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Study sets matching "ultrasound physics"

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Study sets matching "ultrasound physics"

179 terms
Ultrasound Physics
A-Mode
This display mode displays Time on the…
The complete sequence of firing all th…
The trapezoidal image shape is formed…
The following image depicts:
M-Mode
Frame rate
Vector
A-Mode
The following image depicts:
This display mode displays Time on the…
M-Mode
179 terms
Ultrasound Physics
A-Mode
This display mode displays Time on the…
The complete sequence of firing all th…
The trapezoidal image shape is formed…
The following image depicts:
M-Mode
Frame rate
Vector
A-Mode
The following image depicts:
This display mode displays Time on the…
M-Mode
179 terms
Ultrasound Physics
A-mode
M-Mode
Frame rate
Vector
The following image depicts:
This display mode displays Time on the X-axis and Depth on th…
The complete sequence of firing all the crystals of the array…
The trapezoidal image shape is formed by the following transd…
A-mode
The following image depicts:
M-Mode
This display mode displays Time on the X-axis and Depth on th…
38 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Electromagnetic Waves
Mechanical Waves
Sound
Sound spectrum
types of radiation waves including: gamma, X-ray, UV rays, Vi…
the propagation of energy through a medium by cyclic pressure…
a mechanical longitudinal wave that travels in a straight lin…
Ultrasound, Audible sound, Infrasound.
Electromagnetic Waves
types of radiation waves including: gamma, X-ray, UV rays, Vi…
Mechanical Waves
the propagation of energy through a medium by cyclic pressure…
180 terms
Ultrasound Physics
A-Mode
This display mode displays Time on the…
The complete sequence of firing all th…
The trapezoidal image shape is formed…
The following image depicts:
M-Mode
Frame rate
Vector
A-Mode
The following image depicts:
This display mode displays Time on the…
M-Mode
34 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Unrelated
Related or proportional
Directly Related
Inversely Related
Two items that are not associated.
Two items that are associated or affiliated.
Two items that are associated such that when one item increas…
Two items are associated such that when one item increases, t…
Unrelated
Two items that are not associated.
Related or proportional
Two items that are associated or affiliated.
90 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Define sound:
Sound requires a source (moving partic…
High acoustic pressure
Low acoustic pressure
Sound is particles in a medium vibrating around a rest point.…
Sound requires a source (providing particles) and a medium. T…
Compression - region of high acoustic pressure and higher sou…
Rarefactions - region of low acoustic pressure and lower soun…
Define sound:
Sound is particles in a medium vibrating around a rest point.…
Sound requires a source (moving partic…
Sound requires a source (providing particles) and a medium. T…
179 terms
Ultrasound Physics
A-Mode
This display mode displays Time on the…
The complete sequence of firing all th…
The trapezoidal image shape is formed…
The following image depicts:
M-Mode
Frame rate
Vector
A-Mode
The following image depicts:
This display mode displays Time on the…
M-Mode
98 terms
Physics of Ultrasound
area prep
SONAR
physics of ultrasound
physical properties
find what works for you; trough to lay back on, head towards…
sound navigation and ranging; medical use in 1950's, vets in…
sound goes in, sound comes out (echo), computer generates an…
concept of a sound wave: velocity, frequency, wavelength, amp…
area prep
find what works for you; trough to lay back on, head towards…
SONAR
sound navigation and ranging; medical use in 1950's, vets in…
19 terms
ultrasound physics
f
p
c
Z
frequency
period (time)
propagation speed m/sec
Impedance (rayls)
f
frequency
p
period (time)
104 terms
Ultrasound Physics Chapter 2
-Created by a vibrating source, carrie…
Acoustic variables (aka wave variables…
Back and forth particle motion is ____…
Waves move matter but carry____________
Sound
Pressure, density, temperature, particle motion
Parallel
Energy
-Created by a vibrating source, carrie…
Sound
Acoustic variables (aka wave variables…
Pressure, density, temperature, particle motion
17 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Echogenicity
Anechoic
Hypoechoic
Hyperechoic
refers to the sonographic appearance of different tissue types.
does not produce echoes (echo free, without echoes)
tissue depicting low level echoes. Term used to describe tiss…
tissue depicting strong echoes. Term used to describe tissues…
Echogenicity
refers to the sonographic appearance of different tissue types.
Anechoic
does not produce echoes (echo free, without echoes)
Ultrasound Physics
Compressions
Rarefactions
Medium
Vacuum
Increases in pressure or density.
Decreases in pressure or density.
Sound must travel through a _________.
Sound can not travel through a __________.
Compressions
Increases in pressure or density.
Rarefactions
Decreases in pressure or density.
10 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Improve US axial resolution
Factors for US elevation resolution
Higher frequency
Low Dampening block
SHORTER SPATIAL PULSE LENGTH... higher frequency transducer... incr…
Transducer element height
More scatter... More attenuation
High Q... Narrow BW... To preserve velocity information in Doppler
Improve US axial resolution
SHORTER SPATIAL PULSE LENGTH... higher frequency transducer... incr…
Factors for US elevation resolution
Transducer element height
238 terms
Ultrasound Physics
A transducer converts one form of_____…
Ultrasound transducers convert________…
Ultrasound transducers operate on the…
Single-element transducers are in the…
energy
electric, ultrasound
piezoelectric
disks
A transducer converts one form of_____…
energy
Ultrasound transducers convert________…
electric, ultrasound
59 terms
Ultrasound Physics
d. increased tissue stiffness
c. compression
a. decreases the maximum depth imaged
c. motion of particles is parallel to…
Which one of the following will increase the speed of ultraso…
Ultrasound wave propagation causes displacement of particles…
Decreasing the pulse repetition period... a. decreases the maxi…
What direction is the motion of particles in a longitudinal w…
d. increased tissue stiffness
Which one of the following will increase the speed of ultraso…
c. compression
Ultrasound wave propagation causes displacement of particles…
59 terms
Ultrasound Physics
d. increased tissue stiffness
c. compression
a. decreases the maximum depth imaged
c. motion of particles is parallel to…
Which one of the following will increase the speed of ultraso…
Ultrasound wave propagation causes displacement of particles…
Decreasing the pulse repetition period... a. decreases the maxi…
What direction is the motion of particles in a longitudinal w…
d. increased tissue stiffness
Which one of the following will increase the speed of ultraso…
c. compression
Ultrasound wave propagation causes displacement of particles…
20 terms
Ultrasound physics
a
A
c
D
attenuation coefficient
amplitude
speed of sound (propagation velocity)
depth
a
attenuation coefficient
A
amplitude
34 terms
Ultrasound Physics
the low pressure part of a sound wave
speed = wavelength x frequency
1540 m/s
a loss of 50% of signal intensity (pow…
What is rarefaction?
equation for relating sound wave wavelength and frequency
Speed of sound in tissue
A loss of 3dB represents what
the low pressure part of a sound wave
What is rarefaction?
speed = wavelength x frequency
equation for relating sound wave wavelength and frequency
Ultrasound physics
Intensity
Spatial pulse length
Power
Power-equation
Concentration of the power of the sound beam... Power (watts)... _…
# of cycles X wavelength (mm)
Is proportional to the waves amplitude squared ... Measured in…
If the amplitude is doubled, the power is increased by 4.... 1+…
Intensity
Concentration of the power of the sound beam... Power (watts)... _…
Spatial pulse length
# of cycles X wavelength (mm)
39 terms
Ultrasound physics
Logarithm or log
Decibel
Decibel notation
Two densities required for decibels
Method of rating numbers. ___ of a number represents the numb…
Common unit for measuring electrical signal strength and the…
*A relative measurement (changes)... *A comparison... *A ratio (mea…
Reference (starting level) and actual level at the time of me…
Logarithm or log
Method of rating numbers. ___ of a number represents the numb…
Decibel
Common unit for measuring electrical signal strength and the…
16 terms
Ultrasound Physics
giga - G (10^9)
mega - M (10^6)
kilo - k (10^3)
hecto - h (10^2)
billion (1,000,000,000)
million (1,000,000)
thousand (1,000)
hundred (100)
giga - G (10^9)
billion (1,000,000,000)
mega - M (10^6)
million (1,000,000)
61 terms
Ultrasound Physics
What is a wave?
Two components of a wave
What is a Compression?
What is a Rarefaction?
A cyclical transfer of energy
compression & rarefaction
positive pressure, molecules are pushed together
Negative Pressure, particles are spread apart
What is a wave?
A cyclical transfer of energy
Two components of a wave
compression & rarefaction
315 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Frame Rate
unit of frame rate
frame rate determined by
temporal resolution
system's ability to create numerous frames each second
hertz, images per second
sound's speed in medium and depth
accuracy in time
Frame Rate
system's ability to create numerous frames each second
unit of frame rate
hertz, images per second
68 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Compressions
Rarefactions
Medium
Vacuum
Increases in pressure or density.
Decreases in pressure or density.
Sound must travel through a _________.
Sound can not travel through a __________.
Compressions
Increases in pressure or density.
Rarefactions
Decreases in pressure or density.
54 terms
ultrasound physics
horizontal, and vertical axis
units
units of length, area, volume
scientific notation
hor= x axis (side to side)... vert = y axis (up and down)
All numerical values must have corresponding units, a number…
length: cm, ft... area: cm2, ft2... volume: cm3, ft3
a short hand manner to represent these huge or very small num…
horizontal, and vertical axis
hor= x axis (side to side)... vert = y axis (up and down)
units
All numerical values must have corresponding units, a number…
40 terms
ultrasound physics
graphs
horizontal line
vertical axis
related or proportional relationships
a diaphragm or a curve representing data and relationships be…
x- axis
y- axis
the presence of association or relationship between two items
graphs
a diaphragm or a curve representing data and relationships be…
horizontal line
x- axis
59 terms
Ultrasound Physics
d. increased tissue stiffness
c. compression
a. decreases the maximum depth imaged
c. motion of particles is parallel to…
Which one of the following will increase the speed of ultraso…
Ultrasound wave propagation causes displacement of particles…
Decreasing the pulse repetition period... a. decreases the maxi…
What direction is the motion of particles in a longitudinal w…
d. increased tissue stiffness
Which one of the following will increase the speed of ultraso…
c. compression
Ultrasound wave propagation causes displacement of particles…
290 terms
ultrasound physics
2 words to describe sound waves
acoustic propagation properties
bio effects
3 acoustic variables
mechanical, longitudinal
effects of medium upon sound wave
effects of sound wave upon biological tissue through which it…
pressure, density, distance
2 words to describe sound waves
mechanical, longitudinal
acoustic propagation properties
effects of medium upon sound wave
93 terms
Ultrasound physics
Test object
TE phantoms
What are TE phantoms made of
Hydrophone
Is a fluid-filled tank containing strategically located stain…
Simulate tissue properties; evaluate systems like gray scale,…
Graphite-filled aqueous gels or urethane rubber materials
Small xducer determines sound beams shape
Test object
Is a fluid-filled tank containing strategically located stain…
TE phantoms
Simulate tissue properties; evaluate systems like gray scale,…
347 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Attenuation Coefficient
Impedance equals... Units
13 µs rule
The time it takes to complete a cycle.…
Attenuation per cm to in soft tissue the attenuation coeffici…
Density X speed... Rayls
For every 13 µs reflector is 1 cm deep in the body
Period. Units of time seconds milliseconds hour. Determined b…
Attenuation Coefficient
Attenuation per cm to in soft tissue the attenuation coeffici…
Impedance equals... Units
Density X speed... Rayls
28 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Mirror image artifact
curved sequenced array
have a thinner PZT
the resulting wave is smaller than the…
sound beams bouncing off a strong reflector and producing an…
what would be the best utilized transducer for imaging the st…
to produce a transducer with a higher frequency on should?
describe destructive interference
Mirror image artifact
sound beams bouncing off a strong reflector and producing an…
curved sequenced array
what would be the best utilized transducer for imaging the st…
78 terms
ultrasound physics
unrelated
directly related
inversely related
reciprocal
two items that are not associated
two items that are associated such that when one item increas…
two items that are associated such that when one item increas…
inversely proportional
unrelated
two items that are not associated
directly related
two items that are associated such that when one item increas…
59 terms
Ultrasound Physics
d. increased tissue stiffness
c. compression
a. decreases the maximum depth imaged
c. motion of particles is parallel to…
Which one of the following will increase the speed of ultraso…
Ultrasound wave propagation causes displacement of particles…
Decreasing the pulse repetition period... a. decreases the maxi…
What direction is the motion of particles in a longitudinal w…
d. increased tissue stiffness
Which one of the following will increase the speed of ultraso…
c. compression
Ultrasound wave propagation causes displacement of particles…
50 terms
ultrasound physics
Acoustic Variables
If the area of a sound beam is decreas…
Areas of low pressure and density in a…
Which sound category lies in 20 Hz - 2…
Pressure... Distance... Density
increased
Rarefactions
Audible
Acoustic Variables
Pressure... Distance... Density
If the area of a sound beam is decreas…
increased
14 terms
Ultrasound physics
Wave travel
Attenuation
Absorption
Reflection
Sound waves travel though stiffer material more readily
Reduction of wave intensity and amplitude through medium
Wave absorbed by the media
Waves bounce back in the same direction of travel and echoes…
Wave travel
Sound waves travel though stiffer material more readily
Attenuation
Reduction of wave intensity and amplitude through medium
51 terms
Ultrasound Physics
The horizontal axis is also called
The horizontal or x-axis runs
The vertical axis is also called
The vertical or y-axis runs
x-axis
side to side
y-axis
up and down
The horizontal axis is also called
x-axis
The horizontal or x-axis runs
side to side
169 terms
Ultrasound physics
What is the horizontal axis called?
What is the vertical axis called?
What are two items that are not associ…
What are two items that are associated…
X axis
Y axis
Unrelated
Directly related or proportional
What is the horizontal axis called?
X axis
What is the vertical axis called?
Y axis
1,058 terms
Ultrasound Physics - Comprehensive Final
A-mode
M-Mode
Frame rate
Vector
The following image depicts:
This display mode displays Time on the X-axis and Depth on th…
The complete sequence of firing all the crystals of the array…
The trapezoidal image shape is formed by the following transd…
A-mode
The following image depicts:
M-Mode
This display mode displays Time on the X-axis and Depth on th…
68 terms
Ultrasound physics
Impedence in ultrasound is a product o…
How do you calculate the reflection co…
What does the reflection coefficient t…
Why are hemangiomas bright on ultrasou…
Density of tissue and speed of sound in that tissue.
Square the difference between the impedence of two materials,…
The fraction of sound that is reflected.
Because of the many interfaces due to the multiple walls in t…
Impedence in ultrasound is a product o…
Density of tissue and speed of sound in that tissue.
How do you calculate the reflection co…
Square the difference between the impedence of two materials,…
63 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Ultrasound uses high frequency ___ wav…
What is the only diagnostic imaging mo…
What does an ultrasound wave do in the…
The ______ generates a series of US wa…
sound
ULTRASOUND
The sound wave will interact with tissue, be changed by inter…
transducer
Ultrasound uses high frequency ___ wav…
sound
What is the only diagnostic imaging mo…
ULTRASOUND
40 terms
Ultrasound Physics Artifacts
Artifact
Artifact types include reflections tha…
Artifacts result from:
Six Assumptions of Imaging Systems
An error in imaging.... Artifacts are incorrect representations…
not real, not seen on the image, not of the correct shape or…
violation of assumptions, equipment malfunctions or poor desi…
1. Sound travels in a straight line... 2. Sound travels directly…
Artifact
An error in imaging.... Artifacts are incorrect representations…
Artifact types include reflections tha…
not real, not seen on the image, not of the correct shape or…
120 terms
Ultrasound Physics
What is the relationship between depth…
The diameter of the diffraction limit…
The sampling therom states:
How can you tell if an appearance is r…
P x F x N =77000... as depth (P) increases... frame rate (F) decrea…
...
The highest Doppler shift shoud not exceed 1/2 PRF... To correct…
move transducer to one side i.e. away from the midline, keepi…
What is the relationship between depth…
P x F x N =77000... as depth (P) increases... frame rate (F) decrea…
The diameter of the diffraction limit…
...
43 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Ultrasound uses _____ frequency sound…
Ultrasound is the only diagnostic imag…
True/False: ALARA is not important whe…
Sound waves enter the body and interac…
high
electromagnetic radiation
false
tissues
Ultrasound uses _____ frequency sound…
high
Ultrasound is the only diagnostic imag…
electromagnetic radiation
38 terms
Ultrasound Physics
gain
focal zone
output power
golden rule of output power
- "amplification" ... - ratio of output/input... - increases or dec…
area in which the image detail is the best
- electrical power to the transducer ... - has the same "apparen…
- when an INCREASE in image brightness is desired first incre…
gain
- "amplification" ... - ratio of output/input... - increases or dec…
focal zone
area in which the image detail is the best
16 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Nyquist Criteria
Demodulation
Rectification
Envelope Detection
minimum rate @ which you must sample for accurate reconstruct…
process by which modulations of waves are removed or detected…
converts negative components of signal into positive componen…
traces signal peaks & valleys while applying some averaging /…
Nyquist Criteria
minimum rate @ which you must sample for accurate reconstruct…
Demodulation
process by which modulations of waves are removed or detected…
72 terms
Ultrasound Physics
True
speed, time
electrical
longer
True/False: Ultrasound is the only diagnostic imaging modalit…
The ultrasound machine calculates the distance from the probe…
Returning ultrasound waves, or echoes are transformed by the…
Waves that have a (shorter, longer) "time of flight" are plac…
True
True/False: Ultrasound is the only diagnostic imaging modalit…
speed, time
The ultrasound machine calculates the distance from the probe…
35 terms
Ultrasound physics
Are the pairs inversely related, direc…
Are the pairs inversely related, direc…
Are the pairs inversely related, direc…
Are the pairs inversely related, direc…
Inversely related (As a general rule, as cholesterol lvels in…
Directly related (Generally, individuals who smoke are more l…
Directly related
Unrelated
Are the pairs inversely related, direc…
Inversely related (As a general rule, as cholesterol lvels in…
Are the pairs inversely related, direc…
Directly related (Generally, individuals who smoke are more l…
82 terms
Ultrasound physics
Period
Frequency
Formula for period
Formula for frequency
The time that it takes for a cycle to complete
The number of cycles that occur in one second
T= 1/F
F=1/period
Period
The time that it takes for a cycle to complete
Frequency
The number of cycles that occur in one second
69 terms
Ultrasound Physics
Compressions
Rarefactions
Medium
Vacuum
Increases in pressure or density.
Decreases in pressure or density.
Sound must travel through a _________.
Sound can not travel through a __________.
Compressions
Increases in pressure or density.
Rarefactions
Decreases in pressure or density.
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