(A or B)

If events cannot occur at the same time. They have no outcome…

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B)

Probability of the events are added together. Making sure not…

Mutually Exclusive Events

If events cannot occur at the same time. They have no outcome…

Probability of mutually exclusive events

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

The probability that an event will occur

Sample space

Theoretical probability

Empirical probability

______________________________________ is the relative freque…

The ____________ _________ is the set of all possible outcome…

Is knowledge i.e. samples on a table. it is often denoted as…

The experimental, observational probability. It is often deno…

The probability that an event will occur

______________________________________ is the relative freque…

Sample space

The ____________ _________ is the set of all possible outcome…

Misleading Conclusions

Reported Results

Small Sample

Loaded Questions

Correlation does not imply causation.

Don't rely on the subjects measurements, instead take your own.

the sample size must be big enough, or it will not accurately…

If the survey questions are not worded carefully the results…

Misleading Conclusions

Correlation does not imply causation.

Reported Results

Don't rely on the subjects measurements, instead take your own.

categorical frequency distribution

Frequency (-f-)

n-

Bar Graph

The __________________is used for qualitative data—data that…

_______ is the number of times an item occurs

_____ is the total number of data items

• Has horizontal or vertical bars... • Bars are of uniform width…

categorical frequency distribution

The __________________is used for qualitative data—data that…

Frequency (-f-)

_______ is the number of times an item occurs

Hypothesis

Hypothesis Testing

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypothesis

is a statement regarding a characteristic of one or more popu…

a procedure, based on sample evidence and probability, used t…

denoted H0 (Red "H-naught"), is a statement to be tested. The…

denoted H1 (read "H-one"), is a statement that we are trying…

Hypothesis

is a statement regarding a characteristic of one or more popu…

Hypothesis Testing

a procedure, based on sample evidence and probability, used t…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Population

Finite

the collection, presentation and description of sample data.

the technique of interpreting the values resulting from the d…

a collection, or set, of individuals, objects, or events whos…

a population whose membership can be physically listed (stabl…

Descriptive Statistics

the collection, presentation and description of sample data.

Inferential Statistics

the technique of interpreting the values resulting from the d…

Data

Statistics

Population

Census

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, o…

the science of planning studies and experiments; obtaining da…

the complete collection of all measurements or data that are…

the collection of data from every member of the population

Data

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, o…

Statistics

the science of planning studies and experiments; obtaining da…

range

variance

population variance

sample variance

measure of spread of data set, largest value - smallest value…

small spread: closest to mean... large spread: farther from mean

compute the population mean... subtract this from each value... squ…

compute the sample mean... subtract this from each value... square…

range

measure of spread of data set, largest value - smallest value…

variance

small spread: closest to mean... large spread: farther from mean