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Study sets matching "x ray crystallography"

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Study sets matching "x ray crystallography"

6 terms
X-ray Crystallography sheet
Describe how x-ray crystallography wor…
There is some controversy over Photo 5…
According to the "DNA Double Helix Str…
On the image of Photo 51 below, label…
The x-ray crystallography passes x-rays through a crystallize…
Rosalind Franklin took photo 51, which was stolen by Mauris W…
They knew they it was composed of adenine, cytosine, guanine,…
The dark patches at the top and bottom of the picture, for ex…
Describe how x-ray crystallography wor…
The x-ray crystallography passes x-rays through a crystallize…
There is some controversy over Photo 5…
Rosalind Franklin took photo 51, which was stolen by Mauris W…
6 terms
X-ray crystallography
X-ray crystallography definition
scattering
constructive interference
destructive interference
study of x-ray scattering by crystalline solids & using this…
-photons being re-emitted have same energy as absorbed photon…
waves in-phase
waves out-of-phase
X-ray crystallography definition
study of x-ray scattering by crystalline solids & using this…
scattering
-photons being re-emitted have same energy as absorbed photon…
17 terms
X-ray crystallography
x-ray crystallograpy
refelction
diffraction pattern
photon diffraction requirement
analysis of atomic positions based on the scattering of x-rays
The light, dark dots on detector caused by different photon i…
collection of reflections-- details controlled by spatial pos…
the photon wavelength must equal the distance between the ato…
x-ray crystallograpy
analysis of atomic positions based on the scattering of x-rays
refelction
The light, dark dots on detector caused by different photon i…
12 terms
X-ray Crystallography
X-ray Crystallography
Diffraction
Reflection
Diffraction pattern
Analysis of atomic positions based on scattering of x-rays
Scattering of photon waves by an object such as an electron c…
Spot in a diffraction pattern
In x-ray crystallography, the pattern of x-ray intensities (r…
X-ray Crystallography
Analysis of atomic positions based on scattering of x-rays
Diffraction
Scattering of photon waves by an object such as an electron c…
29 terms
X ray crystallography
X-rays can be used to probe the 3D str…
In a crystal, X-rays interact with the…
It depends upon the orientation of the…
Travels less distance than a X ray whi…
What can X rays be used to probe?
What happens in X ray crystallography?
The way the X rays are reflected depends upon what?
What is significant about an X-ray, which reflects from the s…
X-rays can be used to probe the 3D str…
What can X rays be used to probe?
In a crystal, X-rays interact with the…
What happens in X ray crystallography?
28 terms
X-Ray Crystallography
low resolution
medium resolution
high resolution
ultra-high resolution
>4.0 A
3.5-2.5 A
2.5-1.5 A
1.0 A
low resolution
>4.0 A
medium resolution
3.5-2.5 A
15 terms
X-ray crystallography
Diffraction experiments
Unit cell
Relationship between diffraction and u…
Helices
Measure the interference of waves reflected by electron densi…
The smallest repeating unit in a crystal
The farther apart spots are the smaller the unit cell is
Cause a characteristic bending of X-rays, creating an X-shape
Diffraction experiments
Measure the interference of waves reflected by electron densi…
Unit cell
The smallest repeating unit in a crystal
13 terms
X-ray crystallography
PBD
steps in protein crystallography (5)
Problems (considerations) of protein p…
international repository of structural data
1) isolation... 2)crystal formation... 3) diffraction pattern... 4) el…
sample is demanding (mg to g of protein)... need high [] of pro…
PBD
international repository of structural data
steps in protein crystallography (5)
1) isolation... 2)crystal formation... 3) diffraction pattern... 4) el…
25 terms
17. X ray crystallography
Steps to structure determination
Source of protein: considerations
Purify protein of interest:
Crystallising protein:
Selection of target protein (e.g. TCR) -> obtain large amount…
• Recombinant protein production e.g. E. coli: offers flexibi…
• Functional studies, structural studies, NMR/ X ray crystall…
• Most common technique used is vapour drop hanging perfusion…
Steps to structure determination
Selection of target protein (e.g. TCR) -> obtain large amount…
Source of protein: considerations
• Recombinant protein production e.g. E. coli: offers flexibi…
20 terms
x-ray crystallography 1
used in combination with computational…
How can X-ray crystallography be used…
In a crystal, X-rays interact with the…
The crystalline atoms cause
(e.g. molecular docking)
X-rays can be used to probe the 3D structures of biological t…
electrons... 'reflect'
a beam of X-rays to diffract into many specific directions
used in combination with computational…
(e.g. molecular docking)
How can X-ray crystallography be used…
X-rays can be used to probe the 3D structures of biological t…
44 terms
X-Ray Crystallography3
What is the goal of x-ray crystallogra…
How are x-rays scattered?
What does interesting the electron den…
What is this technique useful for?
A
A
A
...
What is the goal of x-ray crystallogra…
A
How are x-rays scattered?
A
21 terms
X-Ray Crystallography
atomic level events that lead to x-ray…
DNA
x-ray diffraction advantage
x-ray diffraction disadvantage
1. crystal grown, as perfect as possible... 2. crystal illuminat…
20 A diameter-- too wide for single helix/twice expected dens…
3D position of all atoms
require perfect crystals
atomic level events that lead to x-ray…
1. crystal grown, as perfect as possible... 2. crystal illuminat…
DNA
20 A diameter-- too wide for single helix/twice expected dens…
11 terms
15. X Ray Crystallography
3 Reasons for using X ray crystallogra…
B factor
X- Ray Crystallography
NMR
1. Most structures have been discovered using this method ... 2.…
- indication of mobility of individual atoms in the protein s…
- a repeat of your molecules packed in 3D ... - roughly half of…
- Don't need a crystal ... - proteins are tumbling in solution…
3 Reasons for using X ray crystallogra…
1. Most structures have been discovered using this method ... 2.…
B factor
- indication of mobility of individual atoms in the protein s…
9 terms
X-ray Crystallography
Who discovered x-radiation in 1895?
Who demonstrated diffraction of x-radi…
What is the range of wavelengths of x-…
Who are W.H. and W.L. Bragg?
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
Friedrich, Knipping, and von Laue
10^-6 to 10^-1 nm
The Bragg equation Derived by English physicists Sir William…
Who discovered x-radiation in 1895?
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
Who demonstrated diffraction of x-radi…
Friedrich, Knipping, and von Laue
16 terms
X-Ray Crystallography and Drug Design
B-factor
R-factor
1.5-2
0.5-1.5
Can be applied to the X-ray scattering term for each atom (or…
Otherwise known as reliability factor. ... ?= [F(obs)-F(calc)]/[…
Few residues have wrong rotamer. Many small errors can normal…
In general, structures have almost no errors at this resoluti…
B-factor
Can be applied to the X-ray scattering term for each atom (or…
R-factor
Otherwise known as reliability factor. ... ?= [F(obs)-F(calc)]/[…
20 terms
X-ray Crystallography:
What are the steps of X-ray Crystallog…
What causes crystallization?
What is nucleation?
What is hanging drop vapour diffusion?
Sample... Data collection... Model building.
- Controlled form a precipitation, caused by instability of m…
Crystals form around nucleation centres. The higher the numbe…
Coverslip with h2O vapour. The drop contains a mixture of pro…
What are the steps of X-ray Crystallog…
Sample... Data collection... Model building.
What causes crystallization?
- Controlled form a precipitation, caused by instability of m…
29 terms
X Ray Crystallography & Drug Design
1Å (Ångstrom)
Typical bond length
Protein diameter
Three ways that X-rays interact with m…
10^-8 cm
2 - 5Å
2 - 6nm
Absorption... Emission... Scattering (random) & Diffraction (ordered)
1Å (Ångstrom)
10^-8 cm
Typical bond length
2 - 5Å
16 terms
X-ray Crystallography (PP6)
Methods to determine protein atomic st…
Overview of X-ray Crystallography tech…
Diffraction Pattern
Structural Genomics
X-ray crystallography... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance... Cryo-electro…
1) Grow crystal... -this is rate limiting, it's not easy to grow…
corresponds to positions of atoms in crystals
get crystal structures of all protein fold class in order to…
Methods to determine protein atomic st…
X-ray crystallography... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance... Cryo-electro…
Overview of X-ray Crystallography tech…
1) Grow crystal... -this is rate limiting, it's not easy to grow…
10 terms
Lect 19: X-ray Crystallography
Constructive Interference
Destructive Interference
Diffraction
Diffraction pattern
The in-phase interaction of photons, their collision in such…
The complete out of phase interaction of photons, their colli…
The scattering of photon waves by an object such as an electr…
In x-ray crystallography, the pattern of x-ray intensities fo…
Constructive Interference
The in-phase interaction of photons, their collision in such…
Destructive Interference
The complete out of phase interaction of photons, their colli…
11 terms
X-ray crystallography and Mass Spectrometry
How does X-ray crystallography work?
Outline the technique and application…
What are the steps in Crystal Structur…
What is (currently) the most difficult…
1. X-ray wavelength similar to spacing between atoms (0.1nm)…
1. X-ray is diffracted through interaction with electrons in…
1. Purify mg amounts of active protein... 2. Grow single crystal…
Generation of suitable protein crystals (Alberts p.460):... 1.re…
How does X-ray crystallography work?
1. X-ray wavelength similar to spacing between atoms (0.1nm)…
Outline the technique and application…
1. X-ray is diffracted through interaction with electrons in…
Advanced Biochem Exam 1: X Ray Crystallography
What is X Ray Crystallography?
Why don't we use protein NMR often?
What is small angle X ray scattering?
How is protein structure determined us…
Obtaining protein structures from crystals, interpretation of…
Used for small proteins
solution based structure method that compliments crystallogra…
X rays are passed through protein crystals
What is X Ray Crystallography?
Obtaining protein structures from crystals, interpretation of…
Why don't we use protein NMR often?
Used for small proteins
11 terms
Lecture 10: Protein Crystallography
phasing power
heavy atom derivatives
rational heavy atom derivatives (targe…
difference Fourier methods
- a measure of the amplitude change between native and deriva…
"soak and pray"... 1. Hg: bind Cys... 2. Au... 3. Pt: many sites... 4. La…
1. thiol binders... e.g. dimercury acetate, TAM... 2. DNA/RNA backb…
F_D - F_N map... red: missing from model, in the native... green: m…
phasing power
- a measure of the amplitude change between native and deriva…
heavy atom derivatives
"soak and pray"... 1. Hg: bind Cys... 2. Au... 3. Pt: many sites... 4. La…
15 terms
Chem 14C Lecture 19 (X-ray Crystallography)
Constructive Interference
Destructive interference
Diffraction
Diffraction pattern
Troughs & crests align in phase... -waves amplitudes add ... -ampli…
troughs & crests align out of phase... -wave lengths cancel ... -am…
The scattering of photon waves by an object such as an electr…
Collection of reflections
Constructive Interference
Troughs & crests align in phase... -waves amplitudes add ... -ampli…
Destructive interference
troughs & crests align out of phase... -wave lengths cancel ... -am…
11 terms
mcb exam 3_NMR/X-ray crystallography
What information can you obtain from N…
advantages & disadvantages of NMR
3 reasons why we would use NMR
parameters measured in NMR
1. protein structure... 2. protein dynamics and kinetics... 3. prot…
advantages: versatile; solution-state; physiologically releva…
1. some proteins do not crystallize (unstructured, multidomai…
1. chemical shift (ppm or Hz) - local atomic information, i.e…
What information can you obtain from N…
1. protein structure... 2. protein dynamics and kinetics... 3. prot…
advantages & disadvantages of NMR
advantages: versatile; solution-state; physiologically releva…
45 terms
lectures 7/8 - X-ray crystallography
length of angstrom
length of C-C bond
structural genomics
initiative by NIH
10^-10 m
1.2 A
understanding the structure of proteins based on their geneti…
Protein Structure Initiative (PSI)
length of angstrom
10^-10 m
length of C-C bond
1.2 A
16 terms
Chemistry IA: X ray crystallography and Mass Spectrometry
X-Ray crystallography
Advantages of X-ray crystallography
Disadvantages of X-ray crystallography
Electron density maps
spacing between atoms is comparable to wavelength of X rays... a…
location of all atoms, ... ultimate method for structural determ…
need to have good quality crystals; ... molecules rarely have on…
contours join regions of equal electron density ... more contour…
X-Ray crystallography
spacing between atoms is comparable to wavelength of X rays... a…
Advantages of X-ray crystallography
location of all atoms, ... ultimate method for structural determ…
23 terms
Methods for Protein Structure Determination: X-Ray Crystallography
Bragg's Law
Protein Structure Determination
Protein Structure via X-Ray Diffraction
Growing Protein Crystals
-Reflection planes can be drawn through the crystal lattice i…
-X-ray Crystallography... -Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spec…
-High resolution is necessary to distinguish separate atoms... -…
-Protein crystals form when molecules are precipitated very s…
Bragg's Law
-Reflection planes can be drawn through the crystal lattice i…
Protein Structure Determination
-X-ray Crystallography... -Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spec…
20 terms
L12 - X-ray crystallography/diffraction
Reciprocal space
Coordinates of real space compared to…
For any electromagnetic radiation, wha…
What is the visible light spectrum?
- Light diffracting off edge of an opaque surface... - Take all…
Real space: x, y, z... Reciprocal space: h, k, l
𝛌/2... wavelength/2
400 nm (4000 A) to 700 nm (7000 A)
Reciprocal space
- Light diffracting off edge of an opaque surface... - Take all…
Coordinates of real space compared to…
Real space: x, y, z... Reciprocal space: h, k, l
15 terms
Crystallography Review Chapters 6-10
Motif
Symmetry Operation
Translation
Unit Translation
A structure or feature that is repeated by... symmetry operations.
Rotational and... translational operations that map motifs onto…
repeating distance between motifs along... a line.
1D repeat distance
Motif
A structure or feature that is repeated by... symmetry operations.
Symmetry Operation
Rotational and... translational operations that map motifs onto…
69 terms
Chapter 21: Mass spectrometery, microscopy, NMR and X-Ray Crystallography
Mass spectrometery
What is mass spectrometry useful for?
What happens in mass spectrometry?
How are gaseous ions seperated?
allows one to determine the mass of a molecule with extreme a…
identifying, verifying and quantifying metabolites, proteins…
molecules are converted into a charged, gaseous state and ana…
Based on mass-to-charge ratio m/z
Mass spectrometery
allows one to determine the mass of a molecule with extreme a…
What is mass spectrometry useful for?
identifying, verifying and quantifying metabolites, proteins…
10 terms
10 Rays
Community
Citizenship
Legacy
Integrity
Support Individual Sisters through Community Involvement, Lea…
Serve as an Example of Appropriate Behavior to Greeks, Univer…
Development of new members, sisters, and alumnae. Passes stig…
Uphold history, purpose, and values of SYZ.
Community
Support Individual Sisters through Community Involvement, Lea…
Citizenship
Serve as an Example of Appropriate Behavior to Greeks, Univer…
75 terms
X-ray chapter 9-10
Passing x-ray beam thru a filter resul…
There are filters built into the tube…
________filtration is usually added on…
________filtration ______ patient dose.
beam hardening
soft
Added
Added... Reduces
Passing x-ray beam thru a filter resul…
beam hardening
There are filters built into the tube…
soft
19 terms
X ray Week #10
What is any irregularity on an image t…
What are the 5 characteristic radiogra…
What is the ability to image small obj…
What has excellent spatial resolution?
Artifacts
1. Spatial Resolution... 2. Contrast Resolution... 3. Subject Contr…
Spatial resolution
Conventional radiography
What is any irregularity on an image t…
Artifacts
What are the 5 characteristic radiogra…
1. Spatial Resolution... 2. Contrast Resolution... 3. Subject Contr…
63 terms
X-Ray Week 10
______ is a media that makes a permane…
Image recorded on film is caused by ex…
In a x-ray film cross section, what is…
In a x-ray film cross section, what is…
Film
photons
Overcoat
Base
______ is a media that makes a permane…
Film
Image recorded on film is caused by ex…
photons
80 terms
Chapter 10 Jadin Ray
acetylcholine
afferent nerve
arachnoid membrane
astrocyte
neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord
middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain a…
type of gland cell that transports water and salts from capil…
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
afferent nerve
carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord
39 terms
Ray - Chapter 10
Thomas Jefferson
Protestant Episcopal Church
Abigail Adams
Mary Wollstencroft
wrote about people's rights when a constitution is violated
replaced Church of England
John Adams wife; asked John to remember the ladies when writi…
wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women
Thomas Jefferson
wrote about people's rights when a constitution is violated
Protestant Episcopal Church
replaced Church of England
13 terms
Mr Ray unit 10
Recrimination
Culpable
Mea Culpa
Onus
A counter charge
Deserving blame
Uttered to show responsibility for a wrong
Burden
Recrimination
A counter charge
Culpable
Deserving blame
25 terms
x-ray Chapter 10
Technique Charts
Super tech calculator... Rad Tech... Film Ma…
Phantom
A plastic skeleton w/density similar t…
A listing of x-ray exams and exposure factors is a _____ _____
If a technique chart is needed, what are 3 options to have 1…
What can you use to test the techniques to ensure they are co…
What is a phantom?
Technique Charts
A listing of x-ray exams and exposure factors is a _____ _____
Super tech calculator... Rad Tech... Film Ma…
If a technique chart is needed, what are 3 options to have 1…
51 terms
RAI CULTURA ITALIANIA - 10
il vigile
la multa
la suocera
la stoffa
the traffic cop
the fine
the mother-in-law
the fabric
il vigile
the traffic cop
la multa
the fine
12 terms
Week 10 Word Mapping Words (Ray/Wilding)
claus/clus:
intra-/intro-:
-ure:
conclusion
to close, shut
within or in
act
the end or finish of an event or process; a judgment or decis…
claus/clus:
to close, shut
intra-/intro-:
within or in
10 terms
Vocabulario y Expresiones - Ray 10-18-16
to socialize
to be close to family
son in law
season
socializar
para estar cerca de la familia
yerno
temporada
to socialize
socializar
to be close to family
para estar cerca de la familia
12 terms
Vocabulario y Expresiones - Ray 10-15-16
enforcement the law
comply with the laws
abortion
to disagree
hacer cumplir las leyes
cumplir las leyes
aborto
estar en desacuerdo
enforcement the law
hacer cumplir las leyes
comply with the laws
cumplir las leyes
13 terms
Vocabulario y Expresiones - Ray 10-25-16
economic disadvantages, to be poor
recording
reporter
host
desventajas económicas
grabación
reportero
animador
economic disadvantages, to be poor
desventajas económicas
recording
grabación
17 terms
Vocabulario y Expresiones - Ray 10-19-15
to provide moral or physical support... (…
to give physical support, and also to…
to provide living for someone.... (No sé…
to tolerate... (No quiero ir a la reunión…
apoyar
sostener
mantener
soportar
to provide moral or physical support... (…
apoyar
to give physical support, and also to…
sostener
22 terms
Vocabulario y Expresiones - Ray 9-10-15
to land
to take off
to breathe
to claim
aterrizar
despegar
respirar
reclamar
to land
aterrizar
to take off
despegar
10 terms
Vocabulario y Expresiones - Ray 11-10-15
to execute
reward
patriotism
protests
ejecutar
recompensa
patriotismo
protestas
to execute
ejecutar
reward
recompensa
18 terms
Vocabulario y Expresiones - Ray 10-23-15
to allow, to leave, to let, to quit
to stay/to remain
to return to, to do something again
to resemble, to look like
dejar
quedarse
volver a
parecerse
to allow, to leave, to let, to quit
dejar
to stay/to remain
quedarse
14 terms
10 rays/skates/ratfish
how many species are there for RAYS AN…
what kind of bodies does RAYS AND SKAT…
where do RAYS AND SKATES live?
how many pairs of gill slits do they h…
400 - 500
flattened bodies with cartilage skeletons
they are demersal (live on the bottom)
5 pairs... its on the underside of the body
how many species are there for RAYS AN…
400 - 500
what kind of bodies does RAYS AND SKAT…
flattened bodies with cartilage skeletons
36 terms
Ch. 10 - Reflection/Ray Tracing
Ray Tracing
Ray Tracing Analysis
Direct sound from the speaker
Sightlines
__________ Is a graphical analysis method used to evaluate so…
Acoustic design for speech and music benefits from __________…
What is the first requirement for a space used for speaking?
A sloped seating area improves ____________, which are necess…
Ray Tracing
__________ Is a graphical analysis method used to evaluate so…
Ray Tracing Analysis
Acoustic design for speech and music benefits from __________…
98 terms
The X-ray Tube (Lesson 10)
support systems, protective housing, g…
support system
protective housing
ceiling support systems
3 external components
external component that is everything supporting the equipmen…
external component that consists of everything you can touch…
most widely utilized support system
support systems, protective housing, g…
3 external components
support system
external component that is everything supporting the equipmen…
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