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Study sets matching "unit 7 ap biology"

37 terms
AP Biology: Unit 7
Carbs: the typical ratios of Carbon:Hy…
Carbs: the monomers and polymers
Carbs: the function of chitin, cellulo…
Lipids: what they have in common
Monosaccharides - 1:2:1... Polysaccharides - x:2:1
Monomers of carbs are called monosaccharides.... Polymers of car…
Starch: stockpiles/stores surplus glucose... Cellulose: provides…
They do not like water; they are all hydrophobic/nonpolar.
Carbs: the typical ratios of Carbon:Hy…
Monosaccharides - 1:2:1... Polysaccharides - x:2:1
Carbs: the monomers and polymers
Monomers of carbs are called monosaccharides.... Polymers of car…
47 terms
AP Biology Unit 7 Vocabulary
blastula
gastrula
ectoderm
endoderm
a development stage unique to all animals, it is a hollow bal…
term for the developing embryo once blastula begins
most exterior germ layer
most interior germ layer
blastula
a development stage unique to all animals, it is a hollow bal…
gastrula
term for the developing embryo once blastula begins
117 terms
AP Biology--Unit 7: Evolution
"The Origin of Species" major points
natural selection
evolutionary adaptation
evolution
-written by Darwin... -1) contemporary species came from ancesto…
organisms with certain inheritable traits are more likely to…
inherited trait that increases survival in some environments
descent with modification
"The Origin of Species" major points
-written by Darwin... -1) contemporary species came from ancesto…
natural selection
organisms with certain inheritable traits are more likely to…
30 terms
AP Biology: Unit 7
Carbs: the typical ratios of Carbon:Hy…
Carbs: the monomers and polymers
Carbs: the function of chitin, cellulo…
Lipids: what they have in common
Monosaccharides - 1:2:1... Polysaccharides - x:2:1
Monomers of carbs are called monosaccharides.... Polymers of car…
Starch: stockpiles/stores surplus glucose... Cellulose: provides…
They do not like water; they are all hydrophobic/nonpolar.
Carbs: the typical ratios of Carbon:Hy…
Monosaccharides - 1:2:1... Polysaccharides - x:2:1
Carbs: the monomers and polymers
Monomers of carbs are called monosaccharides.... Polymers of car…
24 terms
AP Biology Unit 7: Energy
Trophic
Energy governs...
Primary Producers
Primary Consumers
Energy... "Nourishment"
...the type, abundance, and relationship between living and n…
Trophic level that supports all others... Autotrophs
Herbivores
Trophic
Energy... "Nourishment"
Energy governs...
...the type, abundance, and relationship between living and n…
28 terms
Biology AP Unit 7 Notecards
1. Explain how contributions from each…
b. Avery, McCarty, McLeod
c. Hershey & Chase
d. Erwin Chargaff
Griffith's experiments involved two strains of streptococcus…
Following Griffith's experiments with streptococcus pneumonia…
Hershey & Chase's experiment concluded that DNA was the sourc…
Chargaff formulated two laws: 1.) All species have different…
1. Explain how contributions from each…
Griffith's experiments involved two strains of streptococcus…
b. Avery, McCarty, McLeod
Following Griffith's experiments with streptococcus pneumonia…
27 terms
Unit 7 AP Biology
Rivet Model
Competition Exclusion Model
cooperative displacement theory
Resource partitioning
The Interaction among species (food web)... every species is imp…
each species has its own niche ... two species cannot occupy the…
one species is to be more successful than the others when com…
cause evolution to proceed faster... according to darwin, the or…
Rivet Model
The Interaction among species (food web)... every species is imp…
Competition Exclusion Model
each species has its own niche ... two species cannot occupy the…
77 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
energy
kinetic energy
potential energy
chemical energy
the ability to do work or bring about a change
energy of motion
stored energy, not being used right now
food, composed or organic molecules, stored in bonds
energy
the ability to do work or bring about a change
kinetic energy
energy of motion
93 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Energy
Potential
Kinetic
The Law of conservation of energy
the ability to do work/bring about change
stored energy/energy at rest
the energy of motion
energy cannot be created or destroyed but it can be changed f…
Energy
the ability to do work/bring about change
Potential
stored energy/energy at rest
47 terms
AP Biology: Unit 7
sanger sequencing
next generation sequencing
ori
Bla
REACTANTS: single-stranded DNA template, DNA polymerase, prim…
fragment the genome, run many sequencing reactions in paralle…
on pGLO plasmid, origin of replication
on PGLO plasmid, ampicillin resistance
sanger sequencing
REACTANTS: single-stranded DNA template, DNA polymerase, prim…
next generation sequencing
fragment the genome, run many sequencing reactions in paralle…
130 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Evolution
Microevolution
Macroevolution
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
change through time, Darwin credited for proposing natural se…
how populations change through time
how species changes through time
relied on observation, logic, and watching artificial selecti…
Evolution
change through time, Darwin credited for proposing natural se…
Microevolution
how populations change through time
126 terms
AP Biology Unit 7-Evolution
Thomas Malthus
Georges Cuvier (catastrophism)
Charles Lyell
James Hutton (gradualism)
limited resources lead to disease, famine, and war (once limi…
noticed older stratum had dissimilar fossils ... advocated cata…
proposed that the same processes occur today as in the past…
Earth's features are due to gradual mechanisms
Thomas Malthus
limited resources lead to disease, famine, and war (once limi…
Georges Cuvier (catastrophism)
noticed older stratum had dissimilar fossils ... advocated cata…
38 terms
AP Biology Unit 7-Evolution
Georges Cuvier (catastrophism)
Charles Lyell
James Hutton (gradualism)
Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linne)
noticed older stratum had dissimilar fossils ... advocated cata…
proposed that the same processes occur today as in the past…
Earth's features are due to gradual mechanisms
specialized in taxonomy... developed binomial nomenclature used…
Georges Cuvier (catastrophism)
noticed older stratum had dissimilar fossils ... advocated cata…
Charles Lyell
proposed that the same processes occur today as in the past…
19 terms
Pre-AP Biology Unit 7 Vocabulary List 1A
Chromosome
Heredity
Offspring
Traits
A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in…
The biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitte…
Product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or mo…
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offsprin…
Chromosome
A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in…
Heredity
The biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitte…
18 terms
AP Biology Unit 7: Biotic Potential
Exponential Model (5)
Logistic Model (4)
r-Selected
K-Selected
Population in an unlimited environment... "r populations"... J-Curv…
Maximum population size supported by the environment... "K popul…
Opportunistic
Equilibrial
Exponential Model (5)
Population in an unlimited environment... "r populations"... J-Curv…
Logistic Model (4)
Maximum population size supported by the environment... "K popul…
88 terms
Unit 7 AP Biology
ecology
biosphere
ecologist
species
-the study of the interactions between organisms and the envi…
-the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems…
-study various levels of organisms and their interactions wit…
-a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fert…
ecology
-the study of the interactions between organisms and the envi…
biosphere
-the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems…
10 terms
Pre-AP Biology Unit 7 Vocabulary List 2
Mutant
Autosomal Recessive Disorder
Carrier
Autosomal Dominant Disorder
Any change in DNA; may include a change in the nucleotide bas…
Abnormal allele is recessive and a person must be homozygous…
A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed…
Affected individual has a single mutant allele that is transm…
Mutant
Any change in DNA; may include a change in the nucleotide bas…
Autosomal Recessive Disorder
Abnormal allele is recessive and a person must be homozygous…
16 terms
Pre-AP Biology Unit 7 Vocabulary List 1B
Segregate
Alleles
Dominant Allele
Recessive Allele
To separate.
Alternative versions of a gene.
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when th…
A term that describes an allele that is not expressed when co…
Segregate
To separate.
Alleles
Alternative versions of a gene.
12 terms
Pre-AP Biology Unit 7 Vocabulary List 3
X-Linked Traits
Y-Linked Traits
Sex-Linked Traits
SRY Gene
Genes found only on the X chromosome.
The gene is found only on the Y chromosome and will only be e…
Traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes.
The sex determining region of the Y chromosome in males. It t…
X-Linked Traits
Genes found only on the X chromosome.
Y-Linked Traits
The gene is found only on the Y chromosome and will only be e…
8 terms
Ap biology unit 7
Classification
Speciation
Anagenesis
Cladogenesis
Based on evolutionary relationships
What is the basis for classification?
Change from one ancestral species to another
Spitting of lineage. The ancestral species remains, and a new…
Classification
Based on evolutionary relationships
Speciation
What is the basis for classification?
19 terms
AP Biology Unit 7 Study Guide
Q10
Neuron Structure
Types of Neurons
Reflex Arc Pathway
Q10=(k2/k1)^(10/(t2-t1))... -Q10 is the rate of change caused by…
-Dendrite: highly branched extensions that receive signals fr…
-Sensory neurons: transmit information from the eyes and othe…
-Purpose: to quickly react to potential dangers in your surro…
Q10
Q10=(k2/k1)^(10/(t2-t1))... -Q10 is the rate of change caused by…
Neuron Structure
-Dendrite: highly branched extensions that receive signals fr…
22 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
population
density
dispersion
mark-recapture method
a group of individuals of a single species living in the same…
the number of individuals per unit area or volume
the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundarie…
USE PREZI
population
a group of individuals of a single species living in the same…
density
the number of individuals per unit area or volume
29 terms
ap biology unit 7
spatial learning
landmark
cognitive map
associative learning
modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial…
location indicator
internal representation of the spatial relationships between…
the ability of many animals to associate one feature of the e…
spatial learning
modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial…
landmark
location indicator
25 terms
Unit 7 AP Biology
Photoperiod
Exponential growth
Carrying capacity
Logistical growth
The interval in a 24 hour period of which an organism is expo…
Organisms that have extremely rapid growth, referred to as a…
The maximum density of a population that the environment can…
When a population growth exponential at first but levels to c…
Photoperiod
The interval in a 24 hour period of which an organism is expo…
Exponential growth
Organisms that have extremely rapid growth, referred to as a…
44 terms
AP BIOLOGY UNIT 7
Coevolution
Adaptations
Natural Selection
Homologous Structures
recoiprocal genetic change in two or more species resulting f…
traits that improve an individual's ability to survive and re…
process by which individuals that are better suited to their…
same structure but different function
Coevolution
recoiprocal genetic change in two or more species resulting f…
Adaptations
traits that improve an individual's ability to survive and re…
111 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Negative feedback
Nerve net
Cephalization
Sensory neurons
A change that causes a response that reverses the change; imp…
Of cnidarians, A mesh of interacting neurons with no central…
Concentration of sensory structures and nerve cells at the an…
Neuron that responds to a specific internal or External stimu…
Negative feedback
A change that causes a response that reverses the change; imp…
Nerve net
Of cnidarians, A mesh of interacting neurons with no central…
20 terms
Unit 7 AP Biology
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Phototropism
same species, same time, same place, and showing signs of rep…
collection of interacting populations in the same area
interacting communities in an area plus the abiotic factors a…
Hormone Auxin travels down the "dark side" of the plant and c…
Population
same species, same time, same place, and showing signs of rep…
Community
collection of interacting populations in the same area
56 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Translation
E-Site
P-Site
Site
...
...
...
...
Translation
...
E-Site
...
29 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
checkpoints
G1 phase
G1 checkpoint
S phase
critical control point where stop and go mechanisms regulate…
cell grows and takes on its specialized function
when a cell has permanent stop= never divide... neurons and musc…
DNA replication; 23 pairs chromosomes
checkpoints
critical control point where stop and go mechanisms regulate…
G1 phase
cell grows and takes on its specialized function
15 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Fermentation
Aerobic Respiration
Cellular Respiration
Redox Reactions
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of AT from gl…
A catabolic pathway for molecules using oxygen as the final e…
The catabolic pathway of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, w…
A chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfe…
Fermentation
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of AT from gl…
Aerobic Respiration
A catabolic pathway for molecules using oxygen as the final e…
157 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
A site
allosteric regulation
amino acids
autohagy
on a ribosome that binds the tRNA with the next amino acid th…
when an enzyme's function is either inhibited or increased by…
the organic molecules from which proteins are made
the process of lysosomes destroying cellular components
A site
on a ribosome that binds the tRNA with the next amino acid th…
allosteric regulation
when an enzyme's function is either inhibited or increased by…
30 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Griffith
transformation
Avery
Hershey and Chase
Had two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae; one harmless (R)…
change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilation of exter…
Isolated proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates to determ…
Discovered that nucleic acids, not proteins, are hereditary m…
Griffith
Had two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae; one harmless (R)…
transformation
change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilation of exter…
75 terms
Unit 7 AP Biology
what distinguishes nervous systems in…
Sensory Neurons
Interneurons
Motor Neurons
how the neurons are organized into circuits
transmit information from sensors that detect external stimul…
in the CNS, integrate sensory input
output a response
what distinguishes nervous systems in…
how the neurons are organized into circuits
Sensory Neurons
transmit information from sensors that detect external stimul…
40 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
microevolution
macroevolution
population
allele
small scale changes
large scale changes from microevolution
localized group of individuals capable of breeding
version of a gene
microevolution
small scale changes
macroevolution
large scale changes from microevolution
54 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Character
trait
true-breeding
hybridization
a heritable feature that varies among individuals
each variant for a character
produce offspring of the same variety
mating two contrasting, true-breeding varieties
Character
a heritable feature that varies among individuals
trait
each variant for a character
30 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Antibody
Antigen
B-cell
Cell-mediated Immunity
a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells tha…
any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies…
a type of lymphocyte, developed in bone marrow, that circulat…
immunity independent of antibody but dependent on the recogni…
Antibody
a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells tha…
Antigen
any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies…
57 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
sept-
septic
sex-
-sis
partition; seven
putrefaction; infection
six
condition; state
sept-
partition; seven
septic
putrefaction; infection
148 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Catabolism
Digestion
Intracellular Digestion
Incomplete Digestive Systems
Breakdown of organic molecules to obtain energy for growth an…
The process that occurs when foods taken in are broken down t…
Digestion completed by phagocytosis, which is where a vacuole…
Have one opening for both taking in food and eliminating it,…
Catabolism
Breakdown of organic molecules to obtain energy for growth an…
Digestion
The process that occurs when foods taken in are broken down t…
20 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
genetic drift
gene flow
fitness
States that if evolutionary influences are not present (mate-…
Change in the allele frequencies of a population due to rando…
Migration of individuals into or out of a population which ca…
Regards one individuals reproduction rate compared to another
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
States that if evolutionary influences are not present (mate-…
genetic drift
Change in the allele frequencies of a population due to rando…
41 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
What are viruses made of?
Why are viruses not alive?
Lytic
Lysogenic
DNA/RNA genomes in a protein capsid.
They cannot reproduce independently of a host cell.
Life cycle of virulent viruses. Kills the host.
Virus life cycle in which viral DNA is incorporated into the…
What are viruses made of?
DNA/RNA genomes in a protein capsid.
Why are viruses not alive?
They cannot reproduce independently of a host cell.
65 terms
AP Biology Unit 7 - Body Systems
First Line of Defense
Second Line of Defense (A)
Second Line of Defense (B)
Third Line of Defense
We are surrounded by a sea of germs. Keeping them out is crit…
-Nonspecific defense... -Inflammatory response is initiated by c…
-Non specific defense... -Pyrogens increase body temperature to…
This specific immune response is maintained by lymphocytes. T…
First Line of Defense
We are surrounded by a sea of germs. Keeping them out is crit…
Second Line of Defense (A)
-Nonspecific defense... -Inflammatory response is initiated by c…
45 terms
AP Biology Unit 7: Biotechnology Review
In the display window of a micropipett…
What do each of these mean on a P20? (…
What cell type is this? What are the r…
What is the purpose of gel electrophor…
200... 20
20 microliters... 12.4 microliters... 5.5 microliters... 2 microliters
bacteria cell... plasmids
separate out DNA fragments
In the display window of a micropipett…
200... 20
What do each of these mean on a P20? (…
20 microliters... 12.4 microliters... 5.5 microliters... 2 microliters
50 terms
Pre-AP Biology - Unit 7 - Meiosis and Genetics
Interphase
Prophase 1
Metaphase 1
Anaphase 1
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during whic…
Chromosomes become visible; nuclear envelope breaks down; cro…
Paired homologous chromosomes line up across the center of th…
Spindle fibers pull each homologous chromosome pair toward op…
Interphase
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during whic…
Prophase 1
Chromosomes become visible; nuclear envelope breaks down; cro…
AP Biology Unit 7 Study Terms
PCR
Primers
Gel electrophoresios
Transformation
(polimerase chain reaction) A technique used to quickly make…
A sequence of DNA required to start replication
A technique used to separate molecules (nucleic acids and pro…
The process of a prokaryotic cell absorbing and incorporating…
PCR
(polimerase chain reaction) A technique used to quickly make…
Primers
A sequence of DNA required to start replication
126 terms
AP Biology Unit 7 Evolution/Plants
Thomas Malthus
Georges Cuvier (catastrophism)
Charles Lyell
James Hutton (gradualism)
limited resources lead to disease, famine, and war (once limi…
noticed older stratum had dissimilar fossils ... advocated cata…
proposed that the same processes occur today as in the past…
Earth's features are due to gradual mechanisms
Thomas Malthus
limited resources lead to disease, famine, and war (once limi…
Georges Cuvier (catastrophism)
noticed older stratum had dissimilar fossils ... advocated cata…
68 terms
Unit 7 ap biology
3 reasons cells divide
How many chromosomes do sex cells have…
Somatic cells
Gamete cell (germ line)
Reproduction, repair, growth
23,46
Non reproductive cell, 46 chromosomes? Formed via mitosis, di…
Sperm or egg cell, 23 chromosomes, haploid, formed via meiosis
3 reasons cells divide
Reproduction, repair, growth
How many chromosomes do sex cells have…
23,46
23 terms
AP Biology Unit 7
negative feedback
Homeostasis
Positive Feedback
Neuron
a change in a condition is detected and a metabolic process i…
maintain stable, internal conditions
A change in a condition initiates a process that intensifies…
the basic structural unit of the nervous system
negative feedback
a change in a condition is detected and a metabolic process i…
Homeostasis
maintain stable, internal conditions
63 terms
Unit 7 AP Biology Evolution Vocab
Natural Selection
Artificial Selection
Heritable Traits
The Origin of Species
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited tr…
Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce o…
traits with a genetic basis
1859: Charles Darwin's book explained how various species evo…
Natural Selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited tr…
Artificial Selection
Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce o…
36 terms
AP Biology Unit 7: Ethology
Ethology
5 Main Behavior Types
Type 1 Behaviors (4 Subcategories)
Sign Stimulus Behaviors (4)
The study of all responses, movements, and reactions in anima…
Type 1: Innate/instinctual behaviors... Type 2: Learned behavior…
A) Sign stimulus behaviors... B) Imprinting behaviors... C) Reflex…
(Type 1)... External sensory stimulus causes unchangeable respon…
Ethology
The study of all responses, movements, and reactions in anima…
5 Main Behavior Types
Type 1: Innate/instinctual behaviors... Type 2: Learned behavior…
32 terms
AP Biology Unit 7: Evolution
Basic Tenets of Darwin's Hypothesis
Conditions to keep Hard Weinberg at eq…
Types of Natural Selection
Direction Selection
Over reproduction, struggle for survival, variation, adaptati…
no mutations, random mating, no natural selection, extremely…
Directional, Stabilizing, Disruptive, Artificial
Natural selection favors one extreme of continuous variation
Basic Tenets of Darwin's Hypothesis
Over reproduction, struggle for survival, variation, adaptati…
Conditions to keep Hard Weinberg at eq…
no mutations, random mating, no natural selection, extremely…
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