Study sets matching "term:gene regulation = ability of cells to control their level of gene expression"

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Study sets matching "term:gene regulation = ability of cells to control their level of gene expression"

10: Control of Gene Expression: Gene Regulation & Cell Specialization
Cell Memory
How do BAC complete DNA rearrangement?
How does DNA rearrange in Salmonella
What set of GRP's determine cell type…
Remembering changes in gene expression involved in differenti…
Inversion mediate phase variation
-Alternating transcription of 2 flagellin genes caused by sim…
Mat-alpha1, Mat-alpha2, Mata1 produced by Mat locus (determin…
Cell Memory
Remembering changes in gene expression involved in differenti…
How do BAC complete DNA rearrangement?
Inversion mediate phase variation
How do Eukaryotic Cells Regulate their Gene Expression? (Exam 4)
What are the levels of Eukaryotes Regu…
*1. Regulation of gene expression by c…
What is chromatin?
When does chromatin become visible und…
Chromatin Structure... Transcription... mRNA processing... mRNA stabil…
chromatin remodeling
Chromatin is what makes eukaryotic chromosomes... *DNA + Protei…
When they condense heavily in prophase
What are the levels of Eukaryotes Regu…
Chromatin Structure... Transcription... mRNA processing... mRNA stabil…
*1. Regulation of gene expression by c…
chromatin remodeling
How do eukaryotic cells regulate their gene expression?
What are the 6 different levels that e…
Regulation of gene expression by chang…
what is chromatin?
what is chromatin made of?
-chromatin structure... -transcription... -mRNA processing... -mRNA st…
chromatin remodeling
chromatin is the material that makes eukaryotic chromosomes
DNA double helix+proteins
What are the 6 different levels that e…
-chromatin structure... -transcription... -mRNA processing... -mRNA st…
Regulation of gene expression by chang…
chromatin remodeling
8 terms
11. Difference between repressible and inducible operons and how positive gene regulation can control expression levels.
operon
promoter
RNA polymerase
operator
unit of genetic function found in bacteria... consists of promo…
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase…
binds to promoters in bacteria and transcribes the coding reg…
Regulatory proteins bind here to control expression of the op…
operon
unit of genetic function found in bacteria... consists of promo…
promoter
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase…
11. Difference between repressible and inducible operons and how positive gene regulation can control expression levels.
operon
promoter
RNA polymerase
operator
unit of genetic function found in bacteria... consists of promo…
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase…
binds to promoters in bacteria and transcribes the coding reg…
Regulatory proteins bind here to control expression of the op…
operon
unit of genetic function found in bacteria... consists of promo…
promoter
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase…
Chapter 18 regulation of gene expression
transcription
many
Promoter / TATA box
metabolism
Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating…
Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at __________ stages
The binding site of RNA polymerase
Cells control __________ by regulating enzyme activity or the…
transcription
Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating…
many
Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at __________ stages
9 terms
Control of Gene Expression
gene regulation
gene expression
promoter
operator
the turning on and off of genes; control of which genes are b…
overall process by which genetic information flows from genes…
site on a DNA strand that precedes a gene, where the RNA poly…
a DNA control sequence between the promoter and the genes tha…
gene regulation
the turning on and off of genes; control of which genes are b…
gene expression
overall process by which genetic information flows from genes…
25 terms
CH 15: Regulation of Gene Expression
operator
operon
repressor
regulatory gene
a piece of DNA which dictates when a transcription unit can b…
the entire length of DNA needed for enzyme production, includ…
a protein (specific to a particular operon) that binds to the…
a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that co…
operator
a piece of DNA which dictates when a transcription unit can b…
operon
the entire length of DNA needed for enzyme production, includ…
29 terms
Control of Gene Expression
totipotent
pluripotent
embryonic stem cells
adult stem cells
a cell that can develop into any cell of the embryo or the ex…
a type of cell that can develop into any type of embryonic ce…
a cell that can develop into any type of embryonic cell
cells in adult tissues that can develop into several differen…
totipotent
a cell that can develop into any cell of the embryo or the ex…
pluripotent
a type of cell that can develop into any type of embryonic ce…
26 terms
Chapter 13: Regulation of Gene Expression
Barr body
carcinogen
chromatin
DNA repair enzyme
Dark-staining body (discovered by M. Barr) in the nuclei of f…
Environmental agent that causes mutations leading to the ... dev…
Network of DNA strands and associated proteins observed ... with…
One of several enzymes that restore the original base sequenc…
Barr body
Dark-staining body (discovered by M. Barr) in the nuclei of f…
carcinogen
Environmental agent that causes mutations leading to the ... dev…
39 terms
Chapter 18, Regulation of Gene Expression, Campbell 8e
Feedback Inhibition
Operator
Operon
Repressor
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a m…
In bacterial DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of…
A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, con…
A protein that inhibits gene transcription; in prokaryotes, r…
Feedback Inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a m…
Operator
In bacterial DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of…
34 terms
chapter control of gene expression
gene expression
differentiaton
control protein
transcription regulator
cells selectively direct the synthesis of proteins and RNAs e…
arise cells make and accumulate different sets of RNA and pro…
1. controlling (when, how ) are transcribed... 2. Control RNA tr…
- Regulator DNA sequences don't work by themselves. acts as a…
gene expression
cells selectively direct the synthesis of proteins and RNAs e…
differentiaton
arise cells make and accumulate different sets of RNA and pro…
Cell Bio Chapter 8 Control of Gene Expression
Totipotency
Specification
Determination
Specification Determination
cell contains "total" potential to become any cell in the org…
cell fate is "biased" ... detected by gene expression ... "pattern…
cell fate is "fixed" no further instructions needed... can beco…
How a single cell goes from a cell to a complex multicellular…
Totipotency
cell contains "total" potential to become any cell in the org…
Specification
cell fate is "biased" ... detected by gene expression ... "pattern…
Regulation of gene expression
Prokaryotic DNA has ONLY
Operon
Genes get expressed in response to
Operons controlled by ?
Operon , Eukaryotes DONT HAVE IT
Cluster of genes under the control of single promoter
environment and nutrient availability , that's how they regul…
Single promoter -sequence in DNA that directs specific bindin…
Prokaryotic DNA has ONLY
Operon , Eukaryotes DONT HAVE IT
Operon
Cluster of genes under the control of single promoter
Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
26) Which of the following statements…
In principle, a eukaryotic cell can re…
The genes of a bacterial ____________…
Many bacterial promoters contain a reg…
(d) Some of the proteins found in differentiated cells are fo…
A. translation control... B. transcriptional control... C. RNA proc…
operon
operator
26) Which of the following statements…
(d) Some of the proteins found in differentiated cells are fo…
In principle, a eukaryotic cell can re…
A. translation control... B. transcriptional control... C. RNA proc…
Control of Gene Expression
Gene Expression
Genome
Structural Gene
Operator
the manifestation of the Genetic material of an organism in t…
the complete genetic material contained in an individual or s…
a Gene that Codes for a product, such as an enzyme, protein,…
a short sequence of viral or bacterial DNA to which a repress…
Gene Expression
the manifestation of the Genetic material of an organism in t…
Genome
the complete genetic material contained in an individual or s…
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
In response to chemical signals, proka…
What would occur if the repressor of a…
A lack of this nonprotein molecule wou…
The lactose operon is likely to be tra…
can turn off translation of their mRNA
Continuous transcription of the operon's genes
corepressor (nonprotein molecule)
the cyclic amp and lactose levels are both high in the cell.
In response to chemical signals, proka…
can turn off translation of their mRNA
What would occur if the repressor of a…
Continuous transcription of the operon's genes
60 terms
Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
Are different genes expressed at diffe…
What dictates which genes are expresse…
Time and expression of genes
It is hypothesized that we rarely use…
yes
regulatory mechanisms
some genes are expressed all the time, others for a short tim…
five to ten percent
Are different genes expressed at diffe…
yes
What dictates which genes are expresse…
regulatory mechanisms
9 terms
Gene Regulation (How is Gene Expression Regulated in Eukaryotic Cells?)
1. Name the levels at which gene expre…
2. Regarding DNA compaction and gene e…
3. Regarding transcription in eukaryot…
4. Explain the function of DNA regions…
Eukaryotic genes: Transcription (Most Important). RNA process…
(1) This is only found in the G2 stage, when the cell is prep…
(1)... (2) TATA box: crucial to the initiation of transcription…
Fine tune transcription rate of the adjacent gene. Control ov…
1. Name the levels at which gene expre…
Eukaryotic genes: Transcription (Most Important). RNA process…
2. Regarding DNA compaction and gene e…
(1) This is only found in the G2 stage, when the cell is prep…
40 terms
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
operator
operon
repressor
regulatory gene
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor bind…
a unit of gene regulation and transcription in bacterial DNA…
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off…
a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that co…
operator
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor bind…
operon
a unit of gene regulation and transcription in bacterial DNA…
29 terms
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
Constitutive enzymes
Inducible enzymes
Repressible enzymes
Operon Promoter
Needed all the time and produced all the time
Induced by the presence of their substrate
Repressed by the end product they make
Contains RNA polymerase binding site and operator
Constitutive enzymes
Needed all the time and produced all the time
Inducible enzymes
Induced by the presence of their substrate
24 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression (Chapter 11)
Gene Regulation
Constitutive Genes
When is gene expression regulated?
Promoter
Ability of cells to control the level and time of gene expres…
Genes that are not regulated and are expressed most of the ti…
Before or during transcription, before or during translation,…
Site where RNA polymerase binds and is usually involved in th…
Gene Regulation
Ability of cells to control the level and time of gene expres…
Constitutive Genes
Genes that are not regulated and are expressed most of the ti…
Ch 18 Regulation of Gene expression
Gene regulation
Constitutive genes
Structural genes
repressor
Ability of cells to control gene expression... -An organism's ce…
are unregulated and have constant levels of expression
are regulated... - Proteins are produced only at certain times i…
binds to the operator and blocks attachemnt of RNA polymerase…
Gene regulation
Ability of cells to control gene expression... -An organism's ce…
Constitutive genes
are unregulated and have constant levels of expression
Biochem: Regulation of Gene Expression
Set of genes that encode proteins with…
Each operon is under control of what
In prokaryotes Repressors bind to pr…
In prokaryotes Activator does what
Operon
a single promoter
inhibit RNA polymerase binding
facilitate RNA polymerase binding to the repressor
Set of genes that encode proteins with…
Operon
Each operon is under control of what
a single promoter
21 terms
Control of Gene Expression
cell memory
combinatorial control
differentiaition
DNA methylation
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
Process by which a cell undergoes a progressive, coordinated…
The enzymatic addition of methyl groups to cytosine bases in…
cell memory
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
combinatorial control
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
126 terms
Chapter 16: Regulation of Gene Expression
where does gene expression begin?
Two types of regulatory proteins that…
negative regulation
positive regulation
the promoter
Negative regulation... Positive regulation
a repressor protein prevents transcription
an activator protein stimulates transcription
where does gene expression begin?
the promoter
Two types of regulatory proteins that…
Negative regulation... Positive regulation
Control of gene expression
Prokaryotes utilize these things to co…
Eukaryotes use these things to control…
E. coli uses____________ as its prefer…
Three proteins are normally reperssed…
Lac operons, cAMP receptor proteins, and regulatory proteins…
helix-turn-helix... Zn finger... Leucin zipper/bZIp... Basic, regulati…
glucose, constitutively, not available, induced
B-galatosidase(gene Z product)... Galtocidase permease (gene Y)…
Prokaryotes utilize these things to co…
Lac operons, cAMP receptor proteins, and regulatory proteins…
Eukaryotes use these things to control…
helix-turn-helix... Zn finger... Leucin zipper/bZIp... Basic, regulati…
82 terms
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
In response to chemical signals, proka…
What would occur if the repressor of a…
A lack of this nonprotein molecule wou…
The lactose operon is likely to be tra…
can turn off translation of their mRNA
Continuous transcription of the operon's genes
corepressor (nonprotein molecule)
the cyclic amp and lactose levels are both high in the cell.
In response to chemical signals, proka…
can turn off translation of their mRNA
What would occur if the repressor of a…
Continuous transcription of the operon's genes
36 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
operator
operon
repressor
regulatory gene
...
...
...
...
operator
...
operon
...
56 terms
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
Repressible Operon
Inducible Operon
Regulatory Gene
Repressor Protein
A unit of genetic function found in bacteria and phages that…
A unit of genetic function found in bacteria and phages that…
A gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that co…
A protein that inhibits gene transcription. ... In prokaryotes,…
Repressible Operon
A unit of genetic function found in bacteria and phages that…
Inducible Operon
A unit of genetic function found in bacteria and phages that…
Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
activator
cell memory
combinatorial control
differentiation
A protein that binds to a specific regulatory region of DNA t…
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
Process by which a cell undergoes a progressive, coordinated…
activator
A protein that binds to a specific regulatory region of DNA t…
cell memory
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
67 terms
Control of Gene Expression
6 Steps at which eukaryotic eukaryotic…
Genes consist of..... -what are the 2 pro…
How do TFs bind to DNA?... Do they open t…
What is one of the simplest/most commo…
DNA => 1) Transcriptional control - genes are turned on or ke…
1) an ORF - encodes the protein... 2) Promoter/gene regulatory s…
-not covalently, but interacts with surface of DNA ... -bind to…
helix-turn-helix ... -needed for interaction of TF with DNA ... -re…
6 Steps at which eukaryotic eukaryotic…
DNA => 1) Transcriptional control - genes are turned on or ke…
Genes consist of..... -what are the 2 pro…
1) an ORF - encodes the protein... 2) Promoter/gene regulatory s…
31 terms
Essential Cell Biology Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
Housekeeping Proteins
Regulatory DNA Sequences
Transcription Regulators
DNA Binding Motifs
Proteins common to many cell types, concerned with basic meta…
DNA sequence to which a transcription regulator binds to dete…
Proteins that bind specifically to a regulatory DNA sequence;…
3D substructure that is found in many proteins; bind regulato…
Housekeeping Proteins
Proteins common to many cell types, concerned with basic meta…
Regulatory DNA Sequences
DNA sequence to which a transcription regulator binds to dete…
23 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
What carries out the methylation of DN…
Where are most CpG islands located?
How are CpG islands involved in gene r…
Which histone modification leads to ch…
DNA methyltransferases, SAM is a cofactor
promoter region
methylation at cytosines in CpG silences gene expression
deactylation by HDACs
What carries out the methylation of DN…
DNA methyltransferases, SAM is a cofactor
Where are most CpG islands located?
promoter region
39 terms
Ch. 18 Regulation of Gene Expression
Operator
Operon
Repressor
Regulatory Gene
Positioned within the promoter, controls the access of RNA po…
Consisting of a promoter, an operator, and a coordinately reg…
Binds to the operator and clocks attachment of RNA polymerase…
Gene that codes for a protein that controls the transcription…
Operator
Positioned within the promoter, controls the access of RNA po…
Operon
Consisting of a promoter, an operator, and a coordinately reg…
45 terms
Chapter 18 - Regulation of Gene Expression
Operator
Operon
Repressor
Regulatory Gene
Switch that begins transcription of a regulated gene
Operator, promoter, and the genes they control
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off…
Gene that encodes for a repressor
Operator
Switch that begins transcription of a regulated gene
Operon
Operator, promoter, and the genes they control
56 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
operator
operon
repressor protein
corepressor
"on-off switch"
the entire stretch of DNA-incl. operator, promoter, and genes…
binds to operator & blocks RNAP (which binds to promoter) THU…
repressor prtotein's buddy; binds to repressor & activates re…
operator
"on-off switch"
operon
the entire stretch of DNA-incl. operator, promoter, and genes…
18 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
transcribed
repressor
activator
Operon
Every cell must be able to regulate when particular genes are…
In prokaryotes, genes can be OFF by the binding of a _____, a…
In prokaryotes, genes can be turned ON by the _____, a protei…
The lac operon: An _____ is a segment of DNA containing a clu…
transcribed
Every cell must be able to regulate when particular genes are…
repressor
In prokaryotes, genes can be OFF by the binding of a _____, a…
36 terms
Cell Biology Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
Differentiation
Genomic Equivalence
Totipotency
Somatic Nuclear Transfer
Process by which cells become specialized in order to perform…
Concept that each cell in body has same genetic material and…
Ability of single cell to divide and produce all of the diffe…
Nucleus of fully differentiated cell is transferred into an e…
Differentiation
Process by which cells become specialized in order to perform…
Genomic Equivalence
Concept that each cell in body has same genetic material and…
Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
Gene Expression
Housekeeping Proteins
Transcription Regulators
Promoter
The process by which a gene makes a product that is useful to…
Proteins found in all cells that control cells basic workings
Protein that binds specifically to a regulatory NDA sequence…
DNA sequence that initiates gene transcription; includes sequ…
Gene Expression
The process by which a gene makes a product that is useful to…
Housekeeping Proteins
Proteins found in all cells that control cells basic workings
67 terms
Ch. 8 - Control of Gene Expression
cell memory
combinatorial control
differentiation
by synthesizing a different set of RNA…
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
Process by which a cell undergoes a progressive, coordinated…
how do cells differentiate themselves?
cell memory
The ability of differentiated cells and their descendants to…
combinatorial control
Describes the way in which groups of transcription regulators…
38 terms
Regulation of Gene Expression
Epigenetic
cytosine
CpG islands
DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)
Chemical marks added to DNA or components of chromatin which…
Methylation of DNA occurs exclusively on these AA residues ad…
clusters of regulatory CpG dinucleotides within promoter regi…
methylates C residue in CpG either directly or with the help…
Epigenetic
Chemical marks added to DNA or components of chromatin which…
cytosine
Methylation of DNA occurs exclusively on these AA residues ad…
Chapter 15- Regulation of Gene Expression
Prokaryote gene regulation
Negative Gene control
Inducible Operon
Lac operon
turning on/ off operons saves energy and resources... Operons ar…
- Inducible Operon... - Repressible Operon
- Regulatory gene produces a repressor protein that is normal…
- inducible operon... - Allolactose (present when lactose is pre…
Prokaryote gene regulation
turning on/ off operons saves energy and resources... Operons ar…
Negative Gene control
- Inducible Operon... - Repressible Operon
45 terms
Lecture 18: Regulation of Gene Expression
Cell speciation =...
characteristics of gene expression
cells will ________ & _________ a lot…
all cells in the embryo/adult contain…
GENE EXPRESSION
- all cells in the embryo/adult contain the SAME GENOMIC DNA…
- LOOK... - BEHAVE
genomic DNA sequences
Cell speciation =...
GENE EXPRESSION
characteristics of gene expression
- all cells in the embryo/adult contain the SAME GENOMIC DNA…
Chapter 11: Regulation of Gene Expression
constitutive expression
inducible expression
allosteric inhibition
covalent modification
constant expression of genes that encode products always need…
expression of genes that encode products only when they are n…
inhibition of enzyme action by an effector molecule that bind…
regulation of enzyme action by addition of a chemical entity…
constitutive expression
constant expression of genes that encode products always need…
inducible expression
expression of genes that encode products only when they are n…
Cell/Molc Biology (Control of Gene Expression)
gene expression
differentiation
housekeeping proteins
promoter
complex process by which cells selectively direct the synthes…
cells become highly specialized, due to different sets of RNA…
common to all the cells of a multicellular organism. Include…
region of a gene binds the enzyme RNA polymerase and correctl…
gene expression
complex process by which cells selectively direct the synthes…
differentiation
cells become highly specialized, due to different sets of RNA…
7 terms
Lugo Biology 13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression
operon
operator
RNA interference
differentiation
group of genes operating together
In an operon, the binding site for the repressor
Blocking gene expression by means of an miRNA silencing compl…
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and fu…
operon
group of genes operating together
operator
In an operon, the binding site for the repressor
20 terms
Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression
operator
operon
repressor
regulatory gene
segment of DNA that acts as the switch; controls the access o…
the operator, the promoter, and the genes they control; entir…
binds to operator and blocks attachment of RNA polymerase to…
located some distance from the operon and has its own promote…
operator
segment of DNA that acts as the switch; controls the access o…
operon
the operator, the promoter, and the genes they control; entir…
15 terms
AP Biology Chapter 13: Regulation of Gene Expression
Structural Genes
Operon
Regulator Gene
Promoter
Genes that code for the amino acid sequence of a peptide/ pro…
Group of structural and regulating genes that function as a s…
Gene that controls the expression of another gene or genes; i…
In an operon, a sequence of DNA where RNA Polymerase binds pr…
Structural Genes
Genes that code for the amino acid sequence of a peptide/ pro…
Operon
Group of structural and regulating genes that function as a s…
Regulation of gene expression
Pioneer factors
Transcription factors bind to
DNA looping
Zinc finger
transcription factors that bind condensed chromatin
Elements (enhancers, silencers); interact with corepressors o…
Transcription factor class;
Pioneer factors
transcription factors that bind condensed chromatin
Transcription factors bind to
Elements (enhancers, silencers); interact with corepressors o…
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