Study sets matching "term:interferon = proteins that interfere with viral replication."

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Study sets matching "term:interferon = proteins that interfere with viral replication."

39 terms
Viral Replication
Amantadine
Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)
Immunoglobulin
Interferon Alpha
Influenza A... Blocks M2 ion channels... Blocks disassembly/penetr…
HIV... Blocks penetration... CD4 analog
Almost anything... Blocks attachment &/or penetration
Not rabies... Blocks transcription/translation
Amantadine
Influenza A... Blocks M2 ion channels... Blocks disassembly/penetr…
Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)
HIV... Blocks penetration... CD4 analog
12 terms
Ch 19 Viral Structure, Function & Replication
virus
pathogen
viroid
prion
a nonliving, infectious particle composed of a nucleic acid a…
An organism that causes disease
An infectious particle, similar to but smaller than a virus,…
Protein particles that cause disease
virus
a nonliving, infectious particle composed of a nucleic acid a…
pathogen
An organism that causes disease
65 terms
Viral Replication
Viral Replication Steps
Eclipse phase
Dissemination
Viremia
1) Recognition... 2) Attachment... 3) Penetration... 4) Uncoating... 5) M…
time when virus cannot be detected by body
spread of virus from initial site of infection to distant site
presence of infectious virus in the blood (like w/ HIV1)
Viral Replication Steps
1) Recognition... 2) Attachment... 3) Penetration... 4) Uncoating... 5) M…
Eclipse phase
time when virus cannot be detected by body
29 terms
17 - Control of Viral Populations
Ways to control Viral Populations
Viral populations in the healthcare se…
Control of Viral Diseases - prevention…
Control of Viral Population -> vaccina…
Ways to control Viral Populations
Viral populations in the healthcare se…
Micro 17, Control of Viral Populations
Ways to control Viral Populations
Viral populations in the healthcare se…
Control of Viral Diseases - prevention…
Control of Viral Population -> vaccina…
Ways to control Viral Populations
Viral populations in the healthcare se…
Viral pathogenesis 2
Virus interaction with innate immune s…
Type 1 interferons
Type 2 interferons
Viral evasion mechanisms
1. Inhibit viral replication... 2. Activates NK cells... 3. Enhance…
1. Inhibit viral replication... 2. Activates macrophages... 3. Enha…
- avoid recognition... - interfere with immune system
Virus interaction with innate immune s…
Type 1 interferons
1. Inhibit viral replication... 2. Activates NK cells... 3. Enhance…
Type I Interferon Antiviral Response
How is transcription of IFN-B initiated?
What does IFN-B do to nearby cells?
What is oligoadenylate synthetase?
What is Protein Kinase R (PKR)?
- Cell senses infection or ligand marker... - Triggers phosphory…
- IFN-B binds to receptors that are linked to Jak1 & Tyk2 kin…
- An enzyme that is part of the interferon response... - Produce…
- An enzyme that is part of the interferon response... - Inhibit…
How is transcription of IFN-B initiated?
- Cell senses infection or ligand marker... - Triggers phosphory…
What does IFN-B do to nearby cells?
- IFN-B binds to receptors that are linked to Jak1 & Tyk2 kin…
21 terms
inflammation steps & complement proteins and MACS, effects of interferon
inflammation
inflammation step 1
inflammation step 2
inflammation step 3
5 steps
bacteria invade a tissue & directly kill cells or release met…
mast cells in tissue release histamine which triggers arterio…
fluid & plasma proteins leak out of capillaries, localized ed…
inflammation
5 steps
inflammation step 1
bacteria invade a tissue & directly kill cells or release met…
antiviral agents interferon
interferons are
interferons inhibit
interferons function in
3 types of interferons
glycoproteins
viral cell growth... cell multiplication... immunomodulatory activi…
cell communication
alpha ... beta... gamma
interferons are
glycoproteins
interferons inhibit
viral cell growth... cell multiplication... immunomodulatory activi…
Viral structure and replication
When was smallpox eradicated?
First virus discovered
First human virus discovered
First cancer causing virus discovered
1979
TMV (1892 and 1898)
FMD (1889)
Avian sarcoma virus (1911)
When was smallpox eradicated?
1979
First virus discovered
TMV (1892 and 1898)
23 terms
Micro Ch 5
Virus
few/no enzymes of their own... interfere…
capsid ... envelope
Morphology
Latin for poison... obligate intracellular parasite... contain a si…
Why are they difficult to fight
Structure
helical... polyhedral... enveloped... complex
Virus
Latin for poison... obligate intracellular parasite... contain a si…
few/no enzymes of their own... interfere…
Why are they difficult to fight
Viral Replication Strategies
Specific range for virus
Possible range is dictated by the inte…
Host cell receptors
Cytoplasm
type of cells that it can infect
Viral attachment proteins and host cell receptor molecules
often molecules critical for cellular function (therefore not…
Location of Viral Replication
Specific range for virus
type of cells that it can infect
Possible range is dictated by the inte…
Viral attachment proteins and host cell receptor molecules
15 terms
Viral replication
Viral replication overview
Determinants of mode of viral replicat…
Attachment
Penetration/uncoating
Attachment, penetration/uncoating of viral protective shell,…
Viral factors: genome structure, naked/enveloped morphology,…
Can either happen with capsid or envelope- with the capsid, t…
Receptor mediated endocytosis. Fusion- with enveloped viruses…
Viral replication overview
Attachment, penetration/uncoating of viral protective shell,…
Determinants of mode of viral replicat…
Viral factors: genome structure, naked/enveloped morphology,…
antimicrobial proteins
antimicrobial proteins
interferons
interferons
interferons
provide second line of defense against bacteria and virus tha…
have produced and released by cells that have become infected…
stimulate uninfected neighbor cells to manufacture antiviral…
enhance phagocytosis and activate natural killer cells
antimicrobial proteins
provide second line of defense against bacteria and virus tha…
interferons
have produced and released by cells that have become infected…
Viral Classification, Structure, and Replication; DNA Viruses
Virion
Capsid
Nucleocapsid
Envelope
The mature infectious virus particle
The protein shell that encloses and protects the viral nuclei…
Consists of the nucleic acid and closely associated capsid pr…
The viral membrane, consisting of a lipid bilayer, proteins,…
Virion
The mature infectious virus particle
Capsid
The protein shell that encloses and protects the viral nuclei…
54 terms
12,13 - Viral Replication
Virus life cycle stages (5)
What does a virus need to do to propag…
1. describe virus multiplication: adso…
virus multiplication: hemagglutinin
1) attachment (adsorption)... 2) penetration (injection)... 3) prot…
- Infect an appropriate host cell - Use the host cell to gene…
-aka attachment... -specific & nonspecific mechanisms... -*viral…
aids in endocytosis of virus?
Virus life cycle stages (5)
1) attachment (adsorption)... 2) penetration (injection)... 3) prot…
What does a virus need to do to propag…
- Infect an appropriate host cell - Use the host cell to gene…
38 terms
Viral Replication
Parovirus
Poxvirus
Retroviruses
General infectivity of viruses
Virus with small genome... Rely on host cell for replication com…
Virus with large genome... Encodes most of the components necess…
Carry RT so does everything in the nucleus although it is an…
1 in 1000 will be infectious (0.1%)
Parovirus
Virus with small genome... Rely on host cell for replication com…
Poxvirus
Virus with large genome... Encodes most of the components necess…
22 terms
Anti-Viral Drugs
Miraviroc
Enfuvirtide
(N)NRTI
Nevirapine
Chemokine co-receptor Blocker (for HIV). Blocks CD4 co-recept…
Fusion inhibitor (HIV). Prevents fusion of cell membrane and…
(Non)-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors... All preven…
NNRTI... Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase blocker (HIV).... Bi…
Miraviroc
Chemokine co-receptor Blocker (for HIV). Blocks CD4 co-recept…
Enfuvirtide
Fusion inhibitor (HIV). Prevents fusion of cell membrane and…
Viral Structure and Replication
Virus
Virion
Capsid
Capsomer
Obligatory intracellular parasite with genetic material enclo…
individual virus particle
Protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid
Protein subunits that make up the capsid
Virus
Obligatory intracellular parasite with genetic material enclo…
Virion
individual virus particle
Viral Replication II Lecture 24
general steps of viral replication
viral genomes
Baltimore classification
4. synth
0. transmission... 1. attachment... 2. penetration... 3. uncoating... 4.…
can be RNA/DNA... ds or ss... one piece of linear nucleic acids/ on…
the groups are organized based on how they get from genomic m…
synth of new genome and proteins to package (uses host cell m…
general steps of viral replication
0. transmission... 1. attachment... 2. penetration... 3. uncoating... 4.…
viral genomes
can be RNA/DNA... ds or ss... one piece of linear nucleic acids/ on…
28. Viral Replication
What are the Steps of the Viral Replic…
Steps of the Viral Replicative Cycle :…
Steps of the Viral Replicative Cycle :…
Steps of the Viral Replicative Cycle :…
Attachment... Penetration (entry)... Uncoating... Replication... Assembly…
attachment and penetration by fusion
immediate early protein synthesis
-early protein synthesis ... -genome replication by RNA-dependen…
What are the Steps of the Viral Replic…
Attachment... Penetration (entry)... Uncoating... Replication... Assembly…
Steps of the Viral Replicative Cycle :…
attachment and penetration by fusion
13 terms
Chapter 12 and 13 Microbiology Vocab
aerosol
antiseptic
autoclave
disinfectant
cloud of tiny liquid droplets in the air
external agent to destroy microorganisms
instrument for sterilization using moist heat under pressure
agent used on inanimate objects to destroy microorganisms
aerosol
cloud of tiny liquid droplets in the air
antiseptic
external agent to destroy microorganisms
32 terms
Second line of defence: Antimicrobial substances
second line of defence
second line of defence
second line of defence
antimicrobial substances
internal defences
any pathogens that get past surface barriers (first line of d…
consist of internal, antimicrobial substances, phagocytes, na…
various body fluids contain four main types of these that dis…
second line of defence
internal defences
second line of defence
any pathogens that get past surface barriers (first line of d…
Chapter 15 Vocab
Parenteral
Siderophores
Antigenic Variation
Hemolysin
Portal of entry directly into tissue or mucous membrane throu…
Protein secreted by pathogen to obtain iron
Process when a pathogen alters its surface antigens
Membrane disrupting toxin that destroys erythrocytes by formi…
Parenteral
Portal of entry directly into tissue or mucous membrane throu…
Siderophores
Protein secreted by pathogen to obtain iron
33 terms
Viral replication
Adsorption
penetration
lysozyme
replication
attachment to outer surface, tail fiber allows for attachment…
lysosyme, tail sheeth contracts and injects DNA into host cell
dissolve hole into cell wall
stop synthesis of E. coli genes viral gene expression
Adsorption
attachment to outer surface, tail fiber allows for attachment…
penetration
lysosyme, tail sheeth contracts and injects DNA into host cell
18 terms
Viral Replication and Pathogenesis
Viral Replication
Viral Attachment
Need to know VAPs
Viral Cell Receptors
1. Attach to host cell... *host specificity due to receptor... 2. G…
*Attachment of virion IS HIGHLY SPECIFICITY... *VAP binds to rec…
Influenza A virus VAP==> HA (hemagluttin)... GP120==> on HIV
1)EBV- B cell- CD21/C3d... 2) HIV- helper T cell-CD4... Tissue trop…
Viral Replication
1. Attach to host cell... *host specificity due to receptor... 2. G…
Viral Attachment
*Attachment of virion IS HIGHLY SPECIFICITY... *VAP binds to rec…
63 terms
Viral Structure and Replication
Virus
How do viruses differ from other organ…
Virion
Capsid
Obligatory intracellular parasite with genetic material enclo…
Small; do not grow on non-living media; no binary fission; DN…
Individual virus particle
Protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid
Virus
Obligatory intracellular parasite with genetic material enclo…
How do viruses differ from other organ…
Small; do not grow on non-living media; no binary fission; DN…
18 terms
Viral Structure, Classification and Replication
Virus
Virion
Satellite Virus
Viroid
Sub cellular infectious agents, that are fully obligate paras…
Mature extracellular virus particle.
A sub-viral agent dependent on co-infection with other viruse…
Smallest infectious particle known, consisting of single stra…
Virus
Sub cellular infectious agents, that are fully obligate paras…
Virion
Mature extracellular virus particle.
6 terms
Interferons
1st step
2nd step
3rd step
4th step
Viral RNA in infecting virus enters uninfected host cell
Infecting virus replicates new virus by taking over metabolic…
Infecting virus ALSO induces host cell to produce interferon…
Interferons released by the virus infected host cell BIND to…
1st step
Viral RNA in infecting virus enters uninfected host cell
2nd step
Infecting virus replicates new virus by taking over metabolic…
27 terms
Anti-Viral Agents
1. Zovirax;... 2. Herpex
1. Famciclovir;... 2. Valaciclovir;... 3. Ga…
Narrow
1.. HSV 1 & 2;... 2. Varicella zoster;... 3.…
2 brand names of acyclovir
3 derivatives of acyclovir
Spectrum of acyclovir
5 viruses susceptible to acyclovir
1. Zovirax;... 2. Herpex
2 brand names of acyclovir
1. Famciclovir;... 2. Valaciclovir;... 3. Ga…
3 derivatives of acyclovir
66 terms
Viral Structure & Replication
the early definition of a virus
viruses are what types of parasites
viral genome of virus
replication of viral particles is dire…
disease causing agent small enough to pass through a filter
obligate intracellular
one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA
viral nucleic acid
the early definition of a virus
disease causing agent small enough to pass through a filter
viruses are what types of parasites
obligate intracellular
Viruses
Capsid
Genome
Envelope
Class I
Coat made of capsomers (protein monomers)
Core of either DNA or RNA (never both)
Host cell membrane with viral glycoproteins (antigenic determ…
ds DNA Viruses
Capsid
Coat made of capsomers (protein monomers)
Genome
Core of either DNA or RNA (never both)
52 terms
Viral Replication Lecture 36
What is the viral genetic code?
When was it shown that DNA is the gene…
What are the 3 segment of Bacteriophag…
What did Hershey Chase experiment demo…
The nucleic acid genome
1940
- Head... - Collar ... - Tail
- Showed that with radioactively labeled DNA, progeny phage a…
What is the viral genetic code?
The nucleic acid genome
When was it shown that DNA is the gene…
1940
5 terms
nonspecific defenses
Hair, skin, complement, inflammation,…
Immunological surveillance
Interferon
Complement
Only include the nonspecific defenses
NK cells sensitive to the presence of abnormal membranes are…
The protein that interferes with the replications of viruses
Not a physical barrier
Hair, skin, complement, inflammation,…
Only include the nonspecific defenses
Immunological surveillance
NK cells sensitive to the presence of abnormal membranes are…
19 terms
CH 8: Viral replication strategies
How viruses recognize appropriate cells
host range
Entry of enveloped viruses
Entry of non-enveloped viruses
-most viruses can replicate only in a specific kind of cell... -…
- host specificity ... -most enveloped mammalian viruses contain…
- plasma membrane and viral envelope must fuse for viral geno…
-does not require fusion of 2 membranes, but rather the direc…
How viruses recognize appropriate cells
-most viruses can replicate only in a specific kind of cell... -…
host range
- host specificity ... -most enveloped mammalian viruses contain…
50 terms
Viruses
Capsid
Genome
Envelope
Class I
Coat made of capsomers (protein monomers)
Core of either DNA or RNA (never both)
Host cell membrane with viral glycoproteins (antigenic determ…
ds DNA Viruses
Capsid
Coat made of capsomers (protein monomers)
Genome
Core of either DNA or RNA (never both)
61 terms
Virology
Virus Basics
Naked DNA
Nucleocapsid
Virion
RNA/DNA, protein
Lack a membrane
Nucleic acid protein assembly packaged in a virion
Individual viral unit
Virus Basics
RNA/DNA, protein
Naked DNA
Lack a membrane
67 terms
virology Part 2:Viral replication
basic steps in viral replication (APUS…
2 types of releases that occur in vira…
Replication of DNA viruses generally t…
What are the 2 rounds of transcription?
attach, penetrate, uncoating, synthesis, replication (eclipse…
cytolysis and budding
the cell nucleus
1 parental DNA... 1 progeny DNA
basic steps in viral replication (APUS…
attach, penetrate, uncoating, synthesis, replication (eclipse…
2 types of releases that occur in vira…
cytolysis and budding
12 terms
Components of the Immune System
The first of cell to the site of phago…
This cell suppresses the inflammatory…
Heat labile, 18 plasma proteins
Associated with inflammatory condition…
neutrohil
eosinophil
compliment system
increased compliment levels
The first of cell to the site of phago…
neutrohil
This cell suppresses the inflammatory…
eosinophil
Viral Structure and Replication
Definition of a virus
Virion
Capsid
Capsomer
Obligatory intracellular parasite with genetic material enclo…
Individual virus particle
Protein coat surrounding the nucleid acid
Protein subunits that make up the capsid
Definition of a virus
Obligatory intracellular parasite with genetic material enclo…
Virion
Individual virus particle
48 terms
Lecture 33 Viral Replication
Shortly after infection, T4 DNA is tra…
Within a minute following the introduc…
Within 4 minutes of infection, ____ DN…
The genome has 3 sets of proteins: ___…
...
viral
phage
early, middle, late
Shortly after infection, T4 DNA is tra…
...
Within a minute following the introduc…
viral
Ch. 13 ~ Viral Replication Quiz
Attachment
Entry
Uncoating
DNA synthesis
-chemical attraction ... -glycoprotein spikes
penetration, fusion, or endocytosis
if the entire capsid enters the host cell, virus must remove…
virus enters the nucleus and copies the viral DNA and transci…
Attachment
-chemical attraction ... -glycoprotein spikes
Entry
penetration, fusion, or endocytosis
13 terms
viruses terms
capsid
viruses
bacteriophage
lytic cycle
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
Viruses are not cells and cannot replicate without help, but…
a virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and repr…
is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction
capsid
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
viruses
Viruses are not cells and cannot replicate without help, but…
21 terms
viral replication ch 5
viral replication
general phases
absorption
penetration
replication cycle influences type of infection
absorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, rele…
binding of virus to specific molecule on host cell, controlle…
genome enters host cell, may merge with cell membrane or trig…
viral replication
replication cycle influences type of infection
general phases
absorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, rele…
More Viruses/ Controlling viruses
Lysogenic Cycle of a Temperate Virus
White blood cells
Antibodies
Interferon
- Virus attaches itself and injects its DNA into host cell... -…
engulf viruses in the blood and digest and destroy them
build of up immune system - blood protien used ot provide pas…
proteins that bind to cells and disable virus abilities to tr…
Lysogenic Cycle of a Temperate Virus
- Virus attaches itself and injects its DNA into host cell... -…
White blood cells
engulf viruses in the blood and digest and destroy them
Biology, Chapter 18.2, Viruses and Prions
virus
capsid
lytic cycle
Lysogenic cycle
a nonliving strand of genetic material within a protein coat;…
outer layer of all viruses made of proteins
viral replication process in which genetic material of the vi…
viral replication process in which viral DNA inserts into the…
virus
a nonliving strand of genetic material within a protein coat;…
capsid
outer layer of all viruses made of proteins
76 terms
Viral Structure & Replication
What can a virus infect?
Virus replication
Viruses consist of genetic material co…
A complete virus particle is called
microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a wide vari…
-can only replicate themselves by infecting a host cell ... -can…
capsid
a virion
What can a virus infect?
microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a wide vari…
Virus replication
-can only replicate themselves by infecting a host cell ... -can…
Anti-Viral Drugs
Amantadine and Rimantadine
Oseltamivir and Zanamivir
Palivizumab
Acyclovir and Valacyclovir
Used to treat influenza A and parkinson's ... Blocks M2 channel…
Used to treat Influenza A and B ... Inhibits viral neuraminidase…
Inhalhant ... Directed against an epitope in the A antigen site…
HSV-1 and HSV-2 ... Valacyclovir is more potent; can be given or…
Amantadine and Rimantadine
Used to treat influenza A and parkinson's ... Blocks M2 channel…
Oseltamivir and Zanamivir
Used to treat Influenza A and B ... Inhibits viral neuraminidase…
Virus replication
Explain the 6 steps to viral replication
Describe the location and steps to DNA…
Compare & contrast replication of RNA…
Compare and contrast how DNA vs RNA vi…
1.Viral attachment to the host cell: binding of viral spikes…
o They replicate in the nucleus of the infected cell and use…
BOTH: o They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and…
• DNA virus... o Most have monocistronic mRNAs (one MRNA for one…
Explain the 6 steps to viral replication
1.Viral attachment to the host cell: binding of viral spikes…
Describe the location and steps to DNA…
o They replicate in the nucleus of the infected cell and use…
10 terms
Immune response
Macrophages
MHC proteins
Cell-mediated immunity
Antibody mediated immune
Engulf and digest pathogens create antigen fragments that dis…
Major histocompatibility complex. Found on membrane of all nu…
Active T cell divide... Cytotoxic T cells-travel to find cell w…
Active B cells divide ... Plasma cells- make secret large amoun…
Macrophages
Engulf and digest pathogens create antigen fragments that dis…
MHC proteins
Major histocompatibility complex. Found on membrane of all nu…
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