Study sets matching "terms structural geology"

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Study sets matching "terms structural geology"

9 terms
Structural geology
normal
reverse
tear
anticline
a fault where the hanging wall is downthrown and the crust ha…
a fault where the hanging wall is upthrown and the crust has…
a fault where there has been movement along the strike of the…
a fold where the beds dip away from the fold core; the oldest…
normal
a fault where the hanging wall is downthrown and the crust ha…
reverse
a fault where the hanging wall is upthrown and the crust has…
231 terms
Structural Geology Part 2
Brittle Deformation
Fracture
Joint
Vein
Permanent change in a rock body due to the growth of fracture…
Any surface of discontinuity
break in rock across which there has been no shearing, only e…
When minerals precipitate into Joint
Brittle Deformation
Permanent change in a rock body due to the growth of fracture…
Fracture
Any surface of discontinuity
190 terms
Structural Geology Part 1
Primary Structure
Local Gravity Driven structure
Fluid Pressure Driven Structure
Local Density-Inversion driven.
Formed when the rock was created
formed due to the slip down an incline surface
Formed by injection of unconsolidated material due to sudden…
formed due to local lateral variations in rock density, causi…
Primary Structure
Formed when the rock was created
Local Gravity Driven structure
formed due to the slip down an incline surface
Geology Terms - Structural
Law of Superposition
Principle of Horizontality
Cross-cutting relationships
Compressional stress
Each bed is older than the one above it and younger than the…
Layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally unde…
an igneous intrusion is always younger than the rock it cuts…
Occurs at convergent boundaries, where two plates move toward…
Law of Superposition
Each bed is older than the one above it and younger than the…
Principle of Horizontality
Layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally unde…
208 terms
Structural Geology
accomodation zone
allochthonous
autochthonous
Amonton's first law of friction
zone between two overlapping fault segments where offset is t…
away from home
at home
the force of friction is directly proportional to the applied…
accomodation zone
zone between two overlapping fault segments where offset is t…
allochthonous
away from home
26 terms
Structural Geology
unconformity
three types of unconformity: disconfor…
three types of unconformity: angular u…
three types of unconformity: nonconfor…
a buried surface of erosion
- layers below and above the unconformity are parallel, havin…
- layers below and above the unconformity are parallel, havin…
- the upper beds lie upon metamorphic or intrusive igneous rock
unconformity
a buried surface of erosion
three types of unconformity: disconfor…
- layers below and above the unconformity are parallel, havin…
50 terms
Structural Geology
clinometer
compass
north west - south east
synform
instrument used to measure the angle of dip on bedding planes
instrument used to measure the strike orientation of sediment…
if a bed is dipping towards the north east, what is the strik…
fold with limbs dipping towards each other
clinometer
instrument used to measure the angle of dip on bedding planes
compass
instrument used to measure the strike orientation of sediment…
81 terms
Structural Geology MidTerm Dr. Barker
What is Force?
What are some examples of changes in f…
What does the amount of force depend on?
What happens when force is concentrated?
Transfer of energy between objects; usually causes change
- change in velocity... - change in shape... - gravity... - forces are…
- amount of force... - area which force acts
concentration of a force in a small area will cause more defo…
What is Force?
Transfer of energy between objects; usually causes change
What are some examples of changes in f…
- change in velocity... - change in shape... - gravity... - forces are…
Structural Geology Mid-term
Structures
Stress
Structure Examples
Form and orientation
Produced by deformation. Deformation produced by Stress (Forc…
-Gravity: (Mountain Slumping)... -Tectonics: (Mountain Building)
-Planes (beds, faults, foliation)... -Lines (lineations, slicken…
This represents the interaction between the deforming forces…
Structures
Produced by deformation. Deformation produced by Stress (Forc…
Stress
-Gravity: (Mountain Slumping)... -Tectonics: (Mountain Building)
Structural Geology Terms
stress
deformation
fold
upfold
force
change in the size or shape of a rock due to applied pressure
structures that happen when the Earth deforms in a malleable…
anticlines-on a geologic map they have the oldest beds in the…
stress
force
deformation
change in the size or shape of a rock due to applied pressure
30 terms
Structural Geology
Steno's Principle's
Principle of Original Horizontality
Principle of Lateral Continuity
Principle of Superposition
1. Original horizontality... 2. Lateral continuity... 3. Superposit…
sediments deposited in flat layers, tilt means deformation
sediments taper off at the ends, truncation means deformation
younger sediments lie on top of older
Steno's Principle's
1. Original horizontality... 2. Lateral continuity... 3. Superposit…
Principle of Original Horizontality
sediments deposited in flat layers, tilt means deformation
67 terms
Structural Geology
Stress
Strain
Compression
Tension
force per unit area
the result of stress
squeeze and shorten rocks, often at convergent boundaries
stretch and pull rocks, often at divergent boundaries
Stress
force per unit area
Strain
the result of stress
45 terms
Structural Geology
Joint
Translation
Rotation
Dilation
Smooth, planar feature cutting through rock bodies and layers…
Change in location.
Change in orientation.
Change in size.
Joint
Smooth, planar feature cutting through rock bodies and layers…
Translation
Change in location.
40 terms
Structural Geology and Mapwork
clinometer
compass
north west - south east
syncline
instrument used to measure the angle of dip on bedding planes
instrument used to measure the strike orientation of sediment…
if a bed is dipping towards the north east, what is the strik…
fold with limbs dipping towards each other
clinometer
instrument used to measure the angle of dip on bedding planes
compass
instrument used to measure the strike orientation of sediment…
9 terms
Structural geology
normal
reverse
tear
anticline
a fault where the hanging wall is downthrown and the crust ha…
a fault where the hanging wall is upthrown and the crust has…
a fault where there has been movement along the strike of the…
a fold where the beds dip away from the fold core; the oldest…
normal
a fault where the hanging wall is downthrown and the crust ha…
reverse
a fault where the hanging wall is upthrown and the crust has…
47 terms
Structural Geology
What give evidence that earth is dynam…
What is an orogen?
What does "Oro" mean?
What does "gen" mean?
Mountains
A mountain belt
Mountain
genesis/formation
What give evidence that earth is dynam…
Mountains
What is an orogen?
A mountain belt
15 terms
structural geology
attitude
strike
dip direction
dip angle
-describes the layer's orientation in a three dimensional spa…
relatively north direction on a line intersecting at a point
perpendicular to the direction of the strike
angle between strike line and dip
attitude
-describes the layer's orientation in a three dimensional spa…
strike
relatively north direction on a line intersecting at a point
19 terms
Unit E-3 - Structural Geology Terms
block diagram
hanging wall
footwall
fault
a 3 dimensional cross-sectional drawing showing a section of…
the side of a non-vertical fault that is above the fault plane
the side of a non-vertical fault that is below the fault plane
a fracture or break in the Earth where there has been movement
block diagram
a 3 dimensional cross-sectional drawing showing a section of…
hanging wall
the side of a non-vertical fault that is above the fault plane
Structural Geology
Strike
Dip
Plunge
Apparent Dip
The bearing of a horizontal line contained within an inclined…
The vertical angle between an inclined plane and the horizont…
Same thing as dip
The vertical line between the inclined plane and a horizontal…
Strike
The bearing of a horizontal line contained within an inclined…
Dip
The vertical angle between an inclined plane and the horizont…
43 terms
Structural Geology
Strike
Dip
Trend
Plunge
compass direction of a rock layer as it intersects with a hor…
acute angle between the rock layer and the horizontal surfa…
compass direction of a linear feature: mineral, slickenline,…
inclination from horizontal of a linear feature, in direction…
Strike
compass direction of a rock layer as it intersects with a hor…
Dip
acute angle between the rock layer and the horizontal surfa…
40 terms
Structural Geology and Mapwork
clinometer
compass
north west - south east
syncline
instrument used to measure the angle of dip on bedding planes
instrument used to measure the strike orientation of sediment…
if a bed is dipping towards the north east, what is the strik…
fold with limbs dipping towards each other
clinometer
instrument used to measure the angle of dip on bedding planes
compass
instrument used to measure the strike orientation of sediment…
Structural Geology
fault
joint
vein
fold
break in rock where 2 sides have moved parallel to the break
break in rock without movement parallel to the break
mineralized joint
bending or curvature of bedding layers
fault
break in rock where 2 sides have moved parallel to the break
joint
break in rock without movement parallel to the break
27 terms
Structural Geology
true dip
apparent dip
rheology
xenocryst
-a planar surface-measured from the horizontal plane down to…
-planar-measured from the horizontal plane down to the plane…
is the study of how things deform. occurs deep within the ear…
is a foreign crystal.
true dip
-a planar surface-measured from the horizontal plane down to…
apparent dip
-planar-measured from the horizontal plane down to the plane…
40 terms
Structural Geology
What is structural geology
Strike
Dip
Displaying Strike and Dip on a Map
-Concerned with the shape and deformation of rock bodies... -Stu…
compass direction of the horizontal line produced by the…
The angle of inclination of the surface of a rock unit or f…
Used to represent the different layers of rock that exist fro…
What is structural geology
-Concerned with the shape and deformation of rock bodies... -Stu…
Strike
compass direction of the horizontal line produced by the…
137 terms
Structural Geology Exam 1 Terms
Deformation
Structural geology
Distortion
Contacts
structural changes, by both physical and chemical processes,…
study of the architecture of the earth's crust, insofar as it…
change in shape; alteration of original shape
boundaries that separate one rock body from another
Deformation
structural changes, by both physical and chemical processes,…
Structural geology
study of the architecture of the earth's crust, insofar as it…
Structural Geology intro lecture terms
Cleavage
Dilation
fold
lineation
The tendency of a mineral to break along planes
Same shape as original, but different size
when a sed structure is bent or curved
linear feature in a rock
Cleavage
The tendency of a mineral to break along planes
Dilation
Same shape as original, but different size
Geology: Structural
Critical to know _____ and _____ of ro…
Describe and map orientation and litho…
Compass direction of line produced by…
Angle of inclination of the surface of…
Structure and type
Field observations by geologist
Strike (trend)
Dip (inclination)
Critical to know _____ and _____ of ro…
Structure and type
Describe and map orientation and litho…
Field observations by geologist
144 terms
Structural Geology Test 1
gravitational loading
tectonic loading
thermal loading
impact loading
caused by subsidence, caldera collapse, sink holes
caused by plate motion
Example: columnar joints from cooling
Example: meteor impact
gravitational loading
caused by subsidence, caldera collapse, sink holes
tectonic loading
caused by plate motion
30 terms
Structural geology
stress
differential stress
fluid pressure
tension
force applied to a surface per unit area
stress that is greater in one direction
counteracts stress
pulling a rock apart
stress
force applied to a surface per unit area
differential stress
stress that is greater in one direction
93 terms
Structural Geology Exam 3
Brittle field
Brittle-ductile transition
Defects in Crystals: point defects
Defects in Crystals: line defects
Critical variables: ... -confining pressure,... -coefficient of fri…
Critical variables: ... -strain rate ... -temperature... -grain size... -…
important in diffusion creep
important in dislocation creep: edge and screw dislocation
Brittle field
Critical variables: ... -confining pressure,... -coefficient of fri…
Brittle-ductile transition
Critical variables: ... -strain rate ... -temperature... -grain size... -…
309 terms
Structural Geology Test 2
Joints are...
Joint surfaces...
Joints in massive rock bodies (i.e. ig…
In general, joints are a response to
-continuous, through-going planar openings in rock.... -On the s…
...tend to be rectangular in layered sedimentary rocks.
...range from circular to elliptical.
1 - Burial and compaction... 2 - Heating and cooling... 3 - Uplift…
Joints are...
-continuous, through-going planar openings in rock.... -On the s…
Joint surfaces...
...tend to be rectangular in layered sedimentary rocks.
24 terms
Structural Geology
Rheology
Stress
Strain
Brittle regime of deformation
Field of Materials Science that is concerned... with understandi…
Force per unit area applied to a solid substance
The amount of deformation an object experiences compared to i…
When the rock fracture (fault, joints, veins)
Rheology
Field of Materials Science that is concerned... with understandi…
Stress
Force per unit area applied to a solid substance
10 terms
Structural Geology
Strike
Dip
Normal Fault
Reverse Fault
A measure of the # of degrees E or W of North
A measure of the # of degrees down from horizontal
Footwall above hanging wall
Hanging wall above football
Strike
A measure of the # of degrees E or W of North
Dip
A measure of the # of degrees down from horizontal
20 terms
Structural geology
structural geology
deformation
anticline
syncline
study of rock layers that get deformed
folded and faulted
Fold center up, oldest in middle, linear
Fold center down, youngest in middle, linear
structural geology
study of rock layers that get deformed
deformation
folded and faulted
Structural Geology
Anticline... be able to draw!
Syncline... be able to draw!
Plunging Anticline... be able to draw!
Dome... be able to draw!
A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust
A plunging anticline is an anticlinal fold where the line def…
A feature in structural geology consisting of symmetrical ant…
Anticline... be able to draw!
A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
Syncline... be able to draw!
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust
14 terms
Structural Geology
Deformation
Uniform Stress
Differential
Elastic
Change in shape or volume of rock in response to stress
Equal force applied in each direction
Force applied is greater in one direction
Nonpermanent, rock returns to original shape
Deformation
Change in shape or volume of rock in response to stress
Uniform Stress
Equal force applied in each direction
29 terms
Structural Geology
Structural Geology
Geologic Map
Geologic Cross Section
Strike
Deformation of rocks and effects of its movements.
Surface distribution of bedrock formations
Subsurface configuration of surface formations
barring of a line defined by the intersection of the plane in…
Structural Geology
Deformation of rocks and effects of its movements.
Geologic Map
Surface distribution of bedrock formations
43 terms
Structural Geology
Structural Geology
Tectonics
Geodynamics
Structural Analyses: Geometric analysis
The mechanical behavior (stress and deformation) and kinemati…
Origin and evolution of the large-scale features of the outer…
Forces that drive mantle convection, plate motion and deforma…
shape, geographic orientation, size and geometric relation be…
Structural Geology
The mechanical behavior (stress and deformation) and kinemati…
Tectonics
Origin and evolution of the large-scale features of the outer…
21 terms
structural geology
Structural Geology
Deformation
Distortion
Dilation
deformation Earth materials "crustal deformation"
a change in shape or volume
shape change at constant volume
volume change
Structural Geology
deformation Earth materials "crustal deformation"
Deformation
a change in shape or volume
Structural Geology
Geology In The News
Tectonic Forces
Tensional Forces
Compressional Forces
Hypothesis of world wide fires during the extinctions of dino…
3 Types
Stretching something out from a common center
Squeezing the sides together
Geology In The News
Hypothesis of world wide fires during the extinctions of dino…
Tectonic Forces
3 Types
197 terms
Structural Geology Final all terms Alsleben
• Rheology
• Brittle failure
• Ductile flow
• Strain
o The study of the strength and behavior of material as a res…
o In any circumstance, when the material breaks, it is the re…
o Deformation without losing cohesion. (like dough being pres…
o Change in shape of rock as a response to distortion. Instan…
• Rheology
o The study of the strength and behavior of material as a res…
• Brittle failure
o In any circumstance, when the material breaks, it is the re…
57 terms
Structural Geology Final Exam
Shear Zone
Continuous Shear
Discontinuous Shear
4 Types of Shear Zones
A tabular to sheet-like, planar zones composed of rocks that…
decrease in shear away from the zone is gradual with no disti…
Boundary between the shear zone and surrounding rocks is more…
1. Brittle ... 2. Ductile... 3. Semibrittle... 4. Brittle-ductile
Shear Zone
A tabular to sheet-like, planar zones composed of rocks that…
Continuous Shear
decrease in shear away from the zone is gradual with no disti…
Structural Geology
structural geology
types of permanent strain
primary structures
primary rock structures (sed. meta. ig.)
study of the structures produced by deformation
fractures, faults, folds, flow structures
help understand deformation, by knowing what the rock origina…
layers, foliation, crystallization
structural geology
study of the structures produced by deformation
types of permanent strain
fractures, faults, folds, flow structures
135 terms
Structural Geology Midterm 1
Geologic Structure
Tectonics
Plate Tectonics
Geometric Model
A geologic structure is a geometric configuration of rocks, a…
The study of deformation history, as recorded by geologic str…
-is the large-scale part of tectonics that directly involves…
3D Interpretations of the distribution and orientation of str…
Geologic Structure
A geologic structure is a geometric configuration of rocks, a…
Tectonics
The study of deformation history, as recorded by geologic str…
Structural Geology
Structural Geology
Stress
Stresses and Resulting Structure
Stress: Tension
Study of the geometry and geologic history of rock... units that…
(force per unit area) causes strain... (deformation)... STRAIN res…
Compressional stress: folding, reverse faulting, thrust fault…
a stress which stretches rocks in two opposite directions. Th…
Structural Geology
Study of the geometry and geologic history of rock... units that…
Stress
(force per unit area) causes strain... (deformation)... STRAIN res…
22 terms
Structural Geology
strike / dip
syncline
anticline
folds are created through what type of…
runs parallel to rock seam / angle that it tilts
younger in middle, older on the edge - u shape
older in middle, younger on the edge - n shape
compressional
strike / dip
runs parallel to rock seam / angle that it tilts
syncline
younger in middle, older on the edge - u shape
21 terms
Structural Geology
Physiographic Regions
Building Up
Breaking Down
Weathering
Geologists classify the various regions of the United States…
Surface features are created through building processes cause…
surface features are built and destroyed through the processe…
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's…
Physiographic Regions
Geologists classify the various regions of the United States…
Building Up
Surface features are created through building processes cause…
45 terms
Geology week 5 - structural geology
Silicates
Extrusive rock
Intrusive rock
Scoria
Earth's most abundant mineral. Magma (igneous) environments.
Erupted onto surface. Small crystal size (can't usually diffe…
Crystallizes below the surface. Slow cooling results in large…
Dark colored igneous rock (looks very volcanic). Lots of bubb…
Silicates
Earth's most abundant mineral. Magma (igneous) environments.
Extrusive rock
Erupted onto surface. Small crystal size (can't usually diffe…
Structural Geology
Difference between ductile and brittle…
dip direction
dip angle
Anticline
Ductile- rock responds to stress by bending... Brittle- rock res…
direction the bed is dipping toward
angle the bed is dipping from horizontal
beds dip away from fold axis... oldest beds in center
Difference between ductile and brittle…
Ductile- rock responds to stress by bending... Brittle- rock res…
dip direction
direction the bed is dipping toward
22 terms
Structural Geology
Stress
Compressional Stress
Tensional Stress
Shear Stress
Force per unit area applied to an object (3 types: Compressio…
Shortening along the force direction
Elongate Displacement in the force direction
1. Angular displacement... 2. Forces act in opposite direction a…
Stress
Force per unit area applied to an object (3 types: Compressio…
Compressional Stress
Shortening along the force direction
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