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Study sets matching "vets2011"

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Study sets matching "vets2011"

15 terms
VETS2011
pulmonary visceral pleura
parietal pleura
mediastinal pleura
pleural sacs
Lungs bud from trachea, push out into pleura & are enveloped…
pleura forming walls of pleural sacs. further designated:... -co…
pleural sacs come together medially to form ...
pleura lines thoracic cavity forming ...
pulmonary visceral pleura
Lungs bud from trachea, push out into pleura & are enveloped…
parietal pleura
pleura forming walls of pleural sacs. further designated:... -co…
12 terms
VETS2011 Cranial Nerves
CNI olfactory
CNII optic
CNIII oculomotor
CNIV trochlear
smell
vision
Movement of eyeball
Movement of eyeball
CNI olfactory
smell
CNII optic
vision
13 terms
VETS2011 Action Potentials
What are the 3 factors which determine…
The rate of movement of a charged part…
Nernst Equation: For an individual ion…
for the nernst equation, a greater rat…
rate of movement of ions ... potential or voltage ... resistance to…
the force moving it and the ease with which it can move
the ion charge ... temperature... concentration on either side of t…
a greater tendency for diffusion
What are the 3 factors which determine…
rate of movement of ions ... potential or voltage ... resistance to…
The rate of movement of a charged part…
the force moving it and the ease with which it can move
84 terms
VETS2011 Special Senses
are special senses conscious or uncons…
What 4 things are included as special…
What is the function of the eye?
What two structures are included withi…
conscious
vision... smell ... taste ... hearing and balance
vision
eyeball and adnexa
are special senses conscious or uncons…
conscious
What 4 things are included as special…
vision... smell ... taste ... hearing and balance
33 terms
VETS2011 Cardiorespiratory 5
Heart remodelling
What are the two types of remodelling?
concentric hypertrophy
Eccentric hypertrophy
increased workload = bigger muscle but there is limit to how…
concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy
increase in pressure, muscle gets thicker not bigger
volume work - heart stretches and gets bigger, thickness of w…
Heart remodelling
increased workload = bigger muscle but there is limit to how…
What are the two types of remodelling?
concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy
40 terms
VETS2011 Intro to Neuroanatomy
When an animal is presented or referre…
Define lesion and give an example of one
What type of functions do the endocrin…
What type of functions does the nervou…
1. Is the problem neurological ... 2. Where is the lesion
'something wrong' is a general broad term for a problem e.g.…
slow functions e.g. control of sexual cycle
fast acting functions e.g. muscle contraction
When an animal is presented or referre…
1. Is the problem neurological ... 2. Where is the lesion
Define lesion and give an example of one
'something wrong' is a general broad term for a problem e.g.…
15 terms
VETS2011 Evolutionary Respiratory
What type of gill structure do cartila…
What type of gill structure do bony fi…
What are the two methods of getting wa…
Explain the blood/O2 pathway involving…
gill slits
operculum (flap) covering gills
fast swimming with an open mouth ... pumping mechanism
blood coming from ventral aorta enters the ricch afferent bra…
What type of gill structure do cartila…
gill slits
What type of gill structure do bony fi…
operculum (flap) covering gills
21 terms
VETS2011 Trachea
What is the trachea?
What are the two parts of the trachea?
Is the oesophagus dorsal or ventral to…
What structures accompany the cervical…
non collapsible tube which continues the respiratory pathway…
cervical and thoracic (according to region of the body it is…
dorsal, except in caudal third of the neck, where it lies lef…
common coratid arteries ... vagosympathetic trunks ... internal jug…
What is the trachea?
non collapsible tube which continues the respiratory pathway…
What are the two parts of the trachea?
cervical and thoracic (according to region of the body it is…
28 terms
VETS2011 CNS
Function of frontal lobe
Function of prefrontal area
Function of parietal lobe
Occipital lobe function
motor behaviour and motor speech area (Broca's area)
plan complex patterns and sequences of motor movement
somatosensory info which may affect voluntary motor activity.…
visual processing and perception. eye movements, pupillary co…
Function of frontal lobe
motor behaviour and motor speech area (Broca's area)
Function of prefrontal area
plan complex patterns and sequences of motor movement
51 terms
VETS2011 Conducting Component
What is the name of the 2 cartilages t…
Explain the structure/orientation of t…
What is the name of the bone that pigs…
What is the name of the extra cartilag…
dorsal and ventral lateral nasal cartilages
cartilages come together laterally and overlap to complete th…
rostral bone
alar cartilage
What is the name of the 2 cartilages t…
dorsal and ventral lateral nasal cartilages
Explain the structure/orientation of t…
cartilages come together laterally and overlap to complete th…
21 terms
VETS2011 Cardiophysiology 1
What are the 5 components of the cardi…
What are the 6 functions the cardiovas…
What are some things in practice that…
What should the capillary refill time…
1. heart ... 2. Blood vessels ... 3. Blood ... 4. Lymphatics ... 5. Brain
1) Oxygen transport... 2) Nutrient transport... 3) Waste transport…
1. Thorough HISTORY!... 2. Cardiac auscultation... 3. Mucous membra…
2s
What are the 5 components of the cardi…
1. heart ... 2. Blood vessels ... 3. Blood ... 4. Lymphatics ... 5. Brain
What are the 6 functions the cardiovas…
1) Oxygen transport... 2) Nutrient transport... 3) Waste transport…
28 terms
VETS2011 Cardiophysiology 10
What occurs in the system during exerc…
Shock
What are the 2 responses the body has…
What are the 6 types of shock?
vasodilation of muscle = more blood flow in vessels in muscle…
inadequate blood flow through the body resulting in a lack of…
maintain life: preserve blood flow to heart and brain ... Restor…
1. Cardiogenic shock ... 2. Hypovolemic shock ... 3. Traumatic shoc…
What occurs in the system during exerc…
vasodilation of muscle = more blood flow in vessels in muscle…
Shock
inadequate blood flow through the body resulting in a lack of…
27 terms
VETS2011 Ocular Muscles
What are the 3 groups of ocular muscles
What are the 7 extra ocular muscles?
What is the function of the dorsal and…
What is the function of the retractor…
extra ocular ... intraocular ... palpebral
dorsal rectus ... lateral rectus... medial rectus ... ventral rectus…
rotate the eyeball around the visual axis
daws the eye caudally within the orbit: arises at apex and in…
What are the 3 groups of ocular muscles
extra ocular ... intraocular ... palpebral
What are the 7 extra ocular muscles?
dorsal rectus ... lateral rectus... medial rectus ... ventral rectus…
74 terms
VETS2011 Pumping Mechanism
What is the purpose of the pumping mec…
Explain the boundaries of the thoracic…
Explain the structure and boundaries o…
What is the diaphragm?
inspiration and expiration
space bounded by 1st two ribs cranially, thoracic vertebrae d…
entirely boney, bounded by the rib cage, thoracic vertebrae a…
dome shaped muscular membrane
What is the purpose of the pumping mec…
inspiration and expiration
Explain the boundaries of the thoracic…
space bounded by 1st two ribs cranially, thoracic vertebrae d…
52 terms
VETS2011 Cardiorespiratory 3
What lead system is used for small ani…
What lead system is generally used for…
Why do we use a base apex lead not a l…
RR interval
lead II (limb lead) and positive QRS
base apex lead, because there is no point doing a limb lead,…
because of their diverse purkinje fibre network, we cannot ge…
length between two R spikes; is the length of a whole cardiac…
What lead system is used for small ani…
lead II (limb lead) and positive QRS
What lead system is generally used for…
base apex lead, because there is no point doing a limb lead,…
33 terms
VETS2011 Cardiophysiology 9
What is the neurohumoral response to l…
What is the neurohumoral response to i…
What are the 3 cell types in blood?
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
arterial baroreceptors; sympathetic activation increases CO a…
atrial stretch receptors; atrial natriuretic peptide increase…
red blood cells ... white blood cells ... platelets
fluid inside of cells
What is the neurohumoral response to l…
arterial baroreceptors; sympathetic activation increases CO a…
What is the neurohumoral response to i…
atrial stretch receptors; atrial natriuretic peptide increase…
46 terms
VETS2011 The Ear
What are the 2 functions of the ear?
What are the 3 portions that the ear c…
What are the 3 parts of the external e…
What is the pinna?
balance and hearing
external ear ... middle ear ... inner ear
pinna (auricle) ... external auditory meatus (ear canal) ... tympan…
the part of the ear that produces from the head
What are the 2 functions of the ear?
balance and hearing
What are the 3 portions that the ear c…
external ear ... middle ear ... inner ear
31 terms
VETS2011 Intro to Neurophysiology
What are the 5 general functions of th…
Where are sensory receptors located?
What is the purpose of sensory recepto…
somatic motor neurons innervate what t…
detect stimuli ... transduce to neural energy... process signals... in…
peripheral ending of primary afferent neurons
they obtain information which is then transmitted to the CNS…
skeletal muscle fibres
What are the 5 general functions of th…
detect stimuli ... transduce to neural energy... process signals... in…
Where are sensory receptors located?
peripheral ending of primary afferent neurons
85 terms
VETS2011 Respiratory Component
What are the 2 components of the organ…
What is the pleura?
What are the two layers of the serious…
What is the type of epithelium of the…
lungs and pleura sacs
thin, glistening serous membrane
serous and subserous layer
simple squamous epithelium perforated by microscopic holes at…
What are the 2 components of the organ…
lungs and pleura sacs
What is the pleura?
thin, glistening serous membrane
15 terms
VETS2011 Cardiorespiratory 6
What are the 2 mechanisms of controlli…
What are the extrinsic mechanisms?
What tissues generally rely on extrins…
What tissues rely on intrinsic control…
extrinsic and intrinsic
neurohormonal control: nerves and hormones
tissues that don't have a critical requirement of oxygen e.g.…
important for tissues that require second-by-second requireme…
What are the 2 mechanisms of controlli…
extrinsic and intrinsic
What are the extrinsic mechanisms?
neurohormonal control: nerves and hormones
29 terms
VETS2011 Vision
What are the 4 refractive interfaces o…
Why does the eye bend light?
emmertroia
Hypertropia
1. air and anterior cornea... 2. Posterior cornea and aqueous hu…
so it focusses on back of retina
normal vision: light bends and focusses on retina
image focusses behind retina because light not bent far enoug…
What are the 4 refractive interfaces o…
1. air and anterior cornea... 2. Posterior cornea and aqueous hu…
Why does the eye bend light?
so it focusses on back of retina
47 terms
VETS2011 Lymphatics 1
What are the general components of the…
What seeps from capillaries into surro…
What causes interstitial fluid to flow…
What can interstitial fluid contain?
lymph ... lymphocytes... lymphatic vessels... lymphatic tissue (lympho…
plasma - interstitial fluid
a difference in pressure, protein conc. and ion conc.
microbes, particulate matter and nutrients (what seeps out wi…
What are the general components of the…
lymph ... lymphocytes... lymphatic vessels... lymphatic tissue (lympho…
What seeps from capillaries into surro…
plasma - interstitial fluid
16 terms
VETS2011 Muscle Contraction
why do muscle fibres have lots of t tu…
Function of TnC subunit
Function of Tnl subunit
Function of TNT subunit
increase surface area for more ion channels
Ca2+ sensor, 4 Ca2+ binding sites- C terminal acts as an anchor
links troponin to actin and inhibits actinomyosin ATPase
binds tropomyosin
why do muscle fibres have lots of t tu…
increase surface area for more ion channels
Function of TnC subunit
Ca2+ sensor, 4 Ca2+ binding sites- C terminal acts as an anchor
20 terms
VETS2011 Cardiophysiology 2
ECG
P wave
QRS complex
T wave
electrocardiogram; measures the intensity and polarity of ele…
atrial depolarisation
ventricular depolarisation
ventricular repolarisation
ECG
electrocardiogram; measures the intensity and polarity of ele…
P wave
atrial depolarisation
97 terms
VETS2011 Intro and Larynx
What are the 3 things that the major a…
What are the 3 divisions of the mammal…
What is the conducting component?
What are the 3 components of conductin…
1. exclude particulate material (dust and dirt) ... 2. Maximise…
1. conducting component ... 2. The respiratory component ... 3. Pum…
acts as passage for air... cleans and warms air before it reache…
1. Nose, nasal cavity, nasopharynx ... 2. Larynx ... 3. Trachea, br…
What are the 3 things that the major a…
1. exclude particulate material (dust and dirt) ... 2. Maximise…
What are the 3 divisions of the mammal…
1. conducting component ... 2. The respiratory component ... 3. Pum…
15 terms
VETS2011 The Vestibular System
What does the vestibular system detect?
What are the 5 structures involved in…
What are the 5 structures of the vesti…
How does the vestibular system sense m…
angular and linear accelerations of the head, allows for adju…
3 semicircular ducts and 2 otolith organs
endolymph and perilymph
The semicircular ducts point in all 3 directions of 3-D planes
What does the vestibular system detect?
angular and linear accelerations of the head, allows for adju…
What are the 5 structures involved in…
3 semicircular ducts and 2 otolith organs
49 terms
VETS2011 The Vertebral Canal
What are the 5 groups of vertebrae?
Spinal nerves leave the vertebral cana…
What 2 structures is the intervertebra…
Where do intervertebral discs lie?
cervical... thoracic ... lumbar... sacral... coccygeal/caudal
intervertebral
cranial and caudal vertebral notches
between vertebral bodies
What are the 5 groups of vertebrae?
cervical... thoracic ... lumbar... sacral... coccygeal/caudal
Spinal nerves leave the vertebral cana…
intervertebral
41 terms
VETS2011 Somatosensation and Pain
What are sensory receptors?
Chemoreceptor
Mechanoreceptor
Photoreceptor
specialised neurons that transduce environmental energy i.e.…
chemical stimulant reacts with plasma membrane of sensory rec…
ion channel opens in response to a mechanical force e.g. touc…
ion channel in photon closes in response to light and hyper p…
What are sensory receptors?
specialised neurons that transduce environmental energy i.e.…
Chemoreceptor
chemical stimulant reacts with plasma membrane of sensory rec…
29 terms
VETS2011 The Auditory System
Sound pressure
Frequency
What range of pure tone sound is the h…
Explain the process of hearing
changes in pressure due to waves of compression and decompres…
measured in Hz, pure tone sounds characterised by frequency,…
20-20,000 Hz
1. Pinna directs sound into auditory canal ... 2. Auditory canal…
Sound pressure
changes in pressure due to waves of compression and decompres…
Frequency
measured in Hz, pure tone sounds characterised by frequency,…
47 terms
VETS2011 Synapses and Neurotransmitters
what are the three types of synapse in…
What are the two types of chemical syn…
What is the purpose of the electrical…
How fast are electrical synapses?
electrical ... connexon... chemical
iontrophic and metatrophic
allows direct transfer of ions between pre and post-synaptic…
instantaneous
what are the three types of synapse in…
electrical ... connexon... chemical
What are the two types of chemical syn…
iontrophic and metatrophic
76 terms
VETS2011 ANS Chapter 14
Is the ANS under conscious or unconsci…
What is the purpose and primary functi…
What is the ANS?
What is between pre and post ganglioni…
unconscious control
to regulate subconscious function e.g. internal homeostasis
a collection of peripheral afferent and efferent neurones (pe…
chemically mediated synapses
Is the ANS under conscious or unconsci…
unconscious control
What is the purpose and primary functi…
to regulate subconscious function e.g. internal homeostasis
23 terms
VETS2011 Neurophys Lecture 4
List the types of muscle stretch recep…
What do these receptors detect?
What is the muscle spindle? Where is i…
The intrafusal muscle fibres have cont…
Primary and secondary muscle spindle receptor... Golgi tendon or…
Primary and secondary muscle spindle receptor - detect length…
A peripheral receptor (proprioceptor)... Located in the muscle b…
The polar ends can contract, but the equatorial region cannot…
List the types of muscle stretch recep…
Primary and secondary muscle spindle receptor... Golgi tendon or…
What do these receptors detect?
Primary and secondary muscle spindle receptor - detect length…
16 terms
VETS2011 Neurophys Lecture 06
What is a sarcomere?
Which are thick and which are thin?
Describe the movement of ions during a…
What is a T-tubule?
A muscle cell... Made up of protein filaments (thick and thin)
Actin - thin... Myosin - thick
Ca2+ comes in through neuron... Causes release of ACh... Jumps acro…
An invagination of the membrane of a cell... Allows more ion cha…
What is a sarcomere?
A muscle cell... Made up of protein filaments (thick and thin)
Which are thick and which are thin?
Actin - thin... Myosin - thick
91 terms
VETS2011 Cardiovascular System 2
What shape is the canine heart?
Where is the canine heart located?
What connects the apex of the canine h…
Where is the equine heart located?
ovoid
long axis at 45 degrees to sternum, apex lies on the sternum…
Phrenicopericardial ligament
ventral mediastinum to the left of the median plane and furth…
What shape is the canine heart?
ovoid
Where is the canine heart located?
long axis at 45 degrees to sternum, apex lies on the sternum…
10 terms
VETS2011 Cardiophysiology 7
What are the local methods of controll…
What is the contraction of smooth musc…
What are the 4 methods of local contro…
Neural control of blood flow
change in diameter of small arteries and arterioles. Wall mad…
nervous sytem ... humoral stimuli ... local metabolites
neural ANS ... tissue metabolism ... endothelial activation ... autore…
adrenaline and noradrenaline neurotransmitters affect vascula…
What are the local methods of controll…
change in diameter of small arteries and arterioles. Wall mad…
What is the contraction of smooth musc…
nervous sytem ... humoral stimuli ... local metabolites
14 terms
VETS2011- Arterial Supply to the brain
Main four arteries TO include
Major sources of the four arteries TO…
Distal internal carotid artery passed…
In ruminants cattle and pigs the major…
internal carotid, basilar, maxillary, vertebral
internal carotid, basilar
cavernous, brain, face, nasal, cooling, blood, brain
vertebral, maxillary, internal, carotid, rete mirabile
Main four arteries TO include
internal carotid, basilar, maxillary, vertebral
Major sources of the four arteries TO…
internal carotid, basilar
14 terms
VETS2011 Cardiophysiology 1.2
What is the action of sympathetic inne…
What is the neurotransmitter of the sy…
What is the neurotransmitter of parasy…
What is effect of parasympathetic inne…
increases cardiac output by increasing heart rate and force o…
noradrenaline
AcH
slows heart ... innervates SA and AV node... slows induction betwee…
What is the action of sympathetic inne…
increases cardiac output by increasing heart rate and force o…
What is the neurotransmitter of the sy…
noradrenaline
18 terms
VETS2011 Respiratory Physiology 5
What is the function of the nervous sy…
What type of receptors send afferent s…
What is the respiratory centre?
What are the 3 divisions of the respir…
adjusts alveolar ventilation so that oxygen and carbon dioxid…
chemoreceptors in lungs ... baroreceptors in bood vessels
bilateral neuron group in medulla oblongata and pons
Dorsal respiratory group ... ventral respiratory group ... pneumota…
What is the function of the nervous sy…
adjusts alveolar ventilation so that oxygen and carbon dioxid…
What type of receptors send afferent s…
chemoreceptors in lungs ... baroreceptors in bood vessels
40 terms
VETS2011 Respiratory Physiology 4
What is the most important respiratory…
How are gases transferred between term…
What gases move between alveoli and bl…
How long odes it take to move the gase…
Va: alive air
diffusion
oxygen moves out of alveoli into blood ... Co2 moves into alveol…
fraction of a second
What is the most important respiratory…
Va: alive air
How are gases transferred between term…
diffusion
28 terms
VETS2011 Respiratory Physiology 3
What is the structure of pulmonary art…
What is the pathway of pulmonary arter…
Explain the pathway of pulmonary vein?
Are systematic vessels thin or thick w…
elastic, some may be muscular, with thin walls and large diam…
from right ventricle and supplies the lungs
blood from lung to left atrium
thick walled
What is the structure of pulmonary art…
elastic, some may be muscular, with thin walls and large diam…
What is the pathway of pulmonary arter…
from right ventricle and supplies the lungs
19 terms
VETS2011 Support system in neuraxis
Brain and spinal cord enclosed in thre…
Dura mater - thickest and composed of…
Arachnoid mater thin follows contours…
Pia mater _____ with arachnoid, interm…
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
connective, periosteum, epidural space, falx cerebri, tentori…
subarachnoid space
continuous, ciliated, CSF, glia
Brain and spinal cord enclosed in thre…
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Dura mater - thickest and composed of…
connective, periosteum, epidural space, falx cerebri, tentori…
10 terms
VETS2011 Respiratory Physiology 1
What are the 10 functions of the respi…
What are the 4 stages of respiration i…
What are the 4 stages of inspiration?
Intrapulmonary pressure
1. Supplies oxygen to tissues and therefore supports metaboli…
Flow of environmental media to and from the respiratory surfa…
1. Thoracic cavity expanded, pleural volume is increased, int…
pressure within the lungs
What are the 10 functions of the respi…
1. Supplies oxygen to tissues and therefore supports metaboli…
What are the 4 stages of respiration i…
Flow of environmental media to and from the respiratory surfa…
21 terms
VETS2011 Respiratory Physiology 2
Pulmonary minute ventilation (VE)
Tidal volume (VT)
Respiratory rate (RR)
Anatomical dead space (VD)
volume of air moved out or into respiratory tract in one minute
volume of air moved in or out of the respiratory tract during…
number of breathes take per minute
volume of air during each breath that is not exposed to funct…
Pulmonary minute ventilation (VE)
volume of air moved out or into respiratory tract in one minute
Tidal volume (VT)
volume of air moved in or out of the respiratory tract during…
36 terms
VETS2011 Conducting Component 2
What are the paranasal sinuses?
What are the paranasal sinuses lined w…
What are the 6 possible functions of t…
What two sinuses do all species have?
The paranasal sinuses are diverticula of the nasal cavity tha…
mucoperiosteum
1. Lighten the bones of the skull ... 2. thermally insulate the…
maxillary and frontal sinuses
What are the paranasal sinuses?
The paranasal sinuses are diverticula of the nasal cavity tha…
What are the paranasal sinuses lined w…
mucoperiosteum
69 terms
VETS2011 Reflexes 1 and 2
What two structures are muscle stretch…
what is the function of the muscle spi…
What type of information does the musc…
What type of information does the golg…
muscle spindle stretch receptor and the Golgi tendon organ
send info about the state of the muscle to the CNS
length and change in length
muscle tension and change in tension
What two structures are muscle stretch…
muscle spindle stretch receptor and the Golgi tendon organ
what is the function of the muscle spi…
send info about the state of the muscle to the CNS
69 terms
VETS2011 Functional Anatomy of the Brain
What two components can the brain be d…
What 3 structures make up supratentori…
What are the 4 functions of the cerebr…
What is the function of the basal gang…
supratentorial and infratentorial
cerebrum, basal ganglia and diencephalon
conscious functions (e.g. hearing, smell, vision)... interpretiv…
initiator of motor functions
What two components can the brain be d…
supratentorial and infratentorial
What 3 structures make up supratentori…
cerebrum, basal ganglia and diencephalon
29 terms
VETS2011 Functional Anatomy of the Heart
When does the 'lubb' sound of the hear…
When does the 'dubb' sound of the hear…
Where can you hear the pulmonary valve?
Where can you hear the aortic valve?
During contraction of ventricles when the AV valves snap shut
heard during diastole is caused by closure of the pulmonary a…
third intercostal space at level of costachondral junction on…
fourth intercostal space just below the level of the shoulder…
When does the 'lubb' sound of the hear…
During contraction of ventricles when the AV valves snap shut
When does the 'dubb' sound of the hear…
heard during diastole is caused by closure of the pulmonary a…
25 terms
VETS2011 Neuroanatomy Olfaction and Gustation
What do olfactory receptors respond to?
Where is the olfactory mucosa located?
Describe the histology of the olfactor…
What are the three types of cells in t…
chemical stimuli in a solution
covers lateral wall and the ethmoid conchae in the caudal par…
tall, pseudo stratified in form
olfactory cells... supporting epithelial cells ... basal epithelial…
What do olfactory receptors respond to?
chemical stimuli in a solution
Where is the olfactory mucosa located?
covers lateral wall and the ethmoid conchae in the caudal par…
32 terms
VETS2011 Support Systems in the Neuroaxis
The brain and spinal cord are enclosed…
what 3 folds does the dura mater form…
What is the structure of arachnoid mat…
what structures attach the pia and ara…
dura mater... arachnoid mater... pia mater
falx cerebri... tentorium cerebelli... diaphragm sell
web like filament of delicate connective tissue
denticulate ligaments
The brain and spinal cord are enclosed…
dura mater... arachnoid mater... pia mater
what 3 folds does the dura mater form…
falx cerebri... tentorium cerebelli... diaphragm sell
17 terms
VETS2011 Mechanical Activity of the Heart
What produces sound 1?
What produces sound 2?
What produces sound 3?
What produces sound 4?
AV valve closes at start of systole
semi-lunar valve closure at end of systole
rapid diastolic filling of ventricle; start of diastole
atrial contraction; end of diastole
What produces sound 1?
AV valve closes at start of systole
What produces sound 2?
semi-lunar valve closure at end of systole
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