Study sets matching "vocabulary ap chem"

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Study sets matching "vocabulary ap chem"

100 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
Absorbance
Activation Energy
Alpha Particle
Anion
Light that does not pass through a solution A = abc
Minimum energy needs to be added to a system in order for the…
He2+ 2 protons, mass number = 4, 2+ charge Highly ionizing pa…
Negatively charge ion
Absorbance
Light that does not pass through a solution A = abc
Activation Energy
Minimum energy needs to be added to a system in order for the…
245 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary Terms
Accuracy
Acid
Acid-base indicator
Acid rain
the agreement of a particular value with a true value
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton…
a substance that marks the end point of an acid-base titratio…
a result of air pollution by sulfur dioxide
Accuracy
the agreement of a particular value with a true value
Acid
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton…
31 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Kinetics
chemical kinetics
reaction rate
instantaneous rate
Beer's law
the area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates at…
the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase i…
the reaction rate at a particular time as opposed to the aver…
the light absorbed by a substance (A) equals the product of i…
chemical kinetics
the area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates at…
reaction rate
the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase i…
18 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
Equilibrium
concentration
heterogeneous
constant
diverse in content.
Equilibrium
concentration
19 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Bonding
chemical bond
ionic bond
covalent bond
metallic bond
when two atoms or ions are strongly attracted to each other
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge
the sharing of electrons between two atoms
occur in metals; each atom in a metal is bonded to several ne…
chemical bond
when two atoms or ions are strongly attracted to each other
ionic bond
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 4
Molarity
Standard Solutions
Dilution
Precipitation Reaction
Moles of solute per volume of solutions in liters
A solution whose concentration is accurately known
The process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of s…
A reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separate…
Molarity
Moles of solute per volume of solutions in liters
Standard Solutions
A solution whose concentration is accurately known
18 terms
AP Chemistry Equilibrium Vocabulary
K>Q
K<Q
K=Q
Kc>1
shifts to the right (products); consuming reactants; will not…
shifts to the left (reactants); consuming products; will prec…
system is at equilibrium
favors the products (→) at equilibrium
K>Q
shifts to the right (products); consuming reactants; will not…
K<Q
shifts to the left (reactants); consuming products; will prec…
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 6
Energy
Law of conservation of energy
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
The capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
Energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
Energy due to position or composition
Energy due to the motion of an object; dependent on the mass…
Energy
The capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
Law of conservation of energy
Energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 8
Bond energy
Ionic Bonding
Ionic Compound
Coulomb's Law
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal t…
E = 2.31 x 10¹⁹(Q₁Q₂/r), where E is the energy of interaction…
Bond energy
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
Ionic Bonding
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 2
Law of conservation of mass
Law of multiple porportions
Law of definite proportions
Avogadro's Hyopthesis
Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
When two elements combine to form a series of compounds, the…
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportions…
At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes different…
Law of conservation of mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
Law of multiple porportions
When two elements combine to form a series of compounds, the…
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
absolute uncertainty
absolute zero
absorbance, A
absorptivity, a
the uncertainty of +/-1 in the last digit of a measurement. i…
the lowest possible temperature, 0.0 K or -273.16 degrees C
a measure of the amount of light absorbed by a chemical
a constant the value of which depends on the sample and the w…
absolute uncertainty
the uncertainty of +/-1 in the last digit of a measurement. i…
absolute zero
the lowest possible temperature, 0.0 K or -273.16 degrees C
48 terms
AP Chemistry
Demokritus & Leucippos
What is an Atom?
Alchemists tried...
Robert Boyle
Matter is composed of tiny indivisible objects called "Atomos".
An atom is the smallest fundamental particle of matter that c…
to make gold through chemistry
1. first true quantitative experimenter... 2. est. the idea of e…
Demokritus & Leucippos
Matter is composed of tiny indivisible objects called "Atomos".
What is an Atom?
An atom is the smallest fundamental particle of matter that c…
Intermolecular forces-AP Chemistry
dipole
dipole moment
hydrogen bonds
London Dispersion forces
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
type of molecular attraction in which a hydrogen atom covalen…
The intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant mo…
dipole
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
dipole moment
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
148 terms
AP Chemistry
H
He
Li
Be
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
H
Hydrogen
He
Helium
Ap Chemistry Equilibrium
Equilibrium constant
K>1
Forward reaction
Reverse reaction
k=products-reactants
Forward reaction is favored
Reactants to Products
Products to reactants
Equilibrium constant
k=products-reactants
K>1
Forward reaction is favored
32 terms
AP CHEMISTRY
John Dalton's atomic theory
Henry Becquerel (1896)
J. J. Thompson (1897)
Goldstein (1886)
1. All matter is made up of atoms (T)... 2. Atoms of a given ele…
Accomplishment: observed radioactive decay of U... Significance…
Accomplishment: discovered electrons by experimenting with th…
While experimenting with Cathode Ray tube, he discovered the…
John Dalton's atomic theory
1. All matter is made up of atoms (T)... 2. Atoms of a given ele…
Henry Becquerel (1896)
Accomplishment: observed radioactive decay of U... Significance…
14 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 19 Vocabulary
Spontaneous process
Reversible process
Irreversible process
Isothermal process
A process that is capable of proceeding in a given direction,…
A process that can go back and forth between states along exa…
A process that is not reversible. As a result, some of its po…
A process that occurs at constant temperature.
Spontaneous process
A process that is capable of proceeding in a given direction,…
Reversible process
A process that can go back and forth between states along exa…
17 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Gases
Pressure
Pascals
Standard Atmospheric Pressure
Boyle's Law
Force per unit area.
The SI unit for pressure.
The typical pressure at sea level, the pressure that can supp…
States that the volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained…
Pressure
Force per unit area.
Pascals
The SI unit for pressure.
72 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
state function
energy released
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
∆H, ∆S, ∆G
bonds formed; exothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
36 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Thermochemistry
thermodynamics
thermochemistry
kinetic energy
potential energy
the study of energy and its transformations
the relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes
the energy that an object possesses by virtue of its motion
the energy that an object possesses as a result of its compos…
thermodynamics
the study of energy and its transformations
thermochemistry
the relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes
35 terms
AP Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry
radioactivity
radiation
radioisotopes
alpha particle
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by urani…
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive s…
the nuclei of unstable isotopes
particle emitted by a radioactive source that contains two pr…
radioactivity
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by urani…
radiation
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive s…
16 terms
AP Chemistry Gases Vocabulary
Pressure
Boyle's Law
Combined Gas Law
Ideal Gas Law
forced exerted over unit area
inverse pressure-volume
A combination of three gas laws: Boyle's Law, Charles' Law an…
A combination of Boyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac and Avogadro
Pressure
forced exerted over unit area
Boyle's Law
inverse pressure-volume
276 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
absolute zero
acidic
acids
activation energy
Absolute zero is 0 Kelvin and is the point at which all molec…
A solution whose pH is less than 7.00 is said to be acidic.
Acids are proton(H+) donors.
the minimum... energy that must be supplied to initiate a chemi…
absolute zero
Absolute zero is 0 Kelvin and is the point at which all molec…
acidic
A solution whose pH is less than 7.00 is said to be acidic.
19 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry
Mole Ratio
Limiting Reagents
Excess Reagent
The portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships…
A conversion factor derived from the coefficients of a balanc…
Any reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction; it…
A reagent present in a quantity that is more than sufficient…
Stoichiometry
The portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships…
Mole Ratio
A conversion factor derived from the coefficients of a balanc…
287 terms
Chemistry AP Vocabulary
Scientific Method
Hypothesis
Theory
Model
-the process of studying natural phenomena, involving observa…
a prediction before an experiment
-a set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation…
-a set of assumptions put forth to explain the observed behav…
Scientific Method
-the process of studying natural phenomena, involving observa…
Hypothesis
a prediction before an experiment
41 terms
Ap Chemistry Vocabulary
Filtrate
Analyte
Strong acids
Precipitate
A substance that is put through a filter
A substance whose chemical compisition is being measured
Hydrochloric, Hydrobromic, Nitric, Sulfuric, Perchloric
A solid that forms in an solution due to a reaction
Filtrate
A substance that is put through a filter
Analyte
A substance whose chemical compisition is being measured
32 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 14 Vocabulary
Chemical kinetics
Reaction rate
Instantaneous rate
Beer's law
The area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, at…
The decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase i…
The reaction rate at a particular time as opposed to the aver…
The light absorbed by a substance (A) equals the product of i…
Chemical kinetics
The area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, at…
Reaction rate
The decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase i…
51 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
state function
energy released
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
∆H, ∆S, ∆G
bonds formed; exothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
8 terms
AP Chemistry Organic Chemistry
alcohol
halide
organic acid
amine
O-H bonded to C... polar
halogen bonded to C
carboxyl (COOH) bonded to C chain... acidic
amine (NH2) bonded to C... basic
alcohol
O-H bonded to C... polar
halide
halogen bonded to C
245 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary Terms
Accuracy
Acid
Acid-base indicator
Acid rain
the agreement of a particular value with a true value
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton…
a substance that marks the end point of an acid-base titratio…
a result of air pollution by sulfur dioxide
Accuracy
the agreement of a particular value with a true value
Acid
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton…
AP chemistry vocabulary
Accuracy
Absorbance
Alloy
Alcohol
How close the average of a set of measurements is to the true…
A measure of the capacity of a substance to absorb light of a…
A substance that has a characteristic properties of a metal a…
Inorganic compound obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group…
Accuracy
How close the average of a set of measurements is to the true…
Absorbance
A measure of the capacity of a substance to absorb light of a…
27 terms
AP Chemistry, Chapter 1 Vocabulary
chemistry
matter
elements
atoms
the study of the properties of materials and the changes that…
the physical material of the universe; it is anything that ha…
basic or elementary substances; cannot be decomposed into sim…
the almost infinitesimally small building blocks of matter
chemistry
the study of the properties of materials and the changes that…
matter
the physical material of the universe; it is anything that ha…
Chapter 13 Vocabulary AP Chemistry
Rate
Average Rate
Reactant Orders
Integrated Rate Law (first order)
How fast the reaction occurs. The only way to determine rate…
For Reactants: -Delta[A]/Delta(time)... For Products: Delta[B}/D…
Powers on the concentrations of the reactants in the differen…
Time dependent law, the concentration of a reactant depends o…
Rate
How fast the reaction occurs. The only way to determine rate…
Average Rate
For Reactants: -Delta[A]/Delta(time)... For Products: Delta[B}/D…
704 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
accuracy
acid
acid ionization constant (Ka)
acid-base reaction (neutralization rea…
A term that refers to how close a measured value is to the ac…
A molecular compound that is able to donate an H+ ion (proton…
The equilibrium constant for the ionization reaction of a wea…
A reaction in which an acid reacts with a base and the two ne…
accuracy
A term that refers to how close a measured value is to the ac…
acid
A molecular compound that is able to donate an H+ ion (proton…
700 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
Scientific Method
Hypothesis
Theory (Model)
Natural Law
The process that lies at the center of scientific inquiry. Th…
A possible explanation for an observation.
A set of tested hypothesis that an overall explanation of som…
A generally observed behavior of nature.
Scientific Method
The process that lies at the center of scientific inquiry. Th…
Hypothesis
A possible explanation for an observation.
32 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 12 Vocabulary
Solute
Solvent
Miscible Fluids
Immiscible
Solute is dissolved by solvent, in the case of gas or solid d…
Dissolves the solute, in solution where gas or solid dissolve…
Fluids that mix with or dissolve in each other in all proport…
When fluids don't mix, but instead form two layers
Solute
Solute is dissolved by solvent, in the case of gas or solid d…
Solvent
Dissolves the solute, in solution where gas or solid dissolve…
15 terms
AP Chemistry vocabulary 2
Pb²⁺
Pb⁴⁺
H⁺
SO₄²⁻
lead(II)
lead(IV)
hydrogen
sulfate
Pb²⁺
lead(II)
Pb⁴⁺
lead(IV)
23 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Properties of Solutions
solvation
hydration
crystallization
saturated
the clustering of solvent molecules around a solute particle
solvation when the solvent is water
the process in which a dissolved solute comes out of a soluti…
a solution in which undissolved solute and dissolved solute a…
solvation
the clustering of solvent molecules around a solute particle
hydration
solvation when the solvent is water
89 terms
ALL AP Chemistry Vocabulary
Chemistry
Chemist
Matter
Scientific Method
Anything of interest to a Chemist
Scientist who studies the properties and reactions of matter
Anything that has volume and mass
A systematic way of learning knowledge
Chemistry
Anything of interest to a Chemist
Chemist
Scientist who studies the properties and reactions of matter
AP Chemistry: Chapter 10 Vocabulary
Vapors
Pressure
Pascal(Pa)
Bar
Substances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditio…
A push that tends to move something in a given direction. Pre…
SI unit of pressure is N/m^2.
A related unit sometimes used to report pressures which equal…
Vapors
Substances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditio…
Pressure
A push that tends to move something in a given direction. Pre…
21 terms
AP Chemistry, Chapter 3 Vocabulary
stoichiometry
law of conservation of mass
chemical equations
reactants
essential tool in chemistry, assists in measuring the concent…
atoms are neither created nor destroyed during any chemical r…
concise representation of chemical reactions
chemical formulas on the left of the arrow representing the s…
stoichiometry
essential tool in chemistry, assists in measuring the concent…
law of conservation of mass
atoms are neither created nor destroyed during any chemical r…
21 terms
AP Chemistry: Solutions Vocabulary
Solute
Solvent
Solution
Supersaturate
minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent
able to dissolve other substances
liquid mixture in which the solute is uniformly distributed w…
increase the concentration of a solution beyond saturated point
Solute
minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent
Solvent
able to dissolve other substances
60 terms
AP Chemistry Thermochemistry Vocabulary
energy (E)
internal energy
potential energy
kinetic energy
the ability to do work or produce heat
the sum of all potential and kinetic energy in a system
the energy stored in chemical bonds
energy of motion
energy (E)
the ability to do work or produce heat
internal energy
the sum of all potential and kinetic energy in a system
30 terms
AP Chemistry, Chapter 6 Vocabulary
electronic structure
wavelength
frequency
quantum
arrangement of electrons in an atom
distance between successive peaks (or troughs)
number of complete wavelengths, or cycles, that pass a given…
the smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorb…
electronic structure
arrangement of electrons in an atom
wavelength
distance between successive peaks (or troughs)
131 terms
AP Chemistry Princeton Review Vocabulary
periods
groups
isotope
avagadro's number
horizontal rows of the periodic table
vertical columns of a periodic table
atom of an element with different number of neutrons
how many atoms are in a single mole (6.02x10^23)
periods
horizontal rows of the periodic table
groups
vertical columns of a periodic table
32 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Solids and Liquids
intermolecular forces
dipole-dipole forces
London dispersion forces
hydrogen bonding
the forces that exist between molecules
the force that exists because of the interactions of dipoles…
intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between indu…
results from intermolecular attractions between molecules con…
intermolecular forces
the forces that exist between molecules
dipole-dipole forces
the force that exists because of the interactions of dipoles…
33 terms
Unit 2 vocabulary (preAP and general chemistry)
boiling point
chemical change
chemical property
chemical reaction
the temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas
a change that produces matter with a different composition th…
the ability of a sutbstance to undergo a specific chemical ch…
a change in which one or more reactants change into one or mo…
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas
chemical change
a change that produces matter with a different composition th…
16 terms
AP Chemistry Polyatomic Ions
acetate
ammonium
bromate
carbonate
acetate
ammonium
28 terms
AP Chemistry: Bonding
Bent
Bent
Tetrahedral
Octahedral
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
Nonpolar... sp3... 109.5 degrees
Nonpolar... Sp3d2... 90 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
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