Study sets matching "terms ap biology"

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Study sets matching "terms ap biology"

25 terms
AP Biology Chapter 7 Terms
Absorption spectrum
ATP synthase
Autotroph
C3 plant
The various portions of visible light that pigments are capab…
Enzyme that is part of an ATP synthase complex and functions…
any organism capable of self-nourishment by using inorganic m…
Plant that fixes carbon dioxide via the Calvin cycle; the fir…
Absorption spectrum
The various portions of visible light that pigments are capab…
ATP synthase
Enzyme that is part of an ATP synthase complex and functions…
23 terms
AP Biology Chapter 12 Terms
GENETIC MATERIAL MUST BE
DNA
STRUCTURE OF DNA
CHARGAFF'S RULES
1.)ABLE TO STORE INFORMATION THAT PERTAINS TO THE DEVELOPMENT…
IS THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND THE GENETIC MATERIAL
CONTAINS FOUR DIFFERENT TYPES OF NUCLEOTIDES:TWO WITH PURINE…
THE PERCENTAGE OF A ALWAYS EQUALS THE PERCENTAGE OF T,THE PER…
GENETIC MATERIAL MUST BE
1.)ABLE TO STORE INFORMATION THAT PERTAINS TO THE DEVELOPMENT…
DNA
IS THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND THE GENETIC MATERIAL
AP Biology Exam Terms
functional groups
fat
saturated fats
unsaturated fats
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
glycerol and three fatty acids
bad for you; animals and some plants have it; solidifies at r…
better for you, plants have it; liquifies at room temp.
functional groups
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
fat
glycerol and three fatty acids
17 terms
AP Biology Vocab Terms
Gametes
Chromatin
Chromosomes
Genome
Haploid cells created for sexual reproduction by meiosis... Ex:…
Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DN…
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. E…
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organis…
Gametes
Haploid cells created for sexual reproduction by meiosis... Ex:…
Chromatin
Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DN…
193 terms
AP Biology- General Terms
abiotic
absorption
acoelomates
action potential
nonliving, as in the physical environment
the process by witch water and dissolved substances pass thro…
an animal that lacks a coelom, exhibits bilateral symmetry, a…
the change in electrical across a nerve or muscle cell when s…
abiotic
nonliving, as in the physical environment
absorption
the process by witch water and dissolved substances pass thro…
AP Biology Chapter 12 Terms
Complete Dominance
Incomplete Dominance
Codominance
Multiple Alleles
Heterozygous phenotype (same as that of the homozygous domina…
Heterozygous phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes
Both phenotypes expressed in heterozygotes (Ex. Bloodtype)
In the whole population, some genes have more than two alleles
Complete Dominance
Heterozygous phenotype (same as that of the homozygous domina…
Incomplete Dominance
Heterozygous phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes
32 terms
Chapter 8 AP Biology Terms
The Living Cell
Metabolism
Metabolic Pathway
Catabolic Pathways
-Miniature chemical factory... -cell extracts energy and applies…
-the totality of an organism's chemical reactions... -its an eme…
-his starts with a specific molecule and ends with a product…
-release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpl…
The Living Cell
-Miniature chemical factory... -cell extracts energy and applies…
Metabolism
-the totality of an organism's chemical reactions... -its an eme…
AP Biology Key Terms
Karyotype
Sex Chromosomes
Diploid
Somatic Cell
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged pairs
X and Y chromosomes
Any cell with two sets of chromosomes
Body Cells, besides gametes and their precursors
Karyotype
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged pairs
Sex Chromosomes
X and Y chromosomes
64 terms
AP Biology Mid-term
Cell Cycle: Interphase
G1
S
G2
-where the cell spends most of their time ... -has 3 parts: G1,…
-everyday growth, activity, and repair ... -1st checkpoint (chec…
-dna will replicate or synthesizes
-organelles will enlarge ... -dna is checked for errors... -2nd che…
Cell Cycle: Interphase
-where the cell spends most of their time ... -has 3 parts: G1,…
G1
-everyday growth, activity, and repair ... -1st checkpoint (chec…
Genetics Terms - AP Biology
Hybrid
Monohybrid cross
Alleles
Dominant alleles
Offspring that results from the mating of individuals from tw…
A cross between two organisms that are heterozygous for the c…
Any of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce di…
An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heter…
Hybrid
Offspring that results from the mating of individuals from tw…
Monohybrid cross
A cross between two organisms that are heterozygous for the c…
52 terms
AP Biology Chapter 24 Terms
Annual ring
Apical meristem
Axillary bud
Bark
Layer of wood (secondary xylem) usually produced during one g…
In vascular land plants, ... masses of cells in the root and sho…
Bud located in the axil of a ... leaf.
External part of a tree, containing cork, cork cambium, and p…
Annual ring
Layer of wood (secondary xylem) usually produced during one g…
Apical meristem
In vascular land plants, ... masses of cells in the root and sho…
311 terms
AP Biology Exam Terms
organic compounds
functional groups
fat
saturated fats
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
glycerol and three fatty acids
bad for you; animals and some plants have it; solidifies at r…
organic compounds
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
functional groups
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
49 terms
AP Biology Chapter 9 Terms
Cell Cycle
Interphase
Chromatid
Sister Chromatids
an orderly set of stages that take place between the time a e…
The time when a cell performs its usual function depending on…
Each double helix of a chromosome
two identical chromatids
Cell Cycle
an orderly set of stages that take place between the time a e…
Interphase
The time when a cell performs its usual function depending on…
21 terms
AP Biology Chapter 10 Terms
Bivalent
Crossing-over
Diploid (2n) number
Fertilization
Homologous chromosomes, each having sister chromatids that ar…
Exchange of segments between nonsister chromatids of a bivale…
Cell condition in which two of each type of chromosome are pr…
Fusion of sperm and egg nuclei, producing a zygote that devel…
Bivalent
Homologous chromosomes, each having sister chromatids that ar…
Crossing-over
Exchange of segments between nonsister chromatids of a bivale…
23 terms
AP Biology Terms
Amoebas
Sporozoans
Ciliates
Slime Molds
-Unicellular and move about using cellular extensions called…
-All animal parasites, some cause serious human diseases such…
-Unicellular organisms which use cilia for movement and feedi…
-Represent overgrown amoeba, contain many nuclei
Amoebas
-Unicellular and move about using cellular extensions called…
Sporozoans
-All animal parasites, some cause serious human diseases such…
42 terms
AP Biology Chapter 5 Terms
active transport
aquaporin
carrier protein
channel protein
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane, with an e…
channel protein that transports water molecules through the p…
carries molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane…
channel protein provides passageways through the membrane for…
active transport
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane, with an e…
aquaporin
channel protein that transports water molecules through the p…
AP Biology Review (All terms)
Dehydration
Hydrolysis
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
connecting monomers together by the removal of water
disassembling polymers by the addition of water
glucose + glucose = maltose / glucose + fructose = sucrose /…
Plants: starch (energy) and cellulose (structure)... Animals: gl…
Dehydration
connecting monomers together by the removal of water
Hydrolysis
disassembling polymers by the addition of water
32 terms
AP Biology Chapter 14 Terms
Cloning
Gene Cloning
Gene Therapy
Transgenic Organisms
production of genetically identical copies of DNA, cells, or…
DNA cloning to produce many identical copies of the same gene.
When cloned genes are used to modify a human.
Organisms that are modified by cloned genes.
Cloning
production of genetically identical copies of DNA, cells, or…
Gene Cloning
DNA cloning to produce many identical copies of the same gene.
11 terms
AP Biology: terms/flashcards
polar molecule
nonpolar molecule
intermolecular attractions
properties of water
an asymmetrical molecule = a dipole... hydrophilic (water loving…
symmetrical or balanced mole.... hydrophobic (water fearing)... ex:…
attractions between molecules... ex: hydrogen bonding between th…
ice is less dense that water... strong H2 attractions between mo…
polar molecule
an asymmetrical molecule = a dipole... hydrophilic (water loving…
nonpolar molecule
symmetrical or balanced mole.... hydrophobic (water fearing)... ex:…
19 terms
AP Biology Chapter 15 Terms
artificial selection
Evolution
Extant
Fitness
Intentional breeding of certain traits, or combinations of tr…
Descent of organisms from common ancestors with the developme…
Species, or other levels of taxa, that are still living.
Ability of an organism to reproduce and pass its genes to the…
artificial selection
Intentional breeding of certain traits, or combinations of tr…
Evolution
Descent of organisms from common ancestors with the developme…
AP Biology Body System Terms
Glandular Epithelial Cells
Epithelium
Cuboidal
Columnar
Specialized Cells that secrete bodily products and is also re…
A thin tissue covering or lining a cavity and performs any va…
Outermost bone of the distal row of tarsal bones
Composed of tall, narrow, cylindrical, or prismatic epithelia…
Glandular Epithelial Cells
Specialized Cells that secrete bodily products and is also re…
Epithelium
A thin tissue covering or lining a cavity and performs any va…
18 terms
AP Biology Chapter 8 Terms
Aerobic
Anabolism
Anaerobic
Catabolism
Requires oxygen
Metabolic process by which larger molecules are synthesized f…
Growing or metabolizing in the absence of oxygen
Metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into small…
Aerobic
Requires oxygen
Anabolism
Metabolic process by which larger molecules are synthesized f…
65 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4 Terms
Archaean
Actin filament
basal body
cell
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archea.
Component of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement o…
Organelle that develops from a centriole.
smallest unit that displays the properties of life; composed…
Archaean
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the domain Archea.
Actin filament
Component of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement o…
50 terms
AP Biology Chapter 21 Terms
accessory pigment
alveolate
amoeboid
amoebozoan
proteins that assist in the photosynthetic process by transfe…
a group of protists that includes unicellular dinoflagellates…
cell that moves and engulfs debris with pseudopods
supergroup of eukaryotes that includes amoebas and slime mold…
accessory pigment
proteins that assist in the photosynthetic process by transfe…
alveolate
a group of protists that includes unicellular dinoflagellates…
31 terms
AP Biology Chapter 39 Terms
periosteum
joint
articular cartilage
osteocyte
fibrous connective tissue that covers the surface of the alon…
articulation between two bones of a skeleton
form of hyaline cartilage that occurs at joints where two bon…
mature bone cell located within the lacunae of bone
periosteum
fibrous connective tissue that covers the surface of the alon…
joint
articulation between two bones of a skeleton
33 terms
AP Biology Chapter 13 Terms
Structural Genes
Operon
Regulator Gene
Repressor
Gene that codes for the amino acid sequence of a peptide or p…
Group of structural and regulating genes that function as a s…
Gene that controls the expression of another gene or genes.
In an operon, protein molecule that binds to an operator, pre…
Structural Genes
Gene that codes for the amino acid sequence of a peptide or p…
Operon
Group of structural and regulating genes that function as a s…
AP Biology Evolution Terms
5 Agents of microevolution
Non-Random mating in depth
Genetic Drift
Hardy Weinberg
1. Mutations... 2. Geneflow... 3. Non-Random Mating... 4. Genetic Drif…
assortative mating - When you mate w someone who looks like y…
1. Bottle neck- When a population is hit w a catastrophic eve…
When no agents of microevolution are at play and the populati…
5 Agents of microevolution
1. Mutations... 2. Geneflow... 3. Non-Random Mating... 4. Genetic Drif…
Non-Random mating in depth
assortative mating - When you mate w someone who looks like y…
36 terms
AP Biology - Photosynthesis and Respiration Terms
Endergonic Reactions
Exergonic Reactions
Anabolic
Catabolic
requires energy, anabolism, active transport
releases energy, catabolism, cell respiration
a synthetic reaction in which simple molecules are linked to…
a synthetic reaction in which complex molecules are broken do…
Endergonic Reactions
requires energy, anabolism, active transport
Exergonic Reactions
releases energy, catabolism, cell respiration
293 terms
AP Biology Exam Terms 2016
organic compounds
functional groups
fat
saturated fats
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
glycerol and three fatty acids
bad for you; animals and some plants have it; solidifies at r…
organic compounds
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
functional groups
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
28 terms
AP Biology Chapter 22 Terms
AM fungi (Glomeromycota)
Asaus
Basidium
Budding
Fungi with branching invaginations (arbuscular mycorrhizae)us…
Finger-like sac in which nuclear fusion, meiosis, and ascospo…
Club-like structure in which nuclear fusion, meiosis, and bas…
Asexual form of reproduction whereby a new organism develops…
AM fungi (Glomeromycota)
Fungi with branching invaginations (arbuscular mycorrhizae)us…
Asaus
Finger-like sac in which nuclear fusion, meiosis, and ascospo…
1,013 terms
AP Biology Terms Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
23 terms
AP Biology Chapter 11 Terms
allele
autosome
carrier
codominance
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same l…
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Heterozygous individual who has no apparent abnormality but c…
Inheritence pattern in which both alleles of a gene are equal…
allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same l…
autosome
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
57 terms
AP Biology Chapter 1 Terms
Gene
Homeostasis
Control
Hypothesis
Unit of hereditary existing as alleles on the chromosomes; in…
Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an org…
Sample that goes through all the steps but does not contain t…
Supposition established by reasoning after consideration of a…
Gene
Unit of hereditary existing as alleles on the chromosomes; in…
Homeostasis
Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an org…
14 terms
Biomolecules AP Biology terms
carbohydrate
monosaccharide
disaccharide
dehydration synthesis
organic compound consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; use…
- monomer of carbohydrate... - 3 types of isomers: fructose, gal…
- two monosaccharides joined together by dehydration synthesi…
release of one molecule of water... Ex: monosaccharide + monosac…
carbohydrate
organic compound consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; use…
monosaccharide
- monomer of carbohydrate... - 3 types of isomers: fructose, gal…
AP Biology Evolution Terms
adaptation
adaptive radiation
allelle
allopatric
inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its sur…
period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms fo…
any of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce di…
occurring in separate non-overlapping geographical areas
adaptation
inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its sur…
adaptive radiation
period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms fo…
43 terms
AP Biology Evolution Terms
adaptation
adaptive radiation
allele
allopatric speciation
inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its sur…
period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms fo…
any of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce di…
the formation of new species in populations that are geograph…
adaptation
inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its sur…
adaptive radiation
period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms fo…
37 terms
AP Biology Chapter 34 Terms
salivary gland
salivary amylase
bolus
peristalsis
secreted saliva
an enzyme in saliva that breaksdown startch into maltose
the ball shape of food once it is chewed
the wavelike motion in which food moves through the esophagus
salivary gland
secreted saliva
salivary amylase
an enzyme in saliva that breaksdown startch into maltose
26 terms
AP Biology Chapter 16 Terms
Territory
Territoriality
Stabilizing Selection
Sexual Selection
Area occupied and defended exclusively by an animal or group…
Marking and/or defending a particular area against invasion b…
Outcome of natural selection in which extreme phenotypes are…
Changes in males and females, often due to male competition a…
Territory
Area occupied and defended exclusively by an animal or group…
Territoriality
Marking and/or defending a particular area against invasion b…
311 terms
AP Biology Exam Terms
organic compounds
functional groups
fat
saturated fats
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
glycerol and three fatty acids
bad for you; animals and some plants have it; solidifies at r…
organic compounds
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
functional groups
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
35 terms
AP Biology Chapter 29 Terms
agnathan
amniote
amniotic egg
amphibian
fishes that lack jaws; namely, the lampreys and hagfishes
vertebrate that produces an egg surrounded by four membranes,…
egg that has an amnion, as seen during the development of rep…
member of vertebrate class that includes frogs, toads, and sa…
agnathan
fishes that lack jaws; namely, the lampreys and hagfishes
amniote
vertebrate that produces an egg surrounded by four membranes,…
311 terms
AP Biology Exam Terms
organic compounds
functional groups
fat
saturated fats
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
glycerol and three fatty acids
bad for you; animals and some plants have it; solidifies at r…
organic compounds
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
functional groups
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH),…
AP Biology Botany Terms
organ
tissue
root system
shoot system
multiple tissue types serving one set of functions
group of cells serving a specialized function
root portion of plants
stems and leaves
organ
multiple tissue types serving one set of functions
tissue
group of cells serving a specialized function
37 terms
AP Biology Chapter 2 Terms
PH Scale
Isotope
Valence shell
Salt
Measurement scale for hydrogen ion concentrations. Based on t…
Atoms of the same element having the same atomic number but a…
The outer electron shell of an atom. Contains the valence ele…
Solid substances formed by ionic bonds that usually dissociat…
PH Scale
Measurement scale for hydrogen ion concentrations. Based on t…
Isotope
Atoms of the same element having the same atomic number but a…
26 terms
AP Biology Biochemistry Terms
amino acid
carbohydrate
carbon
denaturation
an organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino g…
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides)…
the chemical element of atomic number 6, a nonmetal that has…
in proteins, a process in which a protein loses its native sh…
amino acid
an organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino g…
carbohydrate
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides)…
AP BIOLOGY TERMS 125
Active site:
Active transport:
Alternation of generations:
Alveoli:
The specific portion of an enzyme that binds the substrate by…
The movement of a substance across a cell membrane, with an e…
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid f…
One of the dead-end, multilobed air sacs where gas exchange o…
Active site:
The specific portion of an enzyme that binds the substrate by…
Active transport:
The movement of a substance across a cell membrane, with an e…
46 terms
AP Biology Chapter 42 Terms
allantois
amnion
apoptosis
blastocoel
extraembryonic membrane that accumulates nitrogenous wastes i…
extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles and mammals that f…
programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellula…
fluid-filled cavity of a blastula
allantois
extraembryonic membrane that accumulates nitrogenous wastes i…
amnion
extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles and mammals that f…
44 terms
AP Biology Chapter 5
macromolecule
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
polymer
monomer
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
macromolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules,…
Four classes of biological macromolecu…
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids
30 terms
AP Biology Chapter 14 Terms
Central Dogma
Transcription
Translation
codon
the coded genetic information hard-wired into DNA is transcri…
the synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA
the synthesis of a polypeptide using the information in the RNA
mRNA nucleotide triplets that are written in the 5' to 3' dir…
Central Dogma
the coded genetic information hard-wired into DNA is transcri…
Transcription
the synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA
AP Biology Chapter 8
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathway
anabolic pathway
bioenergetic
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex m…
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down com…
A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a comp…
The study of energy flow or energy transformations into and w…
metabolic pathway
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex m…
catabolic pathway
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down com…
771 terms
AP Biology Vocabulary Review
polar
nonpolar
electronegativity
cohesion
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
polar
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
nonpolar
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
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