Study sets matching "visual system"

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Study sets matching "visual system"

130 terms
Visual system
saccade, smooth pursuit, optokinetic
vestibulo-ocular reflex
visual identification
visual location
frontal eye field movements
movement controlled by the vestibular system
operation of the ventral pathway to secondary visual cortices
operation of dorsal pathway to secondary visual cortices
saccade, smooth pursuit, optokinetic
frontal eye field movements
vestibulo-ocular reflex
movement controlled by the vestibular system
75 terms
Visual System
inverted and reversed
fovea
macula
optic disk
image forms on the retina are
highest visual acuity
oval region 3x5mm surrounding the fovea with high visual acuity
...
inverted and reversed
image forms on the retina are
fovea
highest visual acuity
117 terms
Visual System
What is the wavelength of visible light?
What are the 4 variables that the visu…
Illuminance vs Luminance
Define reflectance:
390nm → 700nm... (violet) → (far red)
1) Intensity... 2) Wavelength... 3) Space... 4) Time
Illuminance = Quantification of light from light source (lu…
A property of a material that dictates the proportion of refl…
What is the wavelength of visible light?
390nm → 700nm... (violet) → (far red)
What are the 4 variables that the visu…
1) Intensity... 2) Wavelength... 3) Space... 4) Time
29 terms
The Visual System
electromagnetic radiation
wavelength
lens
cornea
a fundamental force that can travel arbitrary distances; a ki…
the distance between the two crests of two successive waves a…
the portion of the eye that bends light rays and thus can foc…
the eye's transparent outer coating
electromagnetic radiation
a fundamental force that can travel arbitrary distances; a ki…
wavelength
the distance between the two crests of two successive waves a…
29 terms
Visual System
Diagram of Eye
Light Pathway
Structure of Retina
Fovea
Cornea --> Pupil --> Lens --> Virtreouss Humur--> Fovea
high acuity vision... bipolar + ganglian cells pushed to side... on…
Diagram of Eye
Light Pathway
Cornea --> Pupil --> Lens --> Virtreouss Humur--> Fovea
64 terms
Visual System
Stimulus
Receptors
Receptors are "mode" specific, meaning…
Eye can recognize a relatively narrow…
any energy capable of exciting a receptor... -Examples:... -Mechani…
specialized nerve cells that transduce/convert energy (to ano…
-The eye is sensitive to certain electromagnetic waves, but t…
400-700 nM
Stimulus
any energy capable of exciting a receptor... -Examples:... -Mechani…
Receptors
specialized nerve cells that transduce/convert energy (to ano…
31 terms
Visual System
The back portion of the interior eyeba…
Clinical term for constricted pupil.
Clinical term for dilated pupil.
Clinical term for drooping of the eyel…
What is the fundus?
What is miosis?
What is mydriasis?
What is ptosis?
The back portion of the interior eyeba…
What is the fundus?
Clinical term for constricted pupil.
What is miosis?
Visual System
layers of the eye
2 layers of retina are
where do all the axons leave the eye
optic nerve exit the eye and becomes
sclera... uvea/choroid... retina
neural retina... retinal pigment epithelium
optic disk/ papilla
CN II
layers of the eye
sclera... uvea/choroid... retina
2 layers of retina are
neural retina... retinal pigment epithelium
88 terms
Visual System
If you have a patient who may have som…
If performing an EEG what stimulus sho…
What is the cornea?... What does an unev…
What structure covers over regions of…
You could use an EEG (electroencephalogram)
We should use a checker board because the pattern has lots of…
The cornea is the tranparent cover of the front of the eye…
The sclera, or whites of the eye cover over the rest of the e…
If you have a patient who may have som…
You could use an EEG (electroencephalogram)
If performing an EEG what stimulus sho…
We should use a checker board because the pattern has lots of…
39 terms
Visual System
extraocular muscles
Sclera
cornea
pupil
to move the eyeball in the orbit
the white of the eye; the tough wall of the eyeball continuou…
transparent external covering of pupil and iris
opening which regulates the amount of light into the eye
extraocular muscles
to move the eyeball in the orbit
Sclera
the white of the eye; the tough wall of the eyeball continuou…
44 terms
Visual System
Vision
Visual Stimulus
Optical Component
Structures of the Optical Component
Major sensation for humans and other dinural animals. It is a…
Sensation is stimulated by light bouncing off of objects. T…
Job is to get the light that is reflected off of objects focu…
Sclera, cornea, pupil, iris, and lens
Vision
Major sensation for humans and other dinural animals. It is a…
Visual Stimulus
Sensation is stimulated by light bouncing off of objects. T…
Visual System
Visual System
Accessory Structures
Lacrimal Apparatus
Extrinsic eye muscles
Eye... Accessory Structures (eyebrows, eyelids, eyelashes, tear…
Eyebrows- prevent running perspiration into eyes, shade... Eyeli…
1. Tears are produced in the lacrimal glans and exit the glan…
Superior rectus, superior oblique, inferior rectus, inferior…
Visual System
Eye... Accessory Structures (eyebrows, eyelids, eyelashes, tear…
Accessory Structures
Eyebrows- prevent running perspiration into eyes, shade... Eyeli…
85 terms
Visual System
Visual Pathways
Visual Pathways (A - F)
Level of processing (3)
Streams of processing (2)
Retina... Optic N. ... Optic chiasm ... Optic tract... LGN... Optic radiatio…
A. Retina ... B. Retina --> Optic Nerve... C. Optic N. --> Optic Ch…
Low... Intermediate ... High
Dorsal... Ventral
Visual Pathways
Retina... Optic N. ... Optic chiasm ... Optic tract... LGN... Optic radiatio…
Visual Pathways (A - F)
A. Retina ... B. Retina --> Optic Nerve... C. Optic N. --> Optic Ch…
35 terms
Visual System
striate visual pathway
how does retina go to chiasm
how does chiasm go to LGN
extrastriate pathway
retina to chiasm to LGN to V1
optic nerve
optic tract
retina to LGN to V2, V3
striate visual pathway
retina to chiasm to LGN to V1
how does retina go to chiasm
optic nerve
52 terms
Visual System
Anatomy of the Eye
Retina
Fovea
Retinofugal Projection
Cornea: focuses image on retina... Pupil: regulates light... Lens:…
3 Layers: ... 1. photreceptors... 2. bipolar cells... 3. ganglion cells
The pit or depression in the retina at the center of the eye…
The ganglion cell axons leaving the retina pass through 3 str…
Anatomy of the Eye
Cornea: focuses image on retina... Pupil: regulates light... Lens:…
Retina
3 Layers: ... 1. photreceptors... 2. bipolar cells... 3. ganglion cells
Visual System
1. Optic Nerve... 2. Optic Chiasm... 3. Opti…
5. Meyer's Loop (or temporal radiation…
1) Images enter Retina (i.e., Left vis…
Specialized for pattern analysis. ... Pa…
Name structures #1-4
Name structures #5-7
Explain this visual pathway
Explain Geniculostriate Pathway
1. Optic Nerve... 2. Optic Chiasm... 3. Opti…
Name structures #1-4
5. Meyer's Loop (or temporal radiation…
Name structures #5-7
16 terms
Visual System
major structures of the eye
rods vs. cones
organization of the retina
transduction for light waves
cones: most prevalent in central retina; found in the fovea;…
retina: neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the…
1) photopigments: protein dye bonded to retinal, a substance…
major structures of the eye
rods vs. cones
cones: most prevalent in central retina; found in the fovea;…
38 terms
Visual System
Ommatidia
Cornia
Lens
Choroid
repreating units of separate visual receptors, compound eye
no blood vessels, major refractive element
variable refractive element, changes shape
epithelial layer behind the retina, absorb excess light
Ommatidia
repreating units of separate visual receptors, compound eye
Cornia
no blood vessels, major refractive element
77 terms
Visual System
components of the outer layer of the eye
components of the middle layer of the…
components of the inner layer
lamina cribrosa
fibrous tissue -cornea, conjunctiva, sclera
vascular or uvea-iris, ciliary body, choroid
Neural- retina
pass for the optic nerve, serves for protection of the nerves…
components of the outer layer of the eye
fibrous tissue -cornea, conjunctiva, sclera
components of the middle layer of the…
vascular or uvea-iris, ciliary body, choroid
Visual System
Retina
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Receptive field of a retinal ganglion…
3 Pathways carry info to CNS
Outer layer: photoreceptors... - rods: low light and peripheral…
Spontaneously firing neurons. Receive input from multiple pho…
The region of the retina where the action of light alters the…
1. Optic tract: retinal ganglion fibers -> pretectal area... 2.…
Retina
Outer layer: photoreceptors... - rods: low light and peripheral…
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Spontaneously firing neurons. Receive input from multiple pho…
VISUAL SYSTEM
Stimulus
Photic
Receptors
mode
Energy capable of exciting a receptor
Eyes react to this kind of energy
Specialized cells that transduce energy
Receptors are _________ specific
Stimulus
Energy capable of exciting a receptor
Photic
Eyes react to this kind of energy
16 terms
VISUAL SYSTEM
CORNEAL REFLEX SENSORY
CORNEAL REFLEX MOTOR
TOUCHING OF THE CORNEA
PROVIDES SIGHT FOR THE RECOGNITION OF…
CV V
CN VII
CN V
CN II
CORNEAL REFLEX SENSORY
CV V
CORNEAL REFLEX MOTOR
CN VII
118 terms
Visual System
components (tunics) of the outer layer…
components of the middle layer of the…
components of the inner layer
lamina cribrosa
fibrous connective tissue -cornea, conjunctiva, sclera (corne…
vascular or uvea-iris, ciliary body, choroid
(Vitreal) Neural- retina and RPE
pass for the optic nerve, serves for protection of the nerves…
components (tunics) of the outer layer…
fibrous connective tissue -cornea, conjunctiva, sclera (corne…
components of the middle layer of the…
vascular or uvea-iris, ciliary body, choroid
44 terms
Visual System
Cornea
Iris
Sphincter Pupillae
Dilator Pupillae
B... Non vascular, transparent coat, covers iris, curved so help…
Suspended between cornea and lens; consists of radial and cir…
Circular Smooth muscle innervated by PARASYMPATHETIC fibers,…
Radial smooth muscle innervated by SYMPATHETIC FIBERS which D…
Cornea
B... Non vascular, transparent coat, covers iris, curved so help…
Iris
Suspended between cornea and lens; consists of radial and cir…
Visual System
Convex lens
Concave lens
Properties of light
Focal Point
Shortens focal length
Lengthens focal length
1. Wavelength... 2. Amplitude... 3. Frequency
Where a series of rays are brought to a single point
Convex lens
Shortens focal length
Concave lens
Lengthens focal length
Visual System
Cornea
Iris
Pupillary dilation - pathway
Pupillary response to light
Non-vascular... Transparent... Covers iris... Curved to help focus lig…
-suspended b/t the cornea and the lens; consists of radial an…
-receptors in retina sense dim light... -preganglionic neurons w…
-neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus sense bright light... -…
Cornea
Non-vascular... Transparent... Covers iris... Curved to help focus lig…
Iris
-suspended b/t the cornea and the lens; consists of radial an…
51 terms
Visual System
Pupil
Iris
Sclera
Retina
allows light to enter and reach retina
color portion; 2 muscles constrict and dilate pupil
white, forms tough wall of eye
forms images
Pupil
allows light to enter and reach retina
Iris
color portion; 2 muscles constrict and dilate pupil
11 terms
Visual System
Pupil
Iris
Retina
Optic Nerve
outmost part of eye (1st), allows light to pass through into…
2nd part of the eye (moving inward), colored part of the eye,…
3rd part (moving inward), layered structure of cells, respons…
4th part (moving inward), connection between the eye and the…
Pupil
outmost part of eye (1st), allows light to pass through into…
Iris
2nd part of the eye (moving inward), colored part of the eye,…
8 terms
Visual System
Flow of aqueous humor
Glaucoma
Accommodation Reflex
Photoreceptors
Posterior chamber --> pupillary aperture --> anterior chamber…
increased intraocular pressure caused by failure of resorptio…
Contraction of ciliary muscles which bulges the lens to focus…
absorb photons, info then processed through retinal layers be…
Flow of aqueous humor
Posterior chamber --> pupillary aperture --> anterior chamber…
Glaucoma
increased intraocular pressure caused by failure of resorptio…
27 terms
Visual System
Cornea
Pupil
Lens
Retina
Bends light towars the retina
Forms an opening in the iris
Focuses light onto the retina
Contains rods, comes and other neurons in its layer of cells
Cornea
Bends light towars the retina
Pupil
Forms an opening in the iris
72 terms
Visual System
Lacrimal gland... Lacrimal canaliculi... Lac…
Location of lacrimal gland
Tiny opening of the lacrimal canalicul…
Lacrimal puncta
Lacrimal Apparatus
Superior to lateral portion
Lacrimal puncta
Tears flush across the eyeball and drain into
Lacrimal gland... Lacrimal canaliculi... Lac…
Lacrimal Apparatus
Location of lacrimal gland
Superior to lateral portion
36 terms
Visual System
Pigment Epithelium. ... Outer Limiting Me…
Rods and Cones
sensitive to dim light. ... no color. ... Lo…
Sensitive to bright light, see color.…
Give the layers of the retina in order
2 types of photoreceptors
Rods (function and location within retina)
Cones (function, location, 3 wavelengths and what they sense)
Pigment Epithelium. ... Outer Limiting Me…
Give the layers of the retina in order
Rods and Cones
2 types of photoreceptors
The Visual System
Of all our sensory receptors what are…
D: Cornea... E: Iris... F: Pupil... H: Lens... K:…
How does the eye work like a camera? (…
Which part of eye refracts and focuses…
Sight - our dominant sense.
Review.... Name... D E F H K M N O P Q
It refracts and focuses light rays to form image on retina
ANTERIOR part: refracts and focuses image.... POSTERIOR part: tr…
Of all our sensory receptors what are…
Sight - our dominant sense.
D: Cornea... E: Iris... F: Pupil... H: Lens... K:…
Review.... Name... D E F H K M N O P Q
Visual System
cornea
iris
pupil
Crystalline lens
Located into the anterior cavity, light enters and is bent by…
Located in the anterior cavity, colorful part of the eye that…
Hole inside iris where light comes through
Anterior cavity, stuck inside of the eye and focuses the ligh…
cornea
Located into the anterior cavity, light enters and is bent by…
iris
Located in the anterior cavity, colorful part of the eye that…
Visual System
Visual Pathway
Cornea
Fibrous tunic
Sclara
Eyeball- optic nerve- optic chasm- optic tract- lateral gesti…
Clear membrane at the front of the globe covering the iris, p…
cornea anterior 1/6 and sclara posterior 5/6.
outer most layer made up of connective tissue what white repr…
Visual Pathway
Eyeball- optic nerve- optic chasm- optic tract- lateral gesti…
Cornea
Clear membrane at the front of the globe covering the iris, p…
Visual System
properties of light include
higher frequencies and shorter wavelen…
lower frequencies and longer wavelengt…
what is the only spectrum of light and…
wavelength, frequency, and amplitude
blue (just to know: 400nm)
red (just to know: 700 nm)
visible light: 400 nm- 700 nm
properties of light include
wavelength, frequency, and amplitude
higher frequencies and shorter wavelen…
blue (just to know: 400nm)
51 terms
Visual System
Lateral Rectus
Medial rectus
Inferior rectus
Superior rectus
abduct eye... CN 6
adduct eye... CN 3
depress eye... CN 3
elevate eye... CN 3
Lateral Rectus
abduct eye... CN 6
Medial rectus
adduct eye... CN 3
83 terms
visual system
visual light
partial view point
wave phenomenon
UV-B rays
electromagnetic energy- what our eyes are geared to see (meas…
light consists of photon particles that travel at a constant…
travels in the way that a wave travels - measure wave length…
sunburn and skin cancer
visual light
electromagnetic energy- what our eyes are geared to see (meas…
partial view point
light consists of photon particles that travel at a constant…
37 terms
Visual system
Cornea
Aqueous humor
Glaucoma
Lens
Transparent tissue
Produced y the vascular part of the ciliary body, replaced ab…
Poor drainage of the aqueous humor. If you have build up of a…
Transparent tissue
Cornea
Transparent tissue
Aqueous humor
Produced y the vascular part of the ciliary body, replaced ab…
77 terms
Visual System
Photosensitive ganglion (aka W cells)…
What do photosensitive ganglion respon…
Photosensitive ganglion cells project…
The lens system of the projects projec…
ganglion cell layer of retina
light independent of input from bipolar cells
optic tract, optic chiasma, optic nerve, brachium of superior…
inverted and reversed
Photosensitive ganglion (aka W cells)…
ganglion cell layer of retina
What do photosensitive ganglion respon…
light independent of input from bipolar cells
76 terms
Visual System
Sclera
Cornea
Choroid
What composes the middle layer of the…
tough, outermost layer of the eye
transparent external surface, major refractive component, con…
highly vascularized between retina and sclera... Retinal pigmen…
the choroid, iris, ciliary body... collectively called the uvea
Sclera
tough, outermost layer of the eye
Cornea
transparent external surface, major refractive component, con…
10 terms
The Visual System
Light
retina
visual cortex
feature detectors
a form of electromagnetic energy that can be described in ter…
eye's film ... light sensitive surface that records electromagn…
located at occipital lobe... part of the cerebral cortex involve…
neurons in the brain's visual system that respond to particul…
Light
a form of electromagnetic energy that can be described in ter…
retina
eye's film ... light sensitive surface that records electromagn…
31 terms
Visual System
The back portion of the interior eyeba…
Clinical term for constricted pupil.
Clinical term for dilated pupil.
Clinical term for drooping of the eyel…
What is the fundus?
What is miosis?
What is mydriasis?
What is ptosis?
The back portion of the interior eyeba…
What is the fundus?
Clinical term for constricted pupil.
What is miosis?
35 terms
Visual System
The back portion of the interior eyeba…
Clinical term for constricted pupil.
Clinical term for dilated pupil.
Clinical term for drooping of the eyel…
What is the fundus?
What is miosis?
What is mydriasis?
What is ptosis?
The back portion of the interior eyeba…
What is the fundus?
Clinical term for constricted pupil.
What is miosis?
31 terms
Visual System
The back portion of the interior eyeba…
Clinical term for constricted pupil.
Clinical term for dilated pupil.
Clinical term for drooping of the eyel…
What is the fundus?
What is miosis?
What is mydriasis?
What is ptosis?
The back portion of the interior eyeba…
What is the fundus?
Clinical term for constricted pupil.
What is miosis?
The Visual System
Prosopagnosia
Photoreceptors
Ratio of photoreceptors to RGC
Pathways of RGC from retina
- An inability to recognize faces.... - The result of damage to…
RODS... - Sensitive to low light... - Night vision... CONES... - Sens…
100:1
- Retinogeniculate pathway (90%)... - Pathway to superior collic…
Prosopagnosia
- An inability to recognize faces.... - The result of damage to…
Photoreceptors
RODS... - Sensitive to low light... - Night vision... CONES... - Sens…
35 terms
visual system
reflection
refraction
absorption
cornea
bouncing of light wave off an object
bending of light wave as they pass through media of different…
transfer of energy from the electromagnetic energy to a physi…
a layer of tissue in front of the eye that protects the eye a…
reflection
bouncing of light wave off an object
refraction
bending of light wave as they pass through media of different…
55 terms
Visual System
As light passes through the lens, it f…
Information from _____ visual space is…
______ part of visual space projects t…
_______ ________ point for each eye fa…
RETINA... inverted ... reversed
Upper... Lower
Right
central fixation
As light passes through the lens, it f…
RETINA... inverted ... reversed
Information from _____ visual space is…
Upper... Lower
24 terms
Visual Perception & Visual System
lightness
Purves
lightness; objects
brightness
_______ = quantity of light reflected off a surface; not dire…
______ & colleagues: experience drives our visual perception…
We lack the sensory ability to distinguish among different so…
intensity of a source of light i.e. sun, bulb, candle
lightness
_______ = quantity of light reflected off a surface; not dire…
Purves
______ & colleagues: experience drives our visual perception…
14 terms
Visual System
Pupil
Iris
What is light focused by?
Photoreceptor cells
small opening in center of eye
colored part of eye; regulates pupil size
Retina & lens
make up retina
Pupil
small opening in center of eye
Iris
colored part of eye; regulates pupil size
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