Study sets matching "test 4 medical microbiology military"

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Study sets matching "test 4 medical microbiology military"

Medical Microbiology: Test 4
__________ is the ability to cause dis…
A pathogen can gain access to the inte…
A pathogenic microbe can enter the int…
A measure of pathogenicity is the:
Pathogeneticity
A portal of entry
Paraentral route
LD50
__________ is the ability to cause dis…
Pathogeneticity
A pathogen can gain access to the inte…
A portal of entry
6 terms
Medical Microbiology Test 4: Coxiella
Morphology
Characteristics of Coxiella
Epidemiology of Coxiella brunetii
Key virulence factors of Coxiella brun…
Coccobacilli... outer and inner membrane and thin peptidoglycan…
high resistance to environmental conditions... forms more resist…
hihgly resistant to drying... allows transmission by other means…
Intracellular survival factors: most important... Surface polysa…
Morphology
Coccobacilli... outer and inner membrane and thin peptidoglycan…
Characteristics of Coxiella
high resistance to environmental conditions... forms more resist…
9 terms
Medical Microbiology Test 4: Pasteurella
Morphology
key characteristics
Epidmiology of Pasteurella multocida
Intracellular survival factors:
small coccobacilli... GNB
catalase +... oxidase +... facultative anerobe... ferment any carbohyr…
primarily animal pathogen... causes hemorrhagic septicemias or p…
Capsule... Endotoxin (LPS)... Pasteurella multoida toxin (PMT)
Morphology
small coccobacilli... GNB
key characteristics
catalase +... oxidase +... facultative anerobe... ferment any carbohyr…
6 terms
Medical Microbiology Test 4: Brucella
Morphology
Characteristics of Brucella
Epidemiology of Brucella melitensis
Possible Virulence factors of Brucella…
Small coccobacilli... GNB
immotile... aerobic... grow slowly on enriched blood containing med…
primarily animal pathogen (zoonosis)... humans acquire through o…
- myeloperoxidase activity... block phagosome-lysosome fusion... -…
Morphology
Small coccobacilli... GNB
Characteristics of Brucella
immotile... aerobic... grow slowly on enriched blood containing med…
9 terms
Medical Microbiology Test 4: Francisella
Morphology
Key characteristics
Epidemiology of Francusella tularensis
key virulence factors of Francusella t…
small coccobacilli... GNB
immotile... aerobic... somewhat fastidious: requires sulfhydryl com…
primary agent of disease tularemia in wild mammals... arthropod…
capsule: anti-phagocytic and serum resistance factors... endotox…
Morphology
small coccobacilli... GNB
Key characteristics
immotile... aerobic... somewhat fastidious: requires sulfhydryl com…
33 terms
Medical Microbiology Test 4: Haemophilus
Important species of Haemophilus
Morphology of Haemophilus
Characteristics of Haemophilus
X factor
Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi
Small rods to coccobacilli... GNB
facultative anaerobe, prefer O presence... Non-hemolytic... Grows o…
hematin
Important species of Haemophilus
Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi
Morphology of Haemophilus
Small rods to coccobacilli... GNB
20 terms
Medical Microbiology Test 4: Bordetella
Morphology
Characteristics of Boredtella
Epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis
Exotoxins of Bordetella pertussis
coccobacillus... GNB
extremely sensitive to environmental factors: drying, temp sh…
highly contagious... trasmitted person-person via respiratory ae…
Pertussis toxin (PTX)... Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT)... Dermonecr…
Morphology
coccobacillus... GNB
Characteristics of Boredtella
extremely sensitive to environmental factors: drying, temp sh…
Test 4 Medical Microbiology
Symptoms of H. pylori infection
Who won a Warren Nobel Prize 2005 for…
Adhesion and Colonization for H. pylor…
what is the role of the urease enzyme…
Dyspepsia (acidity/acid reflux), stomach pains, nausea, bloat…
Barry (B.J.) Marshall and J. Robin
flagella-help the bacteria burrow in the mucus layer to reach…
1. changes urea to ammonia (alkaline) to buffer the acidic pH…
Symptoms of H. pylori infection
Dyspepsia (acidity/acid reflux), stomach pains, nausea, bloat…
Who won a Warren Nobel Prize 2005 for…
Barry (B.J.) Marshall and J. Robin
106 terms
Kumar Medical Microbiology Test 4
Symptoms of H. pylori infection
Who won a Warren Nobel Prize 2005 for…
Adhesion and Colonization for H. pylor…
what is the role of the urease enzyme…
Dyspepsia (acidity/acid reflux), stomach pains, nausea, bloat…
Barry (B.J.) Marshall and J. Robin
flagella-help the bacteria burrow in the mucus layer to reach…
1. changes urea to ammonia (alkaline) to buffer the acidic pH…
Symptoms of H. pylori infection
Dyspepsia (acidity/acid reflux), stomach pains, nausea, bloat…
Who won a Warren Nobel Prize 2005 for…
Barry (B.J.) Marshall and J. Robin
Medical Microbiology Test 4
Campylobacter jejuni
Neisseria
N. gonorrhoeae
N. meningitides
Common in poultry... relatively high infectious dose... Symptoms s…
G- cocci... 2 major pathogens (gonorrheae & meningitides)
causes gonorrhea
causes a form of meningitis
Campylobacter jejuni
Common in poultry... relatively high infectious dose... Symptoms s…
Neisseria
G- cocci... 2 major pathogens (gonorrheae & meningitides)
University Medical Microbiology Test 4
Skin
Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous layer
1. Largest organ of the body.... 2. Prevents the entry of microb…
Superficial or surface layer of skin.
Directly below the epidermis, contains tiny nerves, glands, b…
Not part of the skin but made up of fat and cells that suppor…
Skin
1. Largest organ of the body.... 2. Prevents the entry of microb…
Epidermis
Superficial or surface layer of skin.
Protozoans /helminths of medical importance Test 4 microbiology
Plasmodium symptoms (malaria)
Exoeroythrocyctic phase of plasmodium
erythrocytic cycle
Sporogonic phase
Fever chills diarrhea headache occasionally pulmonary or card…
When infected female mosquito bites a human-injects plasmodiu…
Plasmodium penetrate erythrocyte. ... This will digest the hemog…
Vector for mosquito. Mosquito bites you, will inject the bloo…
Plasmodium symptoms (malaria)
Fever chills diarrhea headache occasionally pulmonary or card…
Exoeroythrocyctic phase of plasmodium
When infected female mosquito bites a human-injects plasmodiu…
57 terms
Ch 4 Medical microbiology
coccus
bacillus
coccobacillus
vibrio
A spherical-shaped bacterial cell.
Bacterial cell shape that is cylindrical (rod-like) (longer t…
An elongated coccus; a short, thick, oval-shaped bacterial rod.
A curved, rod-shaped bacterial cell.
coccus
A spherical-shaped bacterial cell.
bacillus
Bacterial cell shape that is cylindrical (rod-like) (longer t…
50 terms
Medical Microbiology Block 4
Prions
Viruses
BacteriA
Fungi
Viral-like deviant and disruptive proteins; Mad cow disease
smallest infectious particles; 18-600nm comprised of DNA or R…
Simple unicellular organisms. 1X2-20uM in size, prokaryotic;…
Eukaryotic, unicellular to multicellular, asexual and sexual…
Prions
Viral-like deviant and disruptive proteins; Mad cow disease
Viruses
smallest infectious particles; 18-600nm comprised of DNA or R…
67 terms
Medical Microbiology - Chapter 4
What bacterial phyla contains the larg…
Are proteobacteria gram negative or gr…
What does Yersinia cause?
What does Neisseria cause?
Proteobacteria
Gram Negative
Black death
Meningitis and Gonorrhea
What bacterial phyla contains the larg…
Proteobacteria
Are proteobacteria gram negative or gr…
Gram Negative
Medical Microbiology - Lecture 4
What are some general characteristics…
What are some clinical features of Sal…
What is the incubation period for Salm…
What is the pathogenisis of Salmonella?
There are over 2500 serotypes but only 14 are pathogenic. ... S…
May be asymptomatic or mild GI disturbance such as acute onse…
12 - 36 Hours.
Production of Enterotoxins.
What are some general characteristics…
There are over 2500 serotypes but only 14 are pathogenic. ... S…
What are some clinical features of Sal…
May be asymptomatic or mild GI disturbance such as acute onse…
38 terms
Medical Microbiology-- lecture 4
microeukaryote
nucleus
organelle
mitochondria
tiny microscopic eukaryotic organism; eukaryotic microbe... ex:…
compartment/ organelle that contains genetic material (DNA, c…
specialized cellular structure enclosed by phospholipid bilay…
organelle, powerhouse of the cell. site of cellular respirati…
microeukaryote
tiny microscopic eukaryotic organism; eukaryotic microbe... ex:…
nucleus
compartment/ organelle that contains genetic material (DNA, c…
66 terms
Medical Microbiology: Lecture 4
genome
chromosome
plasmids
bacteriophage
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
usually ds, closed circular DNA
usually small ds, closed circular DNA; genes carried on the p…
bacterial cell infected with phage that has inserted itself i…
genome
the entire genetic complement of an organism; includes its ge…
chromosome
usually ds, closed circular DNA
131 terms
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
Causes gonorrhea
Casues a form of meningitis
N. Gonorrhoeae and N. Meningitidis are…
Adhesins, pili, Porin protein B (prote…
N. (Neisseria )gonorrhoeae
N. Meningitidis
Fastidious... Enriched
N. Gonorrhoeae virulence factors
Causes gonorrhea
N. (Neisseria )gonorrhoeae
Casues a form of meningitis
N. Meningitidis
29 terms
Medical microbiology session 4
Endotoxin
Exotoxin
Metabolism
Catabolism
-Part of the cell structure (in outer membrane)... -lipid (fat)…
-Produced by the cell (ribosomes synthesize)... -protein
sum total of all chemical reactions within an organism
Chemical reactions that release energy , breakdown of organic…
Endotoxin
-Part of the cell structure (in outer membrane)... -lipid (fat)…
Exotoxin
-Produced by the cell (ribosomes synthesize)... -protein
Medical Microbiology 4
Gametocyte
Ganglion
Gangrene
Gastro-
Male or female sexual cell of the malarial parasite found in…
Group of nerve cells outside the spinal cord
Death of tissue
Pertaining to the stomach
Gametocyte
Male or female sexual cell of the malarial parasite found in…
Ganglion
Group of nerve cells outside the spinal cord
176 terms
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
What is the number one STD in the US?
Should you be tested for chlamydia?
Do women usually know if they have chl…
What is the usual treatment for a chla…
Lymphopathia venereum (chlamydia)
Yeah probably
No, pelvic inflammatory disease (women) and possible infertil…
antibiotic doxycycline
What is the number one STD in the US?
Lymphopathia venereum (chlamydia)
Should you be tested for chlamydia?
Yeah probably
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
True
True
Respiratory tract, GI tract, genitouri…
Epidermis, keratin, and dryness
True or False: You don't make antibodies against organisms, b…
True or False: Endotoxins are responsible for the production…
What are the portals of exit?
How does the skin (first line of defense) protect us?
True
True or False: You don't make antibodies against organisms, b…
True
True or False: Endotoxins are responsible for the production…
54 terms
Medical Microbiology - Lecture 4
What are some general characteristics…
What are some clinical features of Sal…
What is the incubation period for Salm…
What is the pathogenisis of Salmonella?
There are over 2500 serotypes but only 14 are pathogenic. ... S…
May be asymptomatic or mild GI disturbance such as acute onse…
12 - 36 Hours.
Production of Enterotoxins.
What are some general characteristics…
There are over 2500 serotypes but only 14 are pathogenic. ... S…
What are some clinical features of Sal…
May be asymptomatic or mild GI disturbance such as acute onse…
104 terms
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
obligate intracellular parasites
viruses
virion
capsid
don't have the machinery to make their own proteins, replicat…
nucleic acid genome encased by a protein shell, obligate intr…
complete virus particle, usually means infectious
protein coat or shell
obligate intracellular parasites
don't have the machinery to make their own proteins, replicat…
viruses
nucleic acid genome encased by a protein shell, obligate intr…
29 terms
Medical Microbiology Quiz #4
Fungi
Yeasts
Molds
Hyphae
These are eukaryotic. They grow as unicellular and multicellu…
Unicellular fungi are called what?
Multicellular fungi are called what?
Long filament of cells that makes up the body of fungus
Fungi
These are eukaryotic. They grow as unicellular and multicellu…
Yeasts
Unicellular fungi are called what?
32 terms
Medical Microbiology Lecture - Chapter 4
Binary Fission
Peptidoglycan
DNA
Histones
What do prokaryotic cells use to divide?
Prokaryotic cells almost always contain this complex polysacc…
This is "naked" in prokaryotes, not associated with histones
Proteins associated with DNA and involved in DNA replication
Binary Fission
What do prokaryotic cells use to divide?
Peptidoglycan
Prokaryotic cells almost always contain this complex polysacc…
Medical Microbiology Quiz 4
curved
cholerae, parahaemolyticus, vulnificus
Vibrio
Vibrio cholerae
characteristic morphology of Vibrio
Clinically relevant vibrio species
Characteristic of ____________.... • Broadly tolerant with tempe…
found in brackish untreated water and prevalence in areas wit…
curved
characteristic morphology of Vibrio
cholerae, parahaemolyticus, vulnificus
Clinically relevant vibrio species
10 terms
Medical Microbiology Vocab. 4
Cell
Cocci
Compost
Cyst
basic structural unit of all living things
bacteria that are spherical, singular is coccus
decomposed organic material that is good for the soil and pla…
in microbes a dormant stage in the life cycle
Cell
basic structural unit of all living things
Cocci
bacteria that are spherical, singular is coccus
18 terms
Lecture 4 Medical Microbiology
Neisseria gonorrheae
Neisseria meningitidis
Acinetobacter
Moraxella catarrhalis
Gram -... Virulence Factors... 1)Pili bind mucosal surfaces ... 2) En…
Gram -... Virulence Factors... 1)Polysaccharide Capsule... 2) Endotox…
Nosocomial: pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infection
Bronchitis, sinusitis, otitis media (children), bronchopneumo…
Neisseria gonorrheae
Gram -... Virulence Factors... 1)Pili bind mucosal surfaces ... 2) En…
Neisseria meningitidis
Gram -... Virulence Factors... 1)Polysaccharide Capsule... 2) Endotox…
41 terms
Medical Microbiology (Chp. 4)
Glycocalyx
Nucleus
Nuclear Envelope
Nucleous
The outermost layer that comes into direct contact with the e…
A compact sphere that is the most prominent organelle of euka…
Two parallel membranes separated by a narrow space, and it is…
The site for ribosomal RNA synthesis and a collection area fo…
Glycocalyx
The outermost layer that comes into direct contact with the e…
Nucleus
A compact sphere that is the most prominent organelle of euka…
30 terms
Medical Microbiology (4)
Pseudomonas is will grow anywhere that…
Pseudomonas will cause a huge problem…
In IVDA, pseudomonas can cause....
On an agar plate, pseudomonas will loo…
water
3rd degree burn pts
endocarditis
very shinny
Pseudomonas is will grow anywhere that…
water
Pseudomonas will cause a huge problem…
3rd degree burn pts
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus Pyogenes
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Leptospirosis interrogans
Gram positive cocci in cluster
Gram positivie cocci in chains... beta hemolytic
Gram negative bacillus
Gram negative motile spirochete and facultative anaerobe
Staphylococcus aureus
Gram positive cocci in cluster
Streptococcus Pyogenes
Gram positivie cocci in chains... beta hemolytic
Medical Microbiology Quiz 4
curved
cholerae, parahaemolyticus, vulnificus
Vibrio
Vibrio cholerae
characteristic morphology of Vibrio
Clinically relevant vibrio species
Characteristic of ____________.... • Broadly tolerant with tempe…
found in brackish untreated water and prevalence in areas wit…
curved
characteristic morphology of Vibrio
cholerae, parahaemolyticus, vulnificus
Clinically relevant vibrio species
140 terms
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
Pseudomonas aeruginosa general
Pseudomonad Transmission
Pseudomonad Symptoms
Pseudomonad Treatment
Bacterial: Pseudomonadaceae (Gram -). Tricks: Biofilms, Efflu…
Normal body defenses stop it. An opportunist; only causes dis…
Depends on: host's health, exposure toure, length/"volume" of…
Some cases self-resolving. Antibiotics: choice differs by dis…
Pseudomonas aeruginosa general
Bacterial: Pseudomonadaceae (Gram -). Tricks: Biofilms, Efflu…
Pseudomonad Transmission
Normal body defenses stop it. An opportunist; only causes dis…
317 terms
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
what is the common name for pseudomona…
what are the "tricks" of the pseudomon…
biofilms
efflux systems
there is no common name
harpoon system... efflux systems... type III secretion
type of film formed from glycocalyx of bacterial cell, which…
nonspecific transporter that is responsible for pumping antib…
what is the common name for pseudomona…
there is no common name
what are the "tricks" of the pseudomon…
harpoon system... efflux systems... type III secretion
10 terms
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
Rickettsia (morphology/characteristics)
Rickettsia ... (The diseases- Rickettsia…
Rickettsia ... (The diseases- Rickettsia…
Rickettsia... - Rickettsial Pathogenesis
1) Small coccobacilli (smaller than most other bacteria)... 2) H…
1) Most have animal reservoirs and are transmitted through AR…
1) OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES...factors involved in ENT…
1) Infect & multiply w/in endothelial cells mainly of SMALL B…
Rickettsia (morphology/characteristics)
1) Small coccobacilli (smaller than most other bacteria)... 2) H…
Rickettsia ... (The diseases- Rickettsia…
1) Most have animal reservoirs and are transmitted through AR…
113 terms
Exam 4 - Medical Microbiology
Pathogen
Pathology
Pathologist
Pathogenicity
Microbe capable of causing disease
The study of the structural and functional manifestation of d…
A person trained in pathology
The ability to cause disease; virulence
Pathogen
Microbe capable of causing disease
Pathology
The study of the structural and functional manifestation of d…
44 terms
medical microbiology exam 4
pseudomembrane
pseudomembrane colitis (PMC)
Tcd A and B
E. coli
-C. diff... -composed of fibrin, WBC, bacteria, dying gut cells…
-C.diff condition... -may lead to septic shock... -membrane forms o…
-A (enterotoxin) B (cytotoxin)... -C. diff... -Type III toxin... -once…
-Gram (-) rods... -motile... -facultative anaerobes that ferment gl…
pseudomembrane
-C. diff... -composed of fibrin, WBC, bacteria, dying gut cells…
pseudomembrane colitis (PMC)
-C.diff condition... -may lead to septic shock... -membrane forms o…
31 terms
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
Prions
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Kuru
Fatal familial insomnia
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of rar…
Person with this disease will have abnormal shaking/jerking m…
this disease is linked to cannibalism in indigenous people in…
prion disease interfering with sleep with severe mental deter…
Prions
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of rar…
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Person with this disease will have abnormal shaking/jerking m…
Medical Microbiology Exam 4
pathologist
epidermiologist
epidemiological factors
epidemiologists
studies structural and functional manifestations of disease;…
studies factors that determine frequency, distribution, and d…
characteristics of pathogens, susceptibility of populations,…
goal is to prevent, control, and eradicate diseases within po…
pathologist
studies structural and functional manifestations of disease;…
epidermiologist
studies factors that determine frequency, distribution, and d…
39 terms
Medical Microbiology Chapter 4
staining
smear
heat fixation
chemical fixation
coloring specimens with stains (dyes)
thin film of organism on slide
slide is gently heated
applying a chemical to smear for 1 minute (ex: methyl alcohol)
staining
coloring specimens with stains (dyes)
smear
thin film of organism on slide
Medical Microbiology Chapter 4 (Fungi)
What are fungi?
Fungi are Saprophytes, what is that?
How do fungi reproduce?
What environment do fungi usually grow…
Non-photosynthetic, heterotrophic, eukaryotic. Most are Sapro…
Obtaining food from dead organic matter
By spores that are not resistant to environmental pressures l…
Humid warm environments, with a range of -6 C to 50 C (optima…
What are fungi?
Non-photosynthetic, heterotrophic, eukaryotic. Most are Sapro…
Fungi are Saprophytes, what is that?
Obtaining food from dead organic matter
15 terms
Medical Microbiology Vocabulary Quiz 4
Colostrum
Comorbidity
epitope
Erythrocyte
The first secretion from the mammary glands after giving birt…
The simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditio…
The part of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches…
A red blood cell that (in humans) is typically a biconcave di…
Colostrum
The first secretion from the mammary glands after giving birt…
Comorbidity
The simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditio…
Medical Microbiology - Exam 4
Immune Tolerance
Molecular Mimicry
If self-reactive lymphocytes are prese…
Autoimmunity associated with..
Self-reactive lymphocytes are normally deleted during develop…
Pathogens have antigens that resemble host antigens may avoid…
It would recognize the pathogen as a pathogen. Now the lympho…
In Rheumatic Fever, Streptococcus infection due to induced au…
Immune Tolerance
Self-reactive lymphocytes are normally deleted during develop…
Molecular Mimicry
Pathogens have antigens that resemble host antigens may avoid…
151 terms
MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY EXAM 4
Define mycology
Define fungus
Define mycoses
Define mould
The study of fungi responsible for disease in humans
Nucleated, spore-bearing, cell walls of chitin or cellulose;…
Infections caused by fungi: cutaneous, subcutaneous, systemic…
Fungus composed of filaments that generally form a colony tha…
Define mycology
The study of fungi responsible for disease in humans
Define fungus
Nucleated, spore-bearing, cell walls of chitin or cellulose;…
15 terms
Medical Microbiology Quiz 4
10/06: Guest Lecture: Dr. Bomberger. H…
10/06: Guest Lecture: Dr. Bomberger. H…
10/06: Guest Lecture: Dr. Bomberger. H…
10/06: Guest Lecture: Dr. Bomberger. H…
Genetic dz caused by a mutation in the CFTR chloride channel…
CFTR gene mutation --> Defective ion transport -->airway surf…
4th most common nosocomial pathogen acct for over 10% of hosp…
1. Lung Environment (defective cilia function: too short or s…
10/06: Guest Lecture: Dr. Bomberger. H…
Genetic dz caused by a mutation in the CFTR chloride channel…
10/06: Guest Lecture: Dr. Bomberger. H…
CFTR gene mutation --> Defective ion transport -->airway surf…
15 terms
Vocabulary List 4 Medical Microbiology
colostrum
comorbidity
epitope
erythrocyte
a thin yellowish fluid secreted by the breast during pregnanc…
The simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditio…
The part of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches…
a red blood cell that (in humans) is typically a biconcave di…
colostrum
a thin yellowish fluid secreted by the breast during pregnanc…
comorbidity
The simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditio…
Medical Microbiology Quiz #4
Clostridium
Clostridium
Fluid thioglycolate
Clostridium perfringens
genus that is an Obligate anaerobe - cannot live in oxygen be…
infections associated with intraabdominal, pulmonary and geni…
medium that creates an oxygen gradient and used for anaerobic…
Clostridium species that does not always make spores
Clostridium
genus that is an Obligate anaerobe - cannot live in oxygen be…
Clostridium
infections associated with intraabdominal, pulmonary and geni…
11 terms
Medical Microbiology Exam 4 - Lecture 20
Helicobacter disease
Helicobacter pylori discoveries?
H. pylori Adhesion and Colonization
H. pylori Immune Evasion
• Gram-negative,micro-aerophilic bacterium (3-15% O2)... • Prese…
• Originally classified as C. pyloridis... • Barry Marshall and…
• Flagella help burrow in the mucus layer and to reach epithe…
• Modification (acetylation) of peptidoglycan --> masking... • H…
Helicobacter disease
• Gram-negative,micro-aerophilic bacterium (3-15% O2)... • Prese…
Helicobacter pylori discoveries?
• Originally classified as C. pyloridis... • Barry Marshall and…
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