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Study sets matching "term:gene regulation = ability of cells to control their level of gene expression"

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Study sets matching "term:gene regulation = ability of cells to control their level of gene expression"

32 terms
10: Control of Gene Expression: Gene Regulation & Cell Specialization
Cell Memory
How do BAC complete DNA rearrangement?
How does DNA rearrange in Salmonella
What set of GRP's determine cell type…
Remembering changes in gene expression involved in differenti…
Inversion mediate phase variation
-Alternating transcription of 2 flagellin genes caused by sim…
Mat-alpha1, Mat-alpha2, Mata1 produced by Mat locus (determin…
Cell Memory
Remembering changes in gene expression involved in differenti…
How do BAC complete DNA rearrangement?
Inversion mediate phase variation
How do Eukaryotic Cells Regulate their Gene Expression? (Exam 4)
What are the levels of Eukaryotes Regu…
*1. Regulation of gene expression by c…
What is chromatin?
When does chromatin become visible und…
Chromatin Structure... Transcription... mRNA processing... mRNA stabil…
chromatin remodeling
Chromatin is what makes eukaryotic chromosomes... *DNA + Protei…
When they condense heavily in prophase
What are the levels of Eukaryotes Regu…
Chromatin Structure... Transcription... mRNA processing... mRNA stabil…
*1. Regulation of gene expression by c…
chromatin remodeling
40 terms
How do eukaryotic cells regulate their gene expression?
What are the 6 different levels that e…
Regulation of gene expression by chang…
what is chromatin?
what is chromatin made of?
-chromatin structure... -transcription... -mRNA processing... -mRNA st…
chromatin remodeling
chromatin is the material that makes eukaryotic chromosomes
DNA double helix+proteins
What are the 6 different levels that e…
-chromatin structure... -transcription... -mRNA processing... -mRNA st…
Regulation of gene expression by chang…
chromatin remodeling
8 terms
11. Difference between repressible and inducible operons and how positive gene regulation can control expression levels.
operon
promoter
RNA polymerase
operator
unit of genetic function found in bacteria... consists of promo…
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase…
binds to promoters in bacteria and transcribes the coding reg…
Regulatory proteins bind here to control expression of the op…
operon
unit of genetic function found in bacteria... consists of promo…
promoter
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase…
8 terms
11. Difference between repressible and inducible operons and how positive gene regulation can control expression levels.
operon
promoter
RNA polymerase
operator
unit of genetic function found in bacteria... consists of promo…
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase…
binds to promoters in bacteria and transcribes the coding reg…
Regulatory proteins bind here to control expression of the op…
operon
unit of genetic function found in bacteria... consists of promo…
promoter
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase…
9 terms
Control of Gene Expression
gene regulation
gene expression
promoter
operator
the turning on and off of genes; control of which genes are b…
overall process by which genetic information flows from genes…
site on a DNA strand that precedes a gene, where the RNA poly…
a DNA control sequence between the promoter and the genes tha…
gene regulation
the turning on and off of genes; control of which genes are b…
gene expression
overall process by which genetic information flows from genes…
25 terms
CH 15: Regulation of Gene Expression
operator
operon
repressor
regulatory gene
a piece of DNA which dictates when a transcription unit can b…
the entire length of DNA needed for enzyme production, includ…
a protein (specific to a particular operon) that binds to the…
a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that co…
operator
a piece of DNA which dictates when a transcription unit can b…
operon
the entire length of DNA needed for enzyme production, includ…
78 terms
Control of Gene Expression
What is an exon?
What is an intron?
What is a UTR?
Because of need for speed in prokaryot…
Expressed segment of genome
Intervening sequence of genome
Untranslated region... Found on both the 5' and 3' ends of mRNA…
1) No nucleus... 2) No introns... 3) mRNA is translated whilst stil…
What is an exon?
Expressed segment of genome
What is an intron?
Intervening sequence of genome
29 terms
Control of Gene Expression
totipotent
pluripotent
embryonic stem cells
adult stem cells
a cell that can develop into any cell of the embryo or the ex…
a type of cell that can develop into any type of embryonic ce…
a cell that can develop into any type of embryonic cell
cells in adult tissues that can develop into several differen…
totipotent
a cell that can develop into any cell of the embryo or the ex…
pluripotent
a type of cell that can develop into any type of embryonic ce…
34 terms
chapter control of gene expression
gene expression
differentiaton
control protein
transcription regulator
cells selectively direct the synthesis of proteins and RNAs e…
arise cells make and accumulate different sets of RNA and pro…
1. controlling (when, how ) are transcribed... 2. Control RNA tr…
- Regulator DNA sequences don't work by themselves. acts as a…
gene expression
cells selectively direct the synthesis of proteins and RNAs e…
differentiaton
arise cells make and accumulate different sets of RNA and pro…
26 terms
Chapter 13: Regulation of Gene Expression
Barr body
carcinogen
chromatin
DNA repair enzyme
Dark-staining body (discovered by M. Barr) in the nuclei of f…
Environmental agent that causes mutations leading to the ... dev…
Network of DNA strands and associated proteins observed ... with…
One of several enzymes that restore the original base sequenc…
Barr body
Dark-staining body (discovered by M. Barr) in the nuclei of f…
carcinogen
Environmental agent that causes mutations leading to the ... dev…
67 terms
Ch. 8 - Control of Gene Expression
cell memory
combinatorial control
differentiation
by synthesizing a different set of RNA…
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
Process by which a cell undergoes a progressive, coordinated…
how do cells differentiate themselves?
cell memory
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
combinatorial control
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
42 terms
Regulation of gene expression
Prokaryotic DNA has ONLY
Operon
Genes get expressed in response to
Operons controlled by ?
Operon , Eukaryotes DONT HAVE IT
Cluster of genes under the control of single promoter
environment and nutrient availability , that's how they regul…
Single promoter -sequence in DNA that directs specific bindin…
Prokaryotic DNA has ONLY
Operon , Eukaryotes DONT HAVE IT
Operon
Cluster of genes under the control of single promoter
63 terms
Cell Bio Chapter 8 Control of Gene Expression
Totipotency
Specification
Determination
Specification Determination
cell contains "total" potential to become any cell in the org…
cell fate is "biased" ... detected by gene expression ... "pattern…
cell fate is "fixed" no further instructions needed... can beco…
How a single cell goes from a cell to a complex multicellular…
Totipotency
cell contains "total" potential to become any cell in the org…
Specification
cell fate is "biased" ... detected by gene expression ... "pattern…
39 terms
Chapter 18, Regulation of Gene Expression, Campbell 8e
Feedback Inhibition
Operator
Operon
Repressor
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a m…
In bacterial DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of…
A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, con…
A protein that inhibits gene transcription; in prokaryotes, r…
Feedback Inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a m…
Operator
In bacterial DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of…
148 terms
Chapter 18 regulation of gene expression
transcription
many
Promoter / TATA box
metabolism
Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating…
Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at __________ stages
The binding site of RNA polymerase
Cells control __________ by regulating enzyme activity or the…
transcription
Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating…
many
Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at __________ stages
9 terms
Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
26) Which of the following statements…
In principle, a eukaryotic cell can re…
The genes of a bacterial ____________…
Many bacterial promoters contain a reg…
(d) Some of the proteins found in differentiated cells are fo…
A. translation control... B. transcriptional control... C. RNA proc…
operon
operator
26) Which of the following statements…
(d) Some of the proteins found in differentiated cells are fo…
In principle, a eukaryotic cell can re…
A. translation control... B. transcriptional control... C. RNA proc…
9 terms
Gene Regulation (How is Gene Expression Regulated in Eukaryotic Cells?)
1. Name the levels at which gene expre…
2. Regarding DNA compaction and gene e…
3. Regarding transcription in eukaryot…
4. Explain the function of DNA regions…
Eukaryotic genes: Transcription (Most Important). RNA process…
(1) This is only found in the G2 stage, when the cell is prep…
(1)... (2) TATA box: crucial to the initiation of transcription…
Fine tune transcription rate of the adjacent gene. Control ov…
1. Name the levels at which gene expre…
Eukaryotic genes: Transcription (Most Important). RNA process…
2. Regarding DNA compaction and gene e…
(1) This is only found in the G2 stage, when the cell is prep…
Control of Gene Expression
Gene Expression
Genome
Structural Gene
Operator
the manifestation of the Genetic material of an organism in t…
the complete genetic material contained in an individual or s…
a Gene that Codes for a product, such as an enzyme, protein,…
a short sequence of viral or bacterial DNA to which a repress…
Gene Expression
the manifestation of the Genetic material of an organism in t…
Genome
the complete genetic material contained in an individual or s…
24 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression (Chapter 11)
Gene Regulation
Constitutive Genes
When is gene expression regulated?
Promoter
Ability of cells to control the level and time of gene expres…
Genes that are not regulated and are expressed most of the ti…
Before or during transcription, before or during translation,…
Site where RNA polymerase binds and is usually involved in th…
Gene Regulation
Ability of cells to control the level and time of gene expres…
Constitutive Genes
Genes that are not regulated and are expressed most of the ti…
21 terms
Control of Gene Expression
cell memory
combinatorial control
differentiaition
DNA methylation
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
Process by which a cell undergoes a progressive, coordinated…
The enzymatic addition of methyl groups to cytosine bases in…
cell memory
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
combinatorial control
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
23 terms
Cell Biology Chapter 8 Control of Gene Expression Flash Cards
Cell Memory
Combinatorial Control
Differentiation
DNA Methylation
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
Process by which a cell undergoes a progressive, coordinated…
The enzymatic addition of methyl groups to cytosine bases in…
Cell Memory
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
Combinatorial Control
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
40 terms
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
operator
operon
repressor
regulatory gene
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor bind…
a unit of gene regulation and transcription in bacterial DNA…
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off…
a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that co…
operator
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor bind…
operon
a unit of gene regulation and transcription in bacterial DNA…
58 terms
18 Regulation of Gene Expression
activator
Alternative RNA Splicing
Bicoid
Control Element
a protein that binds to DNA and stimulates gene transcription…
a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing le…
a maternal effect gene that codes for a protein responsible f…
a segment of noncoding DNA that helps regulate transcription…
activator
a protein that binds to DNA and stimulates gene transcription…
Alternative RNA Splicing
a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing le…
10 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
Define DNA regulatory sequences
gene regulatory proteins
define enhancer
repressor
segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increa…
Any protein that influences the regions of a DNA molecule tha…
a short (50-1500 bp) region of DNA that can be bound by prote…
a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits th…
Define DNA regulatory sequences
segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increa…
gene regulatory proteins
Any protein that influences the regions of a DNA molecule tha…
49 terms
Micro Unit C: Chapter 13: Regulation of Gene Expression
Housekeeping Genes
Constitutive genes
Regulatory Proteins
Negative effect regulatory proteins
genes that are needed for regular vegitative processes
housekeeping genes that are expressed continuously
only expressed when needed
inhibit transcription, bindin go protein to DNA to inhibit in…
Housekeeping Genes
genes that are needed for regular vegitative processes
Constitutive genes
housekeeping genes that are expressed continuously
25 terms
regulation of bacterial gene expression part 2
second layer of lac operon control ... c…
carbon catabolite repression
catabolite repression using cyclic AMP…
CAMP
lac operon uses glucose first, then uses lactose when there i…
this is transcription level inhibition of the lac operon (and…
CAMP= second messenger ... CRP= catabolite repressor protein ... C…
is synthesised by adenylyl cylases... magnesium is a cofactor…
second layer of lac operon control ... c…
lac operon uses glucose first, then uses lactose when there i…
carbon catabolite repression
this is transcription level inhibition of the lac operon (and…
42 terms
Regulation of gene expression
Prokaryotic DNA has ONLY
Operon
Genes get expressed in response to
Operons controlled by ?
Operon , Eukaryotes DONT HAVE IT
Cluster of genes under the control of single promoter
environment and nutrient availability , that's how they regul…
Single promoter -sequence in DNA that directs specific bindin…
Prokaryotic DNA has ONLY
Operon , Eukaryotes DONT HAVE IT
Operon
Cluster of genes under the control of single promoter
7 terms
Lugo Biology 13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression
operon
operator
RNA interference
differentiation
group of genes operating together
In an operon, the binding site for the repressor
Blocking gene expression by means of an miRNA silencing compl…
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and fu…
operon
group of genes operating together
operator
In an operon, the binding site for the repressor
19 terms
Regulation of Gene Regulation
gene regulation
majority of genes are regulated
saves energy
constitutive genes
cells have the ability to control their level of gene express…
ensures that proteins are produced at the correct time and in…
only produces what is needed
unregulated and have constant levels of expression
gene regulation
cells have the ability to control their level of gene express…
majority of genes are regulated
ensures that proteins are produced at the correct time and in…
57 terms
Control of gene expression
Prokaryotes utilize these things to co…
Eukaryotes use these things to control…
E. coli uses____________ as its prefer…
Three proteins are normally reperssed…
Lac operons, cAMP receptor proteins, and regulatory proteins…
helix-turn-helix... Zn finger... Leucin zipper/bZIp... Basic, regulati…
glucose, constitutively, not available, induced
B-galatosidase(gene Z product)... Galtocidase permease (gene Y)…
Prokaryotes utilize these things to co…
Lac operons, cAMP receptor proteins, and regulatory proteins…
Eukaryotes use these things to control…
helix-turn-helix... Zn finger... Leucin zipper/bZIp... Basic, regulati…
27 terms
control of gene expression in prokaryotes
transacting factors
cis acing DNA sequences
structural gene
regulator genes
genes that code for protein or Trna and rRNA, the product of…
DNA is not translated or transcribed, instead it works on adj…
gene that codes for RNA, translated into protein other than r…
codes for a protein that controls the expression go other gen…
transacting factors
genes that code for protein or Trna and rRNA, the product of…
cis acing DNA sequences
DNA is not translated or transcribed, instead it works on adj…
31 terms
Chapter 12: Regulation of Gene Expression
Gene Regulation
2 Approaches to Regulating Cell Activity
Operon
Tryptophan
The ability of an organism to control which genes are transcr…
-Turn off/turn on enzymes to control cell activity... -Alter exp…
An operator (on/off switch) to which a repressor can bind... -A…
A co-repressor... -Binds to repressor and turns on repressor pro…
Gene Regulation
The ability of an organism to control which genes are transcr…
2 Approaches to Regulating Cell Activity
-Turn off/turn on enzymes to control cell activity... -Alter exp…
56 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
operator
operon
repressor protein
corepressor
"on-off switch"
the entire stretch of DNA-incl. operator, promoter, and genes…
binds to operator & blocks RNAP (which binds to promoter) THU…
repressor prtotein's buddy; binds to repressor & activates re…
operator
"on-off switch"
operon
the entire stretch of DNA-incl. operator, promoter, and genes…
58 terms
Chapter 11 Regulation Of Gene Expression
Gene Expression
Constitutive proteins
Inducible Genes
Genes can be regulated at the level of ?
Is tightly regulated.... Maybe modified to counteract environmen…
Are actively expressed all the time.
Are expressed only when their proteins are needed by the cell.
Transcription.
Gene Expression
Is tightly regulated.... Maybe modified to counteract environmen…
Constitutive proteins
Are actively expressed all the time.
67 terms
Control of Gene Expression
6 Steps at which eukaryotic eukaryotic…
Genes consist of..... -what are the 2 pro…
How do TFs bind to DNA?... Do they open t…
What is one of the simplest/most commo…
DNA => 1) Transcriptional control - genes are turned on or ke…
1) an ORF - encodes the protein... 2) Promoter/gene regulatory s…
-not covalently, but interacts with surface of DNA ... -bind to…
helix-turn-helix ... -needed for interaction of TF with DNA ... -re…
6 Steps at which eukaryotic eukaryotic…
DNA => 1) Transcriptional control - genes are turned on or ke…
Genes consist of..... -what are the 2 pro…
1) an ORF - encodes the protein... 2) Promoter/gene regulatory s…
115 terms
12 Control of Gene Expression
constitively expressesd
conditionally expressed
Why?
How?
gene products produced at all times
gene products active only under certain conditions
to save energy, because they do not need all the gens all the…
repress some genes
constitively expressesd
gene products produced at all times
conditionally expressed
gene products active only under certain conditions
45 terms
Lecture 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
Cell speciation =...
characteristics of gene expression
cells will ________ & _________ a lot…
all cells in the embryo/adult contain…
GENE EXPRESSION
- all cells in the embryo/adult contain the SAME GENOMIC DNA…
- LOOK... - BEHAVE
genomic DNA sequences
Cell speciation =...
GENE EXPRESSION
characteristics of gene expression
- all cells in the embryo/adult contain the SAME GENOMIC DNA…
60 terms
Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
Are different genes expressed at diffe…
What dictates which genes are expresse…
Time and expression of genes
It is hypothesized that we rarely use…
yes
regulatory mechanisms
some genes are expressed all the time, others for a short tim…
five to ten percent
Are different genes expressed at diffe…
yes
What dictates which genes are expresse…
regulatory mechanisms
52 terms
Chapter 11: Regulation of Gene Expression
constitutive expression
inducible expression
allosteric inhibition
covalent modification
constant expression of genes that encode products always need…
expression of genes that encode products only when they are n…
inhibition of enzyme action by an effector molecule that bind…
regulation of enzyme action by addition of a chemical entity…
constitutive expression
constant expression of genes that encode products always need…
inducible expression
expression of genes that encode products only when they are n…
34 terms
Chapter 15- Regulation of Gene Expression
Prokaryote gene regulation
Negative Gene control
Inducible Operon
Lac operon
turning on/ off operons saves energy and resources... Operons ar…
- Inducible Operon... - Repressible Operon
- Regulatory gene produces a repressor protein that is normal…
- inducible operon... - Allolactose (present when lactose is pre…
Prokaryote gene regulation
turning on/ off operons saves energy and resources... Operons ar…
Negative Gene control
- Inducible Operon... - Repressible Operon
120 terms
The Regulation (control) of Gene Expression
In eukaryotes, development ( the trans…
what does cell with a nucleus contain ?
Selective use of a subset of genes are…
Catabolic and anabolic pathways are re…
(1) cell division- increase in cell numbers (2) cell differen…
a full set of genes, but not all genes are used
the regulation (control) of gene expression
Induction and repression respectively
In eukaryotes, development ( the trans…
(1) cell division- increase in cell numbers (2) cell differen…
what does cell with a nucleus contain ?
a full set of genes, but not all genes are used
82 terms
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
In response to chemical signals, proka…
What would occur if the repressor of a…
A lack of this nonprotein molecule wou…
The lactose operon is likely to be tra…
can turn off translation of their mRNA
Continuous transcription of the operon's genes
corepressor (nonprotein molecule)
the cyclic amp and lactose levels are both high in the cell.
In response to chemical signals, proka…
can turn off translation of their mRNA
What would occur if the repressor of a…
Continuous transcription of the operon's genes
60 terms
Campbell Biology Chapter 18. Regulation of Gene Expression
alternative RNA splicing
embryonic lethal
p53 gene
operon
a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing le…
a mutation with a phenotype leading to death of an embryo or…
a tumor-suppressor gene that codes for a specific transcripti…
a unit of genetic function found in bacteria and phages, cons…
alternative RNA splicing
a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing le…
embryonic lethal
a mutation with a phenotype leading to death of an embryo or…
23 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
What carries out the methylation of DN…
Where are most CpG islands located?
How are CpG islands involved in gene r…
Which histone modification leads to ch…
DNA methyltransferases, SAM is a cofactor
promoter region
methylation at cytosines in CpG silences gene expression
deactylation by HDACs
What carries out the methylation of DN…
DNA methyltransferases, SAM is a cofactor
Where are most CpG islands located?
promoter region
Regulation of gene expression
Pioneer factors
Transcription factors bind to
DNA looping
Zinc finger
transcription factors that bind condensed chromatin
Elements (enhancers, silencers); interact with corepressors o…
Transcription factor class;
Pioneer factors
transcription factors that bind condensed chromatin
Transcription factors bind to
Elements (enhancers, silencers); interact with corepressors o…
34 terms
Chapter 18: Control of gene expression
control of gene expression
prokaryotic gene regulation
regulation of a metabolic pathway
operon
-pro and euk alter gene expresion in response to changing env…
-gene expression reflects their life history... -NS favours bact…
-cells can regulate production of enzymes by feedback inhibit…
a cluster of prok genes and DNA seq involved in their regulat…
control of gene expression
-pro and euk alter gene expresion in response to changing env…
prokaryotic gene regulation
-gene expression reflects their life history... -NS favours bact…
43 terms
Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression
Differential expression of genes
Gene regulation
Operon model
On-Off switch
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes precisely regulate gene expression…
A cell can regulate the production of enzymes by feedback inh…
One mechanism for control of gene expression in bacteria is t…
A cluster of functionally related genes can be coordinately c…
Differential expression of genes
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes precisely regulate gene expression…
Gene regulation
A cell can regulate the production of enzymes by feedback inh…
21 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression 2
Eukaryotes use DNA control sequences c…
3 domains of steroid receptors (type o…
Steroid receptors bind to DNA sequence…
_____ is a stress hormone made in adre…
response elements
1. recognize and bind to specific response element in DNA... 2.…
hormone response elements (ex. estrogen : estrogen response e…
cortisol... amino acids... lipids
Eukaryotes use DNA control sequences c…
response elements
3 domains of steroid receptors (type o…
1. recognize and bind to specific response element in DNA... 2.…
24 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
Gene transcription regulation in proka…
Levels of gene expression in eukaryotes
Classic Regulation Schemes
Lac operon structure (prokaryotic)
Prokaryotes: genes regulated ONLY at the level of transcrip…
Chromatin structure (pre-transcription): alterations of str…
Inducible System... System is turned on in presence of the mol…
Pi: promoter for regulatory gene... i: regulatory gene (i)…
Gene transcription regulation in proka…
Prokaryotes: genes regulated ONLY at the level of transcrip…
Levels of gene expression in eukaryotes
Chromatin structure (pre-transcription): alterations of str…
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