Study sets matching "usmle first aid 2011"

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Study sets matching "usmle first aid 2011"

92 terms
pamhong-USMLE Classic Labs/Findings (First Aid 2011)
Lab/diagnostic finding
Anticentromere antibodies
Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
Anti-glomerular basement membrane anti…
Diagnosis/disease
Scleroderma (CREST)
Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and lung hemorrhage)
Lab/diagnostic finding
Diagnosis/disease
Anticentromere antibodies
Scleroderma (CREST)
86 terms
USMLE Biochemistry First Aid.
Which enzyme is deficient in Orotic Ac…
What is Orotic Aciduria? Include Clini…
What's the treatment for Orotic Acidur…
What's the rate determining enzyme in…
Orotic acid phosphoribosyltransferase or orotidine 5'-phospha…
Inability to convert Orotic Acid to UMP at the De Novo pyrimi…
Oral Uridine
Carbamoyl phosphate Synthetase II
Which enzyme is deficient in Orotic Ac…
Orotic acid phosphoribosyltransferase or orotidine 5'-phospha…
What is Orotic Aciduria? Include Clini…
Inability to convert Orotic Acid to UMP at the De Novo pyrimi…
256 terms
USMLE First Aid Neurology
What originates from the neuroectoderm?
What originates from the neural crest…
What originates from the mesoderm?
What are neurons? What is the Nissl su…
CNS Neurons, Ependymal Cells (inner lining of ventricles, mak…
Schwann Cells and PNS Neurons
Microglia, like Macrophages
Large cells with prominent nucleoli that comprise the nervous…
What originates from the neuroectoderm?
CNS Neurons, Ependymal Cells (inner lining of ventricles, mak…
What originates from the neural crest…
Schwann Cells and PNS Neurons
256 terms
USMLE First Aid Neurology
What originates from the neuroectoderm?
What originates from the neural crest…
What originates from the mesoderm?
What are neurons? What is the Nissl su…
CNS Neurons, Ependymal Cells (inner lining of ventricles, mak…
Schwann Cells and PNS Neurons
Microglia, like Macrophages
Large cells with prominent nucleoli that comprise the nervous…
What originates from the neuroectoderm?
CNS Neurons, Ependymal Cells (inner lining of ventricles, mak…
What originates from the neural crest…
Schwann Cells and PNS Neurons
349 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Gastroenterology
Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut components?
Gastroschisis vs. Omphalocele definition
Failed rostral fold closure:
Failed lateral fold closure:
1. Foregut = pharynx to duodenum ... 2. Midgut = duodenum to tra…
1. Gastroschisis = extrusion of abdominal contents through ab…
1. Sternal defects
1. Omphalocele ... 2. Gastroschisis
Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut components?
1. Foregut = pharynx to duodenum ... 2. Midgut = duodenum to tra…
Gastroschisis vs. Omphalocele definition
1. Gastroschisis = extrusion of abdominal contents through ab…
256 terms
USMLE First Aid Neurology
What originates from the neuroectoderm?
What originates from the neural crest…
What originates from the mesoderm?
What are neurons? What is the Nissl su…
CNS Neurons, Ependymal Cells (inner lining of ventricles, mak…
Schwann Cells and PNS Neurons
Microglia, like Macrophages
Large cells with prominent nucleoli that comprise the nervous…
What originates from the neuroectoderm?
CNS Neurons, Ependymal Cells (inner lining of ventricles, mak…
What originates from the neural crest…
Schwann Cells and PNS Neurons
273 terms
USMLE First Aid Renal
name the disease characterized by mult…
what are the signs and symptoms of ADP…
which gene is most commonly associated…
name 3 extrarenal manifestations of AD…
autosomal dominant (adult) polycystic kidney disease... ADPKD
flank pain, hypertension, hematuria and UTI
PKD1 (85% of cases)
1. liver cysts (40%)... 2. Berry aneurysms (10-30%)... 3. mitral va…
name the disease characterized by mult…
autosomal dominant (adult) polycystic kidney disease... ADPKD
what are the signs and symptoms of ADP…
flank pain, hypertension, hematuria and UTI
107 terms
USMLE First Aid Memorize
Chromosome 3:
Chromosome 4:
chromosome 5
Chromosome 6:
vHL, RCC
ADPKD (PKD2), achondroplasia, HD
Cri-du-chat syndrome, FAP
HFE
Chromosome 3:
vHL, RCC
Chromosome 4:
ADPKD (PKD2), achondroplasia, HD
1,437 terms
Usmle Step 1 First Aid
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
primary adrenocortical deficiency
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precoci…
hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
actinic keratosis
Addison's disease
Albright's syndrome
Alport's syndrome
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
actinic keratosis
primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addison's disease
1,437 terms
Usmle Step 1 First Aid
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
primary adrenocortical deficiency
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precoci…
hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
actinic keratosis
Addison's disease
Albright's syndrome
Alport's syndrome
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
actinic keratosis
primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addison's disease
138 terms
USMLE First Aid Neurology
What is the limbic system responsible…
What are the functions of the frontal…
Damage to amygdala results in what syn…
Frontal Lobe Lesion
Feeding, Fleeing, Fighting, Feeling, and Sex.... Consists of am…
Executive Funciton- planning, inhibition, concentration, orie…
Kluver-Bucy (Hyperorality, Hypersexuality, Disinhibited Behav…
Disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, and…
What is the limbic system responsible…
Feeding, Fleeing, Fighting, Feeling, and Sex.... Consists of am…
What are the functions of the frontal…
Executive Funciton- planning, inhibition, concentration, orie…
349 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Gastroenterology
Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut components?
Gastroschisis vs. Omphalocele definition
Failed rostral fold closure:
Failed lateral fold closure:
1. Foregut = pharynx to duodenum ... 2. Midgut = duodenum to tra…
1. Gastroschisis = extrusion of abdominal contents through ab…
1. Sternal defects
1. Omphalocele ... 2. Gastroschisis
Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut components?
1. Foregut = pharynx to duodenum ... 2. Midgut = duodenum to tra…
Gastroschisis vs. Omphalocele definition
1. Gastroschisis = extrusion of abdominal contents through ab…
273 terms
USMLE First Aid Renal
name the disease characterized by mult…
what are the signs and symptoms of ADP…
which gene is most commonly associated…
name 3 extrarenal manifestations of AD…
autosomal dominant (adult) polycystic kidney disease... ADPKD
flank pain, hypertension, hematuria and UTI
PKD1 (85% of cases)
1. liver cysts (40%)... 2. Berry aneurysms (10-30%)... 3. mitral va…
name the disease characterized by mult…
autosomal dominant (adult) polycystic kidney disease... ADPKD
what are the signs and symptoms of ADP…
flank pain, hypertension, hematuria and UTI
USMLE First Aid Memorize
Chromosome 3:
Chromosome 4:
chromosome 5
Chromosome 6:
vHL, RCC
ADPKD (PKD2), achondroplasia, HD
Cri-du-chat syndrome, FAP
HFE
Chromosome 3:
vHL, RCC
Chromosome 4:
ADPKD (PKD2), achondroplasia, HD
243 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Psychology
This involuntary response describes le…
This voluntary response describes lear…
This target behavior response is follo…
This targeted behavior response is fol…
stimulus that previously was presented in conjunction with an…
Operant conditioning
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
This involuntary response describes le…
stimulus that previously was presented in conjunction with an…
This voluntary response describes lear…
Operant conditioning
74 terms
USMLE First Aid Microbiology
gram positive cocci
gram neg cocci
gram positive bacilli
gram positive branching filaments
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
Neisseria
Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria, Mycobacteri…
Actinomyces, Nocardia (weakly acid fast)
gram positive cocci
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
gram neg cocci
Neisseria
535 terms
USMLE First Aid Pharm
Primary (essential) HTN drugs:
HTN with HF drugs:
In cardiogenic shock, what drugs are c…
HTN with Diabetes tx:
-Thiazides... -ACE inhibitors... -Angiotensin II blockers (ARBs)... -D…
-Diuretics... -ACE/ARBs... -B-blockers (for compensated HF)... -Aldost…
B blockers
-ACE/ARBs... -Ca blockers... -Thiazides... -B-blockers
Primary (essential) HTN drugs:
-Thiazides... -ACE inhibitors... -Angiotensin II blockers (ARBs)... -D…
HTN with HF drugs:
-Diuretics... -ACE/ARBs... -B-blockers (for compensated HF)... -Aldost…
273 terms
USMLE First Aid Renal
name the disease characterized by mult…
what are the signs and symptoms of ADP…
which gene is most commonly associated…
name 3 extrarenal manifestations of AD…
autosomal dominant (adult) polycystic kidney disease... ADPKD
flank pain, hypertension, hematuria and UTI
PKD1 (85% of cases)
1. liver cysts (40%)... 2. Berry aneurysms (10-30%)... 3. mitral va…
name the disease characterized by mult…
autosomal dominant (adult) polycystic kidney disease... ADPKD
what are the signs and symptoms of ADP…
flank pain, hypertension, hematuria and UTI
120 terms
USMLE First Aid Memorize
Chromosome 3:
Chromosome 4:
chromosome 5
Chromosome 6:
vHL, RCC
ADPKD (PKD2), achondroplasia, HD
Cri-du-chat syndrome, FAP
HFE
Chromosome 3:
vHL, RCC
Chromosome 4:
ADPKD (PKD2), achondroplasia, HD
349 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Gastroenterology
Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut components?
Gastroschisis vs. Omphalocele definition
Failed rostral fold closure:
Failed lateral fold closure:
1. Foregut = pharynx to duodenum ... 2. Midgut = duodenum to tra…
1. Gastroschisis = extrusion of abdominal contents through ab…
1. Sternal defects
1. Omphalocele ... 2. Gastroschisis
Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut components?
1. Foregut = pharynx to duodenum ... 2. Midgut = duodenum to tra…
Gastroschisis vs. Omphalocele definition
1. Gastroschisis = extrusion of abdominal contents through ab…
First Aid for USMLE-Musculoskeletal
What are the layers of of the epidermi…
What is below the epidermis
What kind of jxn is the zona occludens…
What kind of jxn is in the zona adhere…
corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basalis
the dermis
tight jxn, prevents diffusion across paracellular space, comp…
intermediate jxn, just below zona occludens, cadherins and ac…
What are the layers of of the epidermi…
corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basalis
What is below the epidermis
the dermis
52 terms
USMLE Immunology First Aid
This part of the lymph node is underde…
What is the site of B cell proliferati…
Splenic dysfunction is associated with…
What are the kind of cells found in pa…
Parcortex
Follicle
SHiN SKiS (Salmonella, Haemophilus influenzae type B, N. meni…
Target cells, Howell-Jolly bodies
This part of the lymph node is underde…
Parcortex
What is the site of B cell proliferati…
Follicle
125 terms
USMLE First Aid - MSK
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
What nerve innervates the supraspinatus?
What nerve innervates the infraspinatus?
What nerve innervates the teres minor?
Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis... Jus…
Suprascapular n.
Suprascapular n.
Axillary n.
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis... Jus…
What nerve innervates the supraspinatus?
Suprascapular n.
256 terms
USMLE First Aid Neurology
What originates from the neuroectoderm?
What originates from the neural crest…
What originates from the mesoderm?
What are neurons? What is the Nissl su…
CNS Neurons, Ependymal Cells (inner lining of ventricles, mak…
Schwann Cells and PNS Neurons
Microglia, like Macrophages
Large cells with prominent nucleoli that comprise the nervous…
What originates from the neuroectoderm?
CNS Neurons, Ependymal Cells (inner lining of ventricles, mak…
What originates from the neural crest…
Schwann Cells and PNS Neurons
827 terms
USMLE First Aid 2015 Pharm
Half-life
Maintenance Dose
Loading dose
HTN with renal failure tx
Vd x 0.7/CL
(Plasma steady state x CL x dosing frequency)/bioavailability
(Vd x plasma steady state)/bioavailability
Diuretics, ACEI/ARBs, B-blockers (compensated HF), aldosteron…
Half-life
Vd x 0.7/CL
Maintenance Dose
(Plasma steady state x CL x dosing frequency)/bioavailability
11 terms
Mycology - First Aid 2011
Systemic mycoses culture
Systemic mycoses tx:
Can disseminate to bone & skin
Coccidiomycosis (endemic location)
Mold - 25C in Sabouraud's agar (e.g. in dirt)... Yeast - 37C in…
Local infection: fluconazole/ketoconazole/itraconazole... System…
Blastomycosis... Coccidioidomycoses
SW USA... Latin America
Systemic mycoses culture
Mold - 25C in Sabouraud's agar (e.g. in dirt)... Yeast - 37C in…
Systemic mycoses tx:
Local infection: fluconazole/ketoconazole/itraconazole... System…
1,437 terms
Usmle Step 1 First Aid
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
primary adrenocortical deficiency
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precoci…
hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
actinic keratosis
Addison's disease
Albright's syndrome
Alport's syndrome
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
actinic keratosis
primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addison's disease
143 terms
First Aid USMLE: Cardio
For the following embryonic structures…
In embryological development, what org…
Dextrocardia refers to what defect? Se…
What are the basic steps of heart morp…
*For the following embryonic structures, name what adult stru…
*In embryological development, what organ is the first functi…
Dextrocardia refers to what defect? Seen in what disease?... -…
1. Cardiac looping... 2. Septation of the chambers... - atria... - ven…
For the following embryonic structures…
*For the following embryonic structures, name what adult stru…
In embryological development, what org…
*In embryological development, what organ is the first functi…
125 terms
USMLE First Aid - MSK
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
What nerve innervates the supraspinatus?
What nerve innervates the infraspinatus?
What nerve innervates the teres minor?
Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis... Jus…
Suprascapular n.
Suprascapular n.
Axillary n.
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis... Jus…
What nerve innervates the supraspinatus?
Suprascapular n.
115 terms
USMLE First Aid Immunosuppressants
Cyclosporine
Cyclosporine
Cyclosporine
Tacrolimus
Mechanism: calcineurin inhibitor; binds cyclophilin. Blocks T…
Use: transplant rejection prophylaxis, psoriasis, severe RA
Tox: nephrotoxicity, HTN, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, trem…
Mechanism: calcineurin inhibitor; binds FK506 binding protein…
Cyclosporine
Mechanism: calcineurin inhibitor; binds cyclophilin. Blocks T…
Cyclosporine
Use: transplant rejection prophylaxis, psoriasis, severe RA
USMLE First Aid Microbiology
gram positive cocci
gram neg cocci
gram positive bacilli
gram positive branching filaments
Staph and strep
Neisseria and moroxella
Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria, Mycobacteri…
Actinomyces, Nocardia (weakly acid fast)
gram positive cocci
Staph and strep
gram neg cocci
Neisseria and moroxella
74 terms
USMLE First Aid Microbiology
gram positive cocci
gram neg cocci
gram positive bacilli
gram positive branching filaments
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
Neisseria
Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria, Mycobacteri…
Actinomyces, Nocardia (weakly acid fast)
gram positive cocci
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
gram neg cocci
Neisseria
143 terms
First Aid USMLE: Cardio
For the following embryonic structures…
In embryological development, what org…
Dextrocardia refers to what defect? Se…
What are the basic steps of heart morp…
*For the following embryonic structures, name what adult stru…
*In embryological development, what organ is the first functi…
Dextrocardia refers to what defect? Seen in what disease?... -…
1. Cardiac looping... 2. Septation of the chambers... - atria... - ven…
For the following embryonic structures…
*For the following embryonic structures, name what adult stru…
In embryological development, what org…
*In embryological development, what organ is the first functi…
USMLE First Aid Memorize
Chromosome 3:
Chromosome 4:
chromosome 5
Chromosome 6:
vHL, RCC
ADPKD (PKD2), achondroplasia, HD
Cri-du-chat syndrome, FAP
HFE
Chromosome 3:
vHL, RCC
Chromosome 4:
ADPKD (PKD2), achondroplasia, HD
74 terms
USMLE First Aid Microbiology
gram positive cocci
gram neg cocci
gram positive bacilli
gram positive branching filaments
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
Neisseria
Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria, Mycobacteri…
Actinomyces, Nocardia (weakly acid fast)
gram positive cocci
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
gram neg cocci
Neisseria
10 terms
First Aid for the USMLE: Vasculitis
Temporal (giant cell) arteritis
Takayasu's arteritis
Polyarteritis nodosa
Kawasaki disease
Elderly female with unilateral headache, jaw claudication. Ma…
Young asian females. "Pulseless disease." Granulomatous thick…
Immune mediated transmural vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis…
Asian children < 4 years. Fever, lymphadenitis, changes in li…
Temporal (giant cell) arteritis
Elderly female with unilateral headache, jaw claudication. Ma…
Takayasu's arteritis
Young asian females. "Pulseless disease." Granulomatous thick…
216 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Psychology
This involuntary response describes le…
This voluntary response describes lear…
This target behavior response is follo…
This targeted behavior response is fol…
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
This involuntary response describes le…
Classical conditioning
This voluntary response describes lear…
Operant conditioning
1,437 terms
Usmle Step 1 First Aid
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
primary adrenocortical deficiency
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precoci…
hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
actinic keratosis
Addison's disease
Albright's syndrome
Alport's syndrome
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
actinic keratosis
primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addison's disease
101 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Dermatology
A 30-year-old non-smoker presents with…
This presents as a triad of autoimmuni…
This form of scleroderma involves wide…
Anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody:
Scleroderma-CREST syndrome
Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis)
diffuse scleroderma
Anti-Scl-70 antibody
A 30-year-old non-smoker presents with…
Scleroderma-CREST syndrome
This presents as a triad of autoimmuni…
Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis)
28 terms
first aid usmle
Lymph node
Sinusoids of spleen
Splenic dysfunction
T cell and b cell maturation sites
A 2° lymphoid organ that has many afferents, 1 or more effere…
T cells are found in the periarteriolar... lymphatic sheath (PA…
(e.g., postsplenectomy, sickle cell disease): IgM decrease -…
T cells = Thymus... B cells = Bone marrow
Lymph node
A 2° lymphoid organ that has many afferents, 1 or more effere…
Sinusoids of spleen
T cells are found in the periarteriolar... lymphatic sheath (PA…
183 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Endocrine
This presents as an anterior midline n…
This presents as a lateral neck mass t…
Thyroid tissue is derived from what:
Parafollicular cells (C cells) of thyr…
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
Branchial Cleft Cyst
Endoderm
Neural crest cells
This presents as an anterior midline n…
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
This presents as a lateral neck mass t…
Branchial Cleft Cyst
291 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Neurology
What becomes the nucleus pulpous of in…
Alar plate vs basal plate:
Telencephalon becomes what structures:
Diencephalon becomes what structures:
notochord
alar: dorsal for sensory... Basal: ventral for motor
cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles
thalamus, hypothalamus, and third ventricle
What becomes the nucleus pulpous of in…
notochord
Alar plate vs basal plate:
alar: dorsal for sensory... Basal: ventral for motor
First Aid for the USMLE STEP 1 (2015): Endocrine
Thyroid development
-Most common ectopic thyroid tissue si…
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Adrenal cortex is derived from _______…
-Thyroid diverticulum arises from floor of primitive pharynx…
Tongue
Thyroglossal duct cyst (see picture) presents as an anterior…
Mesoderm, neural crest
Thyroid development
-Thyroid diverticulum arises from floor of primitive pharynx…
-Most common ectopic thyroid tissue si…
Tongue
191 terms
USMLE First Aid 2016 Immunology
This is the site of B-cell localizatio…
Are primary or secondary lymph node fo…
Are active pale central germinal cente…
This is composed of closely packed lym…
Follicle
Primary
Secondary
Medulla
This is the site of B-cell localizatio…
Follicle
Are primary or secondary lymph node fo…
Primary
USMLE First Aid Microbiology
gram positive cocci
gram neg cocci
gram positive bacilli
gram positive branching filaments
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
Neisseria
Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria, Mycobacteri…
Actinomyces, Nocardia (weakly acid fast)
gram positive cocci
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
gram neg cocci
Neisseria
18 terms
Vitamins (USMLE First Aid)
Vitamin/ Other name
A (retinol)
B1 (thiamine)
B2 (riboflavin)
Function deficiency excess Other uses
antioxidant, part of visual pigments night blindness, dry ski…
cofactor for several reactions involved in glycolysis/oxidati…
cofactor for redox rxn (FAD/FMN) Cheliosis, Corneal vasculari…
Vitamin/ Other name
Function deficiency excess Other uses
A (retinol)
antioxidant, part of visual pigments night blindness, dry ski…
sympathomimetrics usmle first aid
sympathomimetrics
Albuterol, salmeterol
Dobutamine
dopamine
Albuterol, salmeterol... Dobutamine Dopamine... Epinephrine... Isoprot…
acute asthma, COPD
heart failure,, cardiac stress
Unstable bradycardia, Heart Failure, shock; inotropic
sympathomimetrics
Albuterol, salmeterol... Dobutamine Dopamine... Epinephrine... Isoprot…
Albuterol, salmeterol
acute asthma, COPD
Usmle Step 1 First Aid
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
primary adrenocortical deficiency
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precoci…
hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
actinic keratosis
Addison's disease
Albright's syndrome
Alport's syndrome
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
actinic keratosis
primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addison's disease
36 terms
USMLE immunology first aid
HLA-A3
HLA-B27
HLA-B8
HLA-DQ2/DQ8
Hemochromatosis
PAIR (psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel d…
Graves' disease
Celiac disease
HLA-A3
Hemochromatosis
HLA-B27
PAIR (psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel d…
60 terms
USMLE First Aid Microbiology
bacteria with unusual cell membranes/w…
Bugs that do not gram stain well
Giemsa Stain
PAS stain
Mycoplasma - sterols, no cell wall... Mycobacteria - mycolic aci…
TRMMLC - These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color... Trepone…
Gee These Bad Puns are Cheesy... Giemsa, Trypanosomes, Borrelia,…
PASs the whipped cream & sugar... glycogen, mucopolysaccharides,…
bacteria with unusual cell membranes/w…
Mycoplasma - sterols, no cell wall... Mycobacteria - mycolic aci…
Bugs that do not gram stain well
TRMMLC - These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color... Trepone…
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