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epidemic

pandemic

Epidemiology

Characteristics of epidemiology

The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…

An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…

is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health…

population focus, distribution, determinants, outcomes, quant…

epidemic

The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…

pandemic

An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…

epidemiology (Greek)

epidemiology

population perspective

inferential study

a statement about what is upon the people

study of the distribution and determinants of health-related…

described by person, place, and time

descriptive study

epidemiology (Greek)

a statement about what is upon the people

epidemiology

study of the distribution and determinants of health-related…

Epidemiology

Distribution

Distribution variables

Morbidity

The study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

Refers to how morbidity and mortality is distributed in a giv…

person, place, and time.

illness, disease, injury

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

Distribution

Refers to how morbidity and mortality is distributed in a giv…

Define and describe the discipline of…

Summary of epidemiology

Objectives and activities in epidemiol…

Epidemiology assumptions

Epidemiology is...... A public health-discipline basic science w…

Epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, data drive…

Identify patterns/trends in disease occurrence in... various gro…

Disease occurrence is not random... Systematic investigation of…

Define and describe the discipline of…

Epidemiology is...... A public health-discipline basic science w…

Summary of epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, data drive…

epidemic

pandemic

Epidemiology

Characteristics of epidemiology

The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…

An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…

is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health…

population focus, distribution, determinants, outcomes, quant…

epidemic

The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…

pandemic

An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…

Definition of Epidemiology

Step 1: Define the Disease

Disease Frequency

Distribution of Disease

Epidemiology is defined as "the of the distribution and deter…

Death is easy to determine - death certificates have cause of…

Count number of people with disease and relate to the populat…

Who - sex, age, occupation, race, and economic status... When -…

Definition of Epidemiology

Epidemiology is defined as "the of the distribution and deter…

Step 1: Define the Disease

Death is easy to determine - death certificates have cause of…

Acculturation

Age-specific rates

Attack rate

Bimodal

Modifications that individuals or groups undergo when they co…

Frequency of a disease in a particular age stratum divided by…

An alternative form of the incidence rate that is used when t…

Bimodal distribution may signify two different causal mechani…

Acculturation

Modifications that individuals or groups undergo when they co…

Age-specific rates

Frequency of a disease in a particular age stratum divided by…

epidemiology

distribution

determinants

scope

community medicine

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

Any factor, whether event, characteristic, or other definable…

the range and breadth which epidemiological studies can observe

epidemiology

community medicine

distribution

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

Epidemiology

Distribution

Frequency

Pattern

The study of the distribution and determinants of health-rela…

Frequency and pattern

Number of cases and the relationship this number has to the s…

Cases by person, place, and thing.

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of health-rela…

Distribution

Frequency and pattern

epidemiology

classical epidemiology

clinical epidemiology

infectious disease epidemiology

the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases an…

(more imp. in event) population oriented, studies community o…

studies patients in health care settings in order to improve…

heavily dependent on laboratory support

epidemiology

the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases an…

classical epidemiology

(more imp. in event) population oriented, studies community o…

First Epidemiological study

Snow and the Thames River incident

Epidemiology goals

John Snow

1853/1854

cholera lead to epidemiologic surveillance leading to notifia…

is to prevent disease before people began dying

founding father of modern epidemiology.

First Epidemiological study

1853/1854

Snow and the Thames River incident

cholera lead to epidemiologic surveillance leading to notifia…

epidemiology

distribution

determinants

scope

community medicine

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

Any factor, whether event, characteristic, or other definable…

the range and breadth which epidemiological studies can observe

epidemiology

community medicine

distribution

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

epidemiology

distribution

determinants

scope

community medicine

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

Any factor, whether event, characteristic, or other definable…

the range and breadth which epidemiological studies can observe

epidemiology

community medicine

distribution

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

Incidence rates

Morbidity rates

Mortality rates

Risk

The occurrence of new cases of disease or condition in a comm…

Rates of illness

Birth and death rates

Probability of an adverse event

Incidence rates

The occurrence of new cases of disease or condition in a comm…

Morbidity rates

Rates of illness

epidemiology

distribution

determinants

scope

community medicine

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

Any factor, whether event, characteristic, or other definable…

the range and breadth which epidemiological studies can observe

epidemiology

community medicine

distribution

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

Basic research goal

Clinical research goal

Public health research

Distribution

understand disease mechanisms or effects of toxic substances

improve diagnosis and treatment of disease; prevention of rec…

prevention of disease, promotion of health

who/what/where/when

Basic research goal

understand disease mechanisms or effects of toxic substances

Clinical research goal

improve diagnosis and treatment of disease; prevention of rec…

public health

3 scientific basis of public health

epidemiology

objectives of epidemiology: 5

goal: promote the health of the population through organized…

pathology and toxicology, internal medicine, epidemiology

study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequen…

study course of disease,... determine extent,... identify pattern…

public health

goal: promote the health of the population through organized…

3 scientific basis of public health

pathology and toxicology, internal medicine, epidemiology

portal of exit definition

exits

portal of exits

Epidemiology

when pathogen leaves the host body

Respiratory = nose.... Gastrointestinal = anus.... STD pathogens =…

Respiratory.... Salivary.... Skin.... Fecal.... Urogenital.... Blood.

the study of disease in populations. CDC (Center of Disease C…

portal of exit definition

when pathogen leaves the host body

exits

Respiratory = nose.... Gastrointestinal = anus.... STD pathogens =…

Public Health

Public Health Professional

10 Great Public Health achievements 19…

Disciplines of Public Health

The science of protecting and improving the heath of communit…

analyze effects of genetics, personal choice and environment…

1. Vaccination... 2. Motor Safety... 3. Safer work places... 4. Contro…

- Basic sciences ... - Clinical sciences... - Public Health/communi…

Public Health

The science of protecting and improving the heath of communit…

Public Health Professional

analyze effects of genetics, personal choice and environment…

Nsg and epidemiology

Epidemiology

The principle science of public health

Two epidemiology methods

Promoting and preserving the health of populations

Study of the distribution and determinants of health and dise…

Epidemiology

Descriptive... Analytic

Nsg and epidemiology

Promoting and preserving the health of populations

Epidemiology

Study of the distribution and determinants of health and dise…

Public Health

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

Kaposi's Sarcoma

Epidemiology

Multidisciplinary field whose goal is to promote the health o…

A chiefly affecting immune optimized individuals that is caus…

Tumor caused by infection with Human Herpesvirus 8.

The study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

Public Health

Multidisciplinary field whose goal is to promote the health o…

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

A chiefly affecting immune optimized individuals that is caus…

epidemiology

John Snow

clinical medicine

population medicine

the study of the distribution and determinants of health and…

father of epidemiology

focuses on teh care of individuals; secondary and tertiary pr…

focuses on the community; includes people at risk for develop…

epidemiology

the study of the distribution and determinants of health and…

John Snow

father of epidemiology

Epidemiology

disease

disease frequency

definition, counting system, calculati…

"The study of the distribution and determinants of... disease fr…

This is defined as health-related states and events... including…

Epidemiology defines this measure as one that identifies and…

What are the three components necessary to calculate disease…

Epidemiology

"The study of the distribution and determinants of... disease fr…

disease

This is defined as health-related states and events... including…

Epidemiology

3 elements of epidemiology

John Snow

Disease mapping

study of disease; include the exam of factors that affect the…

person (groups affected), place (where affected), time (how l…

important name in epidemiology; founder of modern epidemiolog…

frequency distribution of number of deaths, location of death…

Epidemiology

study of disease; include the exam of factors that affect the…

3 elements of epidemiology

person (groups affected), place (where affected), time (how l…

Practical Applications of Epidemiology

Epidemiologic Reasoning

Epidemiology

Epidemiological Transition

Description of Health Status of Various populations and its c…

Frequency - Quantification of disease... Distribution - who, whe…

The study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

Leading Causes of Death in the early 20th century: Pneumonia,…

Practical Applications of Epidemiology

Description of Health Status of Various populations and its c…

Epidemiologic Reasoning

Frequency - Quantification of disease... Distribution - who, whe…

epidemiology

frequency

distribution

determinant

the study of the **frequency**, **distribution** and *determinant…

measure of disease frequency which involves **quantification**…

derives from frequency & distribution of the disease; both ar…

epidemiology

the study of the **frequency**, **distribution** and *determinant…

frequency

measure of disease frequency which involves **quantification**…

epidemiology

distribution

determinants

scope

community medicine

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

Any factor, whether event, characteristic, or other definable…

the range and breadth which epidemiological studies can observe

epidemiology

community medicine

distribution

the frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics a…

epidemiology

epidemiological reasoning

epidemiological distribution (great 3)

epidemiologic transition

the study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

frequency, distribution, determinants

person place time

leading causes of death went from preventable diseases to chr…

epidemiology

the study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

epidemiological reasoning

frequency, distribution, determinants

Epidemiology

experimental, cohort, case control stu…

Public Health

data

considered the foundation or "cornerstone" for public health

3 main analytic designs

multidisciplinary field whose goal is to promote the health o…

Gives epidemiologists a basis for prioritizing

Epidemiology

considered the foundation or "cornerstone" for public health

experimental, cohort, case control stu…

3 main analytic designs

In which type of epidemiology do you c…

What are the three types of cohort stu…

Name some examples of descriptive obse…

Name some examples of observational an…

analytic

prospective, retrospective, historical prospective

cross-sectional, single case report, case series

case-control, cohort

In which type of epidemiology do you c…

analytic

What are the three types of cohort stu…

prospective, retrospective, historical prospective

Definition of Epidemiology

Assumptions of epidemiology

Six Uses of Epidemiology

define population

the study of distribution and determinants of health -related…

1. disease does not occur at random... 2. diseases have boh caus…

1. study history of the health of populations... 2. diagnose the…

a group of people with a common characteristic such as a plac…

Definition of Epidemiology

the study of distribution and determinants of health -related…

Assumptions of epidemiology

1. disease does not occur at random... 2. diseases have boh caus…

Epidemiology

Distribution

Determinants

Deterrents

The study of the distribution, determinants, and deterrents o…

- Refers to this of morbidity and mortality in a population.…

- Why the morbidity or mortality is occurring... - Often answere…

- Utilizing the information gleaned from collected data, what…

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution, determinants, and deterrents o…

Distribution

- Refers to this of morbidity and mortality in a population.…

What is health?

What are the 6 dimensions of health?

What is public health?

Population is:

Absence of illness

1. Physical ... 2. Social... 3. Mental... 4. Emotional... 5. Spiritual... 6.…

The science and art of promoting health and extending life on…

a collection of individuals that share one or more characteri…

What is health?

Absence of illness

What are the 6 dimensions of health?

1. Physical ... 2. Social... 3. Mental... 4. Emotional... 5. Spiritual... 6.…

Epidemiology

prevalence

apparent causes

incidence

study of diseases in groups or populations through the collec…

the number of cases in a population at a specific time.

determinants and indicators

the number of new cases in population

Epidemiology

study of diseases in groups or populations through the collec…

prevalence

the number of cases in a population at a specific time.

Incidence

Prevalence

Case Fatality Rate

Risk factor

The number of new cases per person per unit of time

The proportion of the population at a given time that has a c…

Ratio of fatal cases to total cases

A definable element of exposure that captures at least one pa…

Incidence

The number of new cases per person per unit of time

Prevalence

The proportion of the population at a given time that has a c…

What is epidemiology?

What is incidence rate?

What is prevalence rate?

What is mortality rate?

Study of determinants, dynamics and distribution of disease i…

Measure of disease frequency in a population over a specific…

Measure of disease frequency at a particular time... PR = # cas…

% of animals of a sick population that die from a particular…

What is epidemiology?

Study of determinants, dynamics and distribution of disease i…

What is incidence rate?

Measure of disease frequency in a population over a specific…

Descriptive Epidemiology

Analytical Epidemiology

Descriptive Epidemiology Disease rates

Crude Disease Rates

Used to identify a health problem that may exist... -Characteriz…

Follow descriptive studies and are used to identify the cause…

-Crude/unadjusted... -Category specific/stratified... -Adjusted/sta…

Crude heart disease mortality rates for all Missouri resident…

Descriptive Epidemiology

Used to identify a health problem that may exist... -Characteriz…

Analytical Epidemiology

Follow descriptive studies and are used to identify the cause…

Ratio (R) Equation

Rate (r)* Equation

Proportion (p)

Ratio Definition

R = X/Y

r = X/(delta)t

P = A/(A+B)

Both numerator and denominator refer to the frequency of some…

Ratio (R) Equation

R = X/Y

Rate (r)* Equation

r = X/(delta)t

Epidemiology Definition

Descriptive epidemiology

Determinants

Epidemiologic Research Assumes

the study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

-characterizes health events into terms of time, place, and p…

-characteristic that influences whether or not disease occurs…

-disease occurrence is not random... -systematic investigation o…

Epidemiology Definition

the study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

Descriptive epidemiology

-characterizes health events into terms of time, place, and p…

Epidemiology

Frequency

Pattern

Descriptive epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of health-rela…

The number of health related events and the relationship to t…

The occurrence of health-related events discussed in terms of…

Characterizing health events in terms of TPP

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of health-rela…

Frequency

The number of health related events and the relationship to t…

cohort study

agent

endemic

Environment

Individuals are classified into groups according to having a…

a biological physical or chemical entity capable of causing d…

The constant presence or the usual prevalence of a disease wi…

The sum of all the conditions and elements that make up the s…

cohort study

Individuals are classified into groups according to having a…

agent

a biological physical or chemical entity capable of causing d…

Epidemiology

Frequency

Pattern

Descriptive epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of health-rela…

The number of health related events and the relationship to t…

The occurrence of health-related events discussed in terms of…

Characterizing health events in terms of TPP

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of health-rela…

Frequency

The number of health related events and the relationship to t…

epidemic

pandemic

Epidemiology

Characteristics of epidemiology

The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…

An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…

the distribution and determinants of health and diseases, mor…

population focus, distribution, determinants, outcomes, quant…

epidemic

The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illnes…

pandemic

An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, cr…

Incidence

Prevalence

Case Fatality Rate

Risk factor

The number of new cases per person per unit of time

The proportion of the population at a given time that has a c…

Ratio of fatal cases to total cases

A definable element of exposure that captures at least one pa…

Incidence

The number of new cases per person per unit of time

Prevalence

The proportion of the population at a given time that has a c…

epidemiology

epidemic

outbreak

endemic

study of distribution and determinants of disease frequency

occurrence of cases exceeding the prevalence in a region/comm…

localized disease epidemic

usual prevalence of a disease with in a population or area, p…

epidemiology

study of distribution and determinants of disease frequency

epidemic

occurrence of cases exceeding the prevalence in a region/comm…

Part I

What are the three major categories of…

What is the definition of epidemiology?

T/F epidemiology is mostly concerned w…

...

1. Basic sciences... 2. Clinical sciences... 3. Population medicine

Study of distribution and determinants of diseases and injuri…

False - interested in groups

Part I

...

What are the three major categories of…

1. Basic sciences... 2. Clinical sciences... 3. Population medicine

Definition

Origin of the word

Distribution

Variables often described in Distribut…

Study of DISTRIBUTION,DETERMINATION and DETERRENTS of Morbidi…

Derived from Greek word "epi" means on or upon... "demos" means…

Refers to How MORBIDITY(illness,disease,injury etc) and MORTA…

describes the frequency and pattern of morbidity and mortalit…

Definition

Study of DISTRIBUTION,DETERMINATION and DETERRENTS of Morbidi…

Origin of the word

Derived from Greek word "epi" means on or upon... "demos" means…

What is epidemiology?

Epidemiological Reasoning

Frequency

Distribution

The study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

Frequency, Distribution, Determinants

Quantification of a disease

Who, Where, and when is getting the disease

What is epidemiology?

The study of the distribution and determinants of disease fre…

Epidemiological Reasoning

Frequency, Distribution, Determinants

purposes of epidemiology

epidemiology

distribution frequency prevalence

distribution frequency incidence

quantify magnitude of health problems... identify factors that a…

the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in…

number of people in a population with the disease or conditio…

number of new occurrences of a disease or condition in a popu…

purposes of epidemiology

quantify magnitude of health problems... identify factors that a…

epidemiology

the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in…