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Study sets matching "vocabulary ap chem"

27 terms
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 6
Energy
Law of conservation of energy
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
The capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
Energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
Energy due to position or composition
Energy due to the motion of an object; dependent on the mass…
Energy
The capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
Law of conservation of energy
Energy can be converted from one form to another but can be n…
24 terms
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 4
Molarity
Standard Solutions
Dilution
Precipitation Reaction
Moles of solute per volume of solutions in liters
A solution whose concentration is accurately known
The process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of s…
A reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separate…
Molarity
Moles of solute per volume of solutions in liters
Standard Solutions
A solution whose concentration is accurately known
22 terms
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 8
Bond energy
Ionic Bonding
Ionic Compound
Coulomb's Law
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal t…
E = 2.31 x 10¹⁹(Q₁Q₂/r), where E is the energy of interaction…
Bond energy
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
Ionic Bonding
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
40 terms
AP Chemistry - Vocabulary 2
Law of conservation of mass
Law of multiple porportions
Law of definite proportions
Avogadro's Hyopthesis
Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
When two elements combine to form a series of compounds, the…
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportions…
At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes different…
Law of conservation of mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
Law of multiple porportions
When two elements combine to form a series of compounds, the…
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
36 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Thermochemistry
thermodynamics
thermochemistry
kinetic energy
potential energy
the study of energy and its transformations
the relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes
the energy that an object possesses by virtue of its motion
the energy that an object possesses as a result of its compos…
thermodynamics
the study of energy and its transformations
thermochemistry
the relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes
245 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary Terms
Accuracy
Acid
Acid-base indicator
Acid rain
the agreement of a particular value with a true value
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton…
a substance that marks the end point of an acid-base titratio…
a result of air pollution by sulfur dioxide
Accuracy
the agreement of a particular value with a true value
Acid
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton…
17 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Gases
Pressure
Pascals
Standard Atmospheric Pressure
Boyle's Law
Force per unit area.
The SI unit for pressure.
The typical pressure at sea level, the pressure that can supp…
States that the volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained…
Pressure
Force per unit area.
Pascals
The SI unit for pressure.
31 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Kinetics
chemical kinetics
reaction rate
instantaneous rate
Beer's law
the area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates at…
the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase i…
the reaction rate at a particular time as opposed to the aver…
the light absorbed by a substance (A) equals the product of i…
chemical kinetics
the area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates at…
reaction rate
the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase i…
19 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry
Mole Ratio
Limiting Reagents
Excess Reagent
The portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships…
A conversion factor derived from the coefficients of a balanc…
Any reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction; it…
A reagent present in a quantity that is more than sufficient…
Stoichiometry
The portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships…
Mole Ratio
A conversion factor derived from the coefficients of a balanc…
16 terms
AP Chemistry Gases Vocabulary
Pressure
Boyle's Law
Combined Gas Law
Ideal Gas Law
forced exerted over unit area
inverse pressure-volume
A combination of three gas laws: Boyle's Law, Charles' Law an…
A combination of Boyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac and Avogadro
Pressure
forced exerted over unit area
Boyle's Law
inverse pressure-volume
19 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Bonding
chemical bond
ionic bond
covalent bond
metallic bond
when two atoms or ions are strongly attracted to each other
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge
the sharing of electrons between two atoms
occur in metals; each atom in a metal is bonded to several ne…
chemical bond
when two atoms or ions are strongly attracted to each other
ionic bond
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge
14 terms
Intermolecular forces-AP Chemistry
dipole
dipole moment
hydrogen bonds
London Dispersion forces
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
type of molecular attraction in which a hydrogen atom covalen…
The intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant mo…
dipole
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite char…
dipole moment
the charge on a molecule is not evenly shared (ex. water)
16 terms
AP Chemistry Polyatomic Ions
acetate
ammonium
bromate
carbonate
acetate
ammonium
51 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
state function
energy released
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
∆H, ∆S, ∆G
bonds formed; exothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
40 terms
AP Chemistry: Lab Equipment
Erlenmeyer Flask
Volumetric Flask
Graduated Cylinder
Burner
Erlenmeyer Flask
Volumetric Flask
60 terms
AP Chemistry Thermochemistry Vocabulary
energy (E)
internal energy
potential energy
kinetic energy
the ability to do work or produce heat
the sum of all potential and kinetic energy in a system
the energy stored in chemical bonds
energy of motion
energy (E)
the ability to do work or produce heat
internal energy
the sum of all potential and kinetic energy in a system
245 terms
AP chemistry
number atoms in one mole
unit for area
unit for volume
are thickness and height the same thin…
6.02 × 10 ²³
cm²
cm³ and ml
yes
number atoms in one mole
6.02 × 10 ²³
unit for area
cm²
18 terms
AP Chemistry Equilibrium Vocabulary
K>Q
K<Q
K=Q
Kc>1
shifts to the right (products); consuming reactants; will not…
shifts to the left (reactants); consuming products; will prec…
system is at equilibrium
favors the products (→) at equilibrium
K>Q
shifts to the right (products); consuming reactants; will not…
K<Q
shifts to the left (reactants); consuming products; will prec…
12 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - The Mole
Mole
Avogadro's Number
Representative Particle
Molar Mass
The amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10²³ particles…
The number of representative particles contained in one mole…
The smallest unit into which a substance can be broken down w…
A term used to refer to the mass of a mole of any substance.…
Mole
The amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10²³ particles…
Avogadro's Number
The number of representative particles contained in one mole…
48 terms
AP Chemistry
Demokritus & Leucippos
What is an Atom?
Alchemists tried...
Robert Boyle
Matter is composed of tiny indivisible objects called "Atomos".
An atom is the smallest fundamental particle of matter that c…
to make gold through chemistry
1. first true quantitative experimenter... 2. est. the idea of e…
Demokritus & Leucippos
Matter is composed of tiny indivisible objects called "Atomos".
What is an Atom?
An atom is the smallest fundamental particle of matter that c…
45 terms
AP Chemistry: 02: Bonding
Electrostatic
Coulomb's
F = k |q₁q₂| / r²
Electrostatic
all bonds occur due to ___ attractions
electrostatic forces are governed by ___ law
write the equation for Coulomb' s law... F = electrostatic force…
an ionic solid is held together by the ___ attraction between…
Electrostatic
all bonds occur due to ___ attractions
Coulomb's
electrostatic forces are governed by ___ law
167 terms
AP Chemistry
mass spectrometry
percent composition
empirical formula
molecular formula
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
mass of element / mass of compound
simplest ratio of a compound
actual formula for a substance
mass spectrometry
-can be used to determine the mass of various isotopes of a s…
percent composition
mass of element / mass of compound
72 terms
AP Chemistry Thermodyanmics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
state function
energy released
energy of universe is constant
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
∆H, ∆S, ∆G
bonds formed; exothermic
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy of universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
process spontaneous in one direction can't be spontaneous in…
12 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Chemical Equilibrium
chemical equilibrium
equilibrium mixture
Haber process
law of mass action
occurs when opposing reactions are proceeding at equal rates;…
a combination of products and reactants; the result of a reve…
the catalyst system and conditions of temperature and pressur…
expresses, for any reaction, the relationship between the con…
chemical equilibrium
occurs when opposing reactions are proceeding at equal rates;…
equilibrium mixture
a combination of products and reactants; the result of a reve…
465 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
absolute uncertainty
absolute zero
absorbance, A
absorptivity, a
the uncertainty of +/-1 in the last digit of a measurement. i…
the lowest possible temperature, 0.0 K or -273.16 degrees C
a measure of the amount of light absorbed by a chemical
a constant the value of which depends on the sample and the w…
absolute uncertainty
the uncertainty of +/-1 in the last digit of a measurement. i…
absolute zero
the lowest possible temperature, 0.0 K or -273.16 degrees C
33 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Intro. to Chemistry Part 2
Atoms
Subatomic Particles
Cathode Rays
Radioactivity
The smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical…
Particles that make up an atom.
Streams of electrons that are produced when a high voltage is…
Spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus with…
Atoms
The smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical…
Subatomic Particles
Particles that make up an atom.
465 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
absolute uncertainty
absolute zero
absorbance, A
absorptivity, a
the uncertainty of +/-1 in the last digit of a measurement. i…
the lowest possible temperature, 0.0 K or -273.16 degrees C
a measure of the amount of light absorbed by a chemical
a constant the value of which depends on the sample and the w…
absolute uncertainty
the uncertainty of +/-1 in the last digit of a measurement. i…
absolute zero
the lowest possible temperature, 0.0 K or -273.16 degrees C
245 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary Terms
Accuracy
Acid
Acid-base indicator
Acid rain
the agreement of a particular value with a true value
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton…
a substance that marks the end point of an acid-base titratio…
a result of air pollution by sulfur dioxide
Accuracy
the agreement of a particular value with a true value
Acid
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton…
700 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
Scientific Method
Hypothesis
Theory (Model)
Natural Law
The process that lies at the center of scientific inquiry. Th…
A possible explanation for an observation.
A set of tested hypothesis that an overall explanation of som…
A generally observed behavior of nature.
Scientific Method
The process that lies at the center of scientific inquiry. Th…
Hypothesis
A possible explanation for an observation.
35 terms
AP Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry
radioactivity
radiation
radioisotopes
alpha particle
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by urani…
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive s…
the nuclei of unstable isotopes
particle emitted by a radioactive source that contains two pr…
radioactivity
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by urani…
radiation
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive s…
18 terms
AP Chemistry Equilibrium Vocabulary
K>Q
K<Q
K=Q
Kc>1
shifts to the right (products); consuming reactants; will not…
shifts to the left (reactants); consuming products; will prec…
system is at equilibrium
favors the products (→) at equilibrium
K>Q
shifts to the right (products); consuming reactants; will not…
K<Q
shifts to the left (reactants); consuming products; will prec…
704 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
accuracy
acid
acid ionization constant (Ka)
acid-base reaction (neutralization rea…
A term that refers to how close a measured value is to the ac…
A molecular compound that is able to donate an H+ ion (proton…
The equilibrium constant for the ionization reaction of a wea…
A reaction in which an acid reacts with a base and the two ne…
accuracy
A term that refers to how close a measured value is to the ac…
acid
A molecular compound that is able to donate an H+ ion (proton…
8 terms
AP Chemistry Organic Chemistry
alcohol
halide
organic acid
amine
O-H bonded to C... polar
halogen bonded to C
carboxyl (COOH) bonded to C chain... acidic
amine (NH2) bonded to C... basic
alcohol
O-H bonded to C... polar
halide
halogen bonded to C
28 terms
AP Chemistry: Bonding
Bent
Bent
Tetrahedral
Octahedral
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
Nonpolar... sp3... 109.5 degrees
Nonpolar... Sp3d2... 90 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp2... 120 degrees
Bent
Polar... sp3... 104.5 degrees
148 terms
AP Chemistry
H
He
Li
Be
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
H
Hydrogen
He
Helium
43 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Intro. to Chemistry Part 1
Hypothesis
Theory
Law
Quantitative
An initial idea that a scientist makes after observing a prob…
After experimentation is done, the ideas set forth by the sci…
Once a problem has been solved beyond any reasonable doubt. E…
Any property that includes a number measurement. Length and m…
Hypothesis
An initial idea that a scientist makes after observing a prob…
Theory
After experimentation is done, the ideas set forth by the sci…
30 terms
AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
Collision Theory
Effective Collision
Ineffective Collision
Activation Energy
says molecules must collide with enough energy, correct orien…
has enough energy and right orientation, results in the break…
results from reactant particles having insufficient kinetic e…
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
Collision Theory
says molecules must collide with enough energy, correct orien…
Effective Collision
has enough energy and right orientation, results in the break…
49 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Atomic Structure
electronic structure
electromagnetic radiation
visible light
wavelength
the arrangement of electrons in an atom; the arrangement help…
any type of energy that moves in waves through space and trav…
the type of electromagnetic radiation that we can see
the length of a wave of electromagnetic radiation
electronic structure
the arrangement of electrons in an atom; the arrangement help…
electromagnetic radiation
any type of energy that moves in waves through space and trav…
41 terms
Ap Chemistry Vocabulary
Filtrate
Analyte
Strong acids
Precipitate
A substance that is put through a filter
A substance whose chemical compisition is being measured
Hydrochloric, Hydrobromic, Nitric, Sulfuric, Perchloric
A solid that forms in an solution due to a reaction
Filtrate
A substance that is put through a filter
Analyte
A substance whose chemical compisition is being measured
27 terms
AP Chemistry Summer Vocabulary
kinetic molecular theory
homogeneous
heterogeneous
solution
a model that assumes that an ideal gas is composed of tiny pa…
uniform structure or composition throughout
composed of dissimilar components that appear in different ra…
a homogeneous mixture composed of 2 or more substances unifor…
kinetic molecular theory
a model that assumes that an ideal gas is composed of tiny pa…
homogeneous
uniform structure or composition throughout
23 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Properties of Solutions
solvation
hydration
crystallization
saturated
the clustering of solvent molecules around a solute particle
solvation when the solvent is water
the process in which a dissolved solute comes out of a soluti…
a solution in which undissolved solute and dissolved solute a…
solvation
the clustering of solvent molecules around a solute particle
hydration
solvation when the solvent is water
AP chemistry vocabulary
Accuracy
Absorbance
Alloy
Alcohol
How close the average of a set of measurements is to the true…
A measure of the capacity of a substance to absorb light of a…
A substance that has a characteristic properties of a metal a…
Inorganic compound obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group…
Accuracy
How close the average of a set of measurements is to the true…
Absorbance
A measure of the capacity of a substance to absorb light of a…
28 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 10 Vocabulary
Vapors
Pressure
Pascal(Pa)
Bar
Substances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditio…
A push that tends to move something in a given direction. Pre…
SI unit of pressure is N/m^2.
A related unit sometimes used to report pressures which equal…
Vapors
Substances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditio…
Pressure
A push that tends to move something in a given direction. Pre…
465 terms
AP Chemistry Vocabulary
absolute uncertainty
absolute zero
absorbance, A
absorptivity, a
the uncertainty of +/-1 in the last digit of a measurement. i…
the lowest possible temperature, 0.0 K or -273.16 degrees C
a measure of the amount of light absorbed by a chemical
a constant the value of which depends on the sample and the w…
absolute uncertainty
the uncertainty of +/-1 in the last digit of a measurement. i…
absolute zero
the lowest possible temperature, 0.0 K or -273.16 degrees C
16 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Acids and Bases
hydronium ion (H₃O⁺¹)
Bronsted-Lowry acid
Bronsted-Lowry base
amphiprotic
the predominant form of the proton in an aqueous solution
a substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton donor
a substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton acceptor
refers to the capacity of a substance to act as either an aci…
hydronium ion (H₃O⁺¹)
the predominant form of the proton in an aqueous solution
Bronsted-Lowry acid
a substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton donor
57 terms
AP Chemistry Big idea #1 --
Molecules in a mole
PV=
Gas constant R
Molarity
6.022 x 10²³
nRT
.0821 L-atm/mol-K
Moles/Liters of solution
Molecules in a mole
6.022 x 10²³
PV=
nRT
57 terms
AP Chemistry Big idea #1
Molecules in a mole
PV=
Gas constant R
Molarity
6.022 x 10²³
nRT
.0821 L-atm/mol-K
Moles/Liters of solution
Molecules in a mole
6.022 x 10²³
PV=
nRT
14 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 19 Vocabulary
Spontaneous process
Reversible process
Irreversible process
Isothermal process
A process that is capable of proceeding in a given direction,…
A process that can go back and forth between states along exa…
A process that is not reversible. As a result, some of its po…
A process that occurs at constant temperature.
Spontaneous process
A process that is capable of proceeding in a given direction,…
Reversible process
A process that can go back and forth between states along exa…
32 terms
AP Chemistry: Vocabulary Notes - Solids and Liquids
intermolecular forces
dipole-dipole forces
London dispersion forces
hydrogen bonding
the forces that exist between molecules
the force that exists because of the interactions of dipoles…
intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between indu…
results from intermolecular attractions between molecules con…
intermolecular forces
the forces that exist between molecules
dipole-dipole forces
the force that exists because of the interactions of dipoles…
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