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Frequency Distribution

Central Tendency

Mode

Mean

when raw scores are tallied to show the frequency of persons…

The point around which scores tend to cluster.... Three common m…

-the most frequently occurring score in a set of scores

-the most reliable or stable measure of central tendency... -als…

Frequency Distribution

when raw scores are tallied to show the frequency of persons…

Central Tendency

The point around which scores tend to cluster.... Three common m…

central tendency

population size

sample size

mean/average

statistical measures for locating a single score that is most…

the number of individuals who constitute an entire group or p…

the number of individuals who continuer a subset of those sel…

sum of a set of scores in a distribution, divided by the tota…

central tendency

statistical measures for locating a single score that is most…

population size

the number of individuals who constitute an entire group or p…

Central Tendency Statistic

Mean

Impact of Outlier on Mean

Median

A statistic that provides an estimate of the typical, usual,…

The sum of all scores in a distribution divided by the number…

The mean will inflate to a larger value

For an ordinal or interval/ratio variable, the middle score i…

Central Tendency Statistic

A statistic that provides an estimate of the typical, usual,…

Mean

The sum of all scores in a distribution divided by the number…

bimodal distributation

correlation

correlation coefficient

descriptive statistics

a distribution with two modes

the relationship between two variables

a numerical value that expresses the degree of relationship b…

statistics that describe and summarize data in a meaningful f…

bimodal distributation

a distribution with two modes

correlation

the relationship between two variables

Central tendency

Population mean

Sample mean

Weighted mean

A statistical measure that attempts to determine the single v…

The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores in that…

The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores in that…

Combining two sets of scores to find the overall mean for the…

Central tendency

A statistical measure that attempts to determine the single v…

Population mean

The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores in that…

Standard deviation

Standard deviation and normal distribu…

Variability

Variance

A measure of variability that gives the average deviation of…

u +/- 1 SD=68% of scores... u +/- 2 SD=95% of scores... u +/- 3 SD=…

Refers to the spread of a set of scores, how scattered out or…

The mean of the standard deviations squared.... Symbolized by si…

Standard deviation

A measure of variability that gives the average deviation of…

Standard deviation and normal distribu…

u +/- 1 SD=68% of scores... u +/- 2 SD=95% of scores... u +/- 3 SD=…

population size

sample size

measures of central tendency

measures of central tendency examples

-number of individuals who constitute an entire group or popu…

-number of individuals who constitute a subset of those selec…

statistical measure for locating a single score that is most…

-mean... -median... -mode

population size

-number of individuals who constitute an entire group or popu…

sample size

-number of individuals who constitute a subset of those selec…

mean

median

mode

bimodal distribution

calculated by adding all the scores in a distribution and div…

point in a distribution that divides the distribution into ha…

score, value, or response that appears most frequently in a d…

a data distribution that has two modes

mean

calculated by adding all the scores in a distribution and div…

median

point in a distribution that divides the distribution into ha…

Central tendency

Variability

Skewness

Kurtosis

The scores tend to pile up around some central clustering point

There is a certain amount of scatter around this central clus…

The spread of the scores around the central clustering point…

The peak of the central clustering point may be steep or gent…

Central tendency

The scores tend to pile up around some central clustering point

Variability

There is a certain amount of scatter around this central clus…

Descriptive Statistics

Rectangular Distribution

Normal Curve

Skewed Data

Summarizes a set of numbers. Frequency of scores, percentages…

Symmetrical distribution shaped like a rectangle. All frequen…

Skew; Bell Curve; ... the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that des…

When the distribution is not symmetrical. The mean and median…

Descriptive Statistics

Summarizes a set of numbers. Frequency of scores, percentages…

Rectangular Distribution

Symmetrical distribution shaped like a rectangle. All frequen…

Statistics

Sample

Population

Mean

Numerical facts assembled to provide useful information about…

Part of a population

A complete group of organisms or events

An average that is calculated by adding all scores and then p…

Statistics

Numerical facts assembled to provide useful information about…

Sample

Part of a population

Mode

Median

Median

Mean

Used if data measured along a nominal scale

Used if data measured along an ordinal or nominal scale

Used if interval data do not meet requirement for using the m…

Used if data measured along an interval or ratio scale

Mode

Used if data measured along a nominal scale

Median

Used if data measured along an ordinal or nominal scale

Frequency Distribution

Measures of Central Tendency

Mode

Mean

-a list of scores placed in order from highest to lowest

-Mode... -Mean... -Median

-the most frequently occurring score or scores in a distribut…

- the arithmetic average of a distribution, by adding the sco…

Frequency Distribution

-a list of scores placed in order from highest to lowest

Measures of Central Tendency

-Mode... -Mean... -Median

Arithmetic Mean/Mean/Sample Mean

Bimodal Distribution

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

the sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores su…

a distribution with two modes

statiscal procedure used to summarize and describe the data f…

the difference of a score in a set of scores from the mean of…

Arithmetic Mean/Mean/Sample Mean

the sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores su…

Bimodal Distribution

a distribution with two modes

central tendency

descriptive statistics

distribution

distribution of scores

the center or middle of a distribution of scores, computed as…

mathematical methods for summarizing sets of data

a set or scores arranged from lowest to highest

a set of scores arranged in order from lowest to highest

central tendency

the center or middle of a distribution of scores, computed as…

descriptive statistics

mathematical methods for summarizing sets of data

normal distribution

skewed distribution

positively skewed distribution

negatively skewed distribution

scores are symmetrically distributed above and below the mean…

includes outliers or scores that fall substantially above or…

outliers are substantially larger than most other scores (rig…

outliers are substantially smaller than most other scores (le…

normal distribution

scores are symmetrically distributed above and below the mean…

skewed distribution

includes outliers or scores that fall substantially above or…

mean

deviation

mean advantages

mean limitations

the arithmetic average... - the balance point of the distribution

distance from a score to the mean... - the sum of the errors or…

• more informative that median and mode... - takes all the obser…

• not always possible to calculate a mean (scale) ... - mean can…

mean

the arithmetic average... - the balance point of the distribution

deviation

distance from a score to the mean... - the sum of the errors or…

Categorical Data

Continuous Data

Pie Chart

Bar chart

Data that records qualities or characteristics of an individu…

A continuous variable is a variable that has an infinite numb…

Categorical Data

Data that records qualities or characteristics of an individu…

Continuous Data

A continuous variable is a variable that has an infinite numb…

Type 2 error

Type 1 error

Statistical significance

Standard deviation

The failure to eject a false null hypothesis

And incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained…

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean sc…

Type 2 error

The failure to eject a false null hypothesis

Type 1 error

And incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis

central tendency

distribution of scores

frequency distribution

frequency histogram

the center or middle of a distribution of scores, computed as…

a set of scores arranged in order from lowest to highest

a method of displaying a distribution of scores by indicating…

a graph that illustrates a frequency distribution, with a rec…

central tendency

the center or middle of a distribution of scores, computed as…

distribution of scores

a set of scores arranged in order from lowest to highest

Arithmetic Mean

Central Tendency

Deviation Score

Dispersion

The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores

The average, middle, or most frequent value of a set of scores

The distance of the raw scores from the mean of its distribut…

The spread of a set of scores

Arithmetic Mean

The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores

Central Tendency

The average, middle, or most frequent value of a set of scores

Bell Curve (also called "Normal Curve")

Binomial distribution

Confidence interval

Data

A smooth bell-shaped curve on a graph that shows the normal d…

Data created by events in which each event has only two possi…

A range of scores around a mean that increases the accuracy o…

Information gathered bu observation, questioning, or measuring.

Bell Curve (also called "Normal Curve")

A smooth bell-shaped curve on a graph that shows the normal d…

Binomial distribution

Data created by events in which each event has only two possi…

central tendency

population size

sample size

mean (aka arithmetic mean or average)

statistical measures for locating a single score that is most…

the number of individuals who constitute an entire group or p…

the number of individuals who constitute a subset of those se…

the sum of a set of scores in a distribution, divided by the…

central tendency

statistical measures for locating a single score that is most…

population size

the number of individuals who constitute an entire group or p…

central tendency

distribution of scores

frequency distribution

frequency histogram

the center or middle of a distribution of scores, computed as…

a set of scores arranged in order from lowest to highest

a method of displaying a distribution of scores by indicating…

a graph that illustrates a frequency distribution, with a rec…

central tendency

the center or middle of a distribution of scores, computed as…

distribution of scores

a set of scores arranged in order from lowest to highest

Distributions

Characteristics of Distributions

Skew/Symmetry

Measures of Central Tendency

the relationships among scores in a group

1. skew/symmetry... 2. measures of central tendency ... 3. measures…

Distributions can be symmetrical (even), positively skewed (l…

The center or middle of the distribution: mean, median, mode

Distributions

the relationships among scores in a group

Characteristics of Distributions

1. skew/symmetry... 2. measures of central tendency ... 3. measures…

central tendency

mean

median

mode

statistical measure that attempts to determine the single val…

the balance point, average, or dividing everything equally

divides the distribution into equal halves

the most frequent score

central tendency

statistical measure that attempts to determine the single val…

mean

the balance point, average, or dividing everything equally

Frequency Distribution

Relative frequency distribution

Cumulative frequency distribution

Cumulative percentage distribution

presents the score values and their frequency of occurance

indicates the proportion of the total number of scores that o…

Indicates the number of scores that fall below the upper real…

indicates the percentage of scores that fall below the upper…

Frequency Distribution

presents the score values and their frequency of occurance

Relative frequency distribution

indicates the proportion of the total number of scores that o…

standardized tests

norming sample

frequency distribution

histogram

tests given, usually nationwide, under uniform conditions and…

large sample of students serving as a comparison group for sc…

record showing how many scores fall into set groups

bar graph of a frequency distribution

standardized tests

tests given, usually nationwide, under uniform conditions and…

norming sample

large sample of students serving as a comparison group for sc…

mode

mean

median

range

the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution

the average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores…

the middle score in a distribution

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a dis…

mode

the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution

mean

the average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores…

descriptive statistics

inferential statistics

central tendency

mean

summarize data distributions

testing hypotheses within distributions

value that represents the typical score in a distribution

the average of all the scores in a distribution

descriptive statistics

summarize data distributions

inferential statistics

testing hypotheses within distributions

descriptive statistics

histogram

mode

mean

used to organize data meaningfully; numerical data used to me…

bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

the arithmetic average of distribution, obtained by adding th…

descriptive statistics

used to organize data meaningfully; numerical data used to me…

histogram

bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

descriptive statistics

histogram

mode

mean

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics o…

a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution.

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding…

descriptive statistics

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics o…

histogram

a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution.

central tendency

population size

sample size

mean

statistical measures for locating a single score that is most…

number of individuals who constitute an entire group or popul…

number of individuals who constitute a subset of those select…

the average, sum of a set of scores in a distribution divided…

central tendency

statistical measures for locating a single score that is most…

population size

number of individuals who constitute an entire group or popul…

descriptive statistics

Histogram

mode

mean

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics o…

A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

The most frequent occuring scores in a distribution

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding…

descriptive statistics

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics o…

Histogram

A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

nominal scale

ordinal scale

interval scale

ratio scale

numbers used for identification only

numbers used for ranking

numbers used for ranking, units are equidistant ... (I.Q., therm…

numerical scale with the quality of equidistant units AND abs…

nominal scale

numbers used for identification only

ordinal scale

numbers used for ranking

central tendency

mean

median

mode

stat measure to determine a single score that defines the cen…

sum of scores divided by the number of scores

midpoint of the list

score or category that has the greatest frequency

central tendency

stat measure to determine a single score that defines the cen…

mean

sum of scores divided by the number of scores

Measures of Central Tendency

Frequency Distribution

Mean

Median

The number that best represents the central part of a frequen…

Table/ graph that shows how often different numbers appear in…

Arithmetic average

Score that falls in middle of an ordered distribution of scores

Measures of Central Tendency

The number that best represents the central part of a frequen…

Frequency Distribution

Table/ graph that shows how often different numbers appear in…

Mode

Mean

Median

Range

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding…

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above…

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a dis…

Mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

Mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding…

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Variability

Statistical procedures used to summarize and describe the dat…

The difference of a score in a set of scores from the mean of…

Numbers that represent the average or typical score obtained…

Numbers that indicate how much scores differ from each other…

Descriptive Statistics

Statistical procedures used to summarize and describe the dat…

Deviation

The difference of a score in a set of scores from the mean of…

A measure of Central Tendency

An index is Unique

An index is Stable

An index is Representative

A number showing where a distribution of scores falls on a sc…

Only one value can occur for a given set of data

Does not change much from one sample to another

It is close to a large number of the observations in the dist…

A measure of Central Tendency

A number showing where a distribution of scores falls on a sc…

An index is Unique

Only one value can occur for a given set of data

Mode

Mean

Median

Range

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

The arithmetic average of distribution obtained by adding the…

The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above…

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a dis…

Mode

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

Mean

The arithmetic average of distribution obtained by adding the…

descriptive statistics

inferential statistics

frequency distribution

symmetric distribution

provides information about a set of scores for a variable

allows for a probabilistic statement how likely the differenc…

order scores out from lowest to highest by a class interval,…

descriptive statistics

provides information about a set of scores for a variable

inferential statistics

allows for a probabilistic statement how likely the differenc…

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

MEASURES OF VARIABILITY

SAMPLE MEAN X

STATISTICAL PROCEDURES USED TO SUMMARIZE AND DESCRIBE THE DAT…

NUMBERS THAT REPRESENT THE AVERAGE OF TYPICAL SCORE OBTAINED…

NUMBERS THAT INDICATE HOW MUCH SCORES DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER…

THE SUM OF A SET OF SCORES DIVIDED BY THE NUMBER OF SCORES SL…

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC

STATISTICAL PROCEDURES USED TO SUMMARIZE AND DESCRIBE THE DAT…

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

NUMBERS THAT REPRESENT THE AVERAGE OF TYPICAL SCORE OBTAINED…

Descriptive Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Variability

Sample Mean (x-bar) (Arithmetic mean)

Statistical procedures used to summarize and describe the dat…

Numbers that represent the average or typical score obtained…

Numbers that indicate how much scores differ from each other…

The sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores su…

Descriptive Statistics

Statistical procedures used to summarize and describe the dat…

Measures of Central Tendency

Numbers that represent the average or typical score obtained…

statistical reasoning

central tendency

mode

multimodal

analyze and interpret data

average or typical scores in a data set

most frequently occuring scores

data sets with more than one mode

statistical reasoning

analyze and interpret data

central tendency

average or typical scores in a data set