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Study sets matching "x ray phys"

65 terms
X-Ray Physics
Who discovered x-ray?
When was x-ray discovered?
Where was x-ray discovered?
When was first x-ray paper published?
Wilhelm Roentgen (pronounced Renkin)
November 8, 1895
Wurzburg University
December 28, 1895
Who discovered x-ray?
Wilhelm Roentgen (pronounced Renkin)
When was x-ray discovered?
November 8, 1895
9 terms
X-Ray: X-Ray Physics
KVP
MAS
Increase detail
Transformer
-how fast the electrons are traveling... -controls: power, penet…
-the number of elextrons ... -controls miliamps, quantity of ele…
-increase FFD... -decrease OFD... -decrease focal spot... -decrease cr…
step up voltage
KVP
-how fast the electrons are traveling... -controls: power, penet…
MAS
-the number of elextrons ... -controls miliamps, quantity of ele…
55 terms
x-ray - Skull, spine and physics
x-ray beam intensity and distance
Bremsstrahlung radiation
electromagnetic
Axial PA (Haas)
Inverse square law governs this relationship
radiation produced by the sudden slowing and direction change…
energy type in the form of a sine wave
Projection that best demonstrates the petrous ridges
x-ray beam intensity and distance
Inverse square law governs this relationship
Bremsstrahlung radiation
radiation produced by the sudden slowing and direction change…
19 terms
X-ray beam physics
What is the beam quality?
What is the accelerating potential of…
What is the accelerating potential of…
What type of X-ray would you use to tr…
The ability to penetrate a material
50 kV - 160 kV.
160 kV - 300 kV
Superficial (50 - 160 kV)
What is the beam quality?
The ability to penetrate a material
What is the accelerating potential of…
50 kV - 160 kV.
78 terms
Rad Physics Chapter 7 X- Ray Production & Chpt 10 Filtration
1 - Source of electrons... 2 - Accelerati…
1%
99% or more
Bremsstrahlung x rays aka Braking xray…
What three things do you need for x-ray production?
Less than ____% of the incident electron beam creates x-rays
What % of the incident electron beam creates heat?
What types of x rays can incident electrons become?
1 - Source of electrons... 2 - Accelerati…
What three things do you need for x-ray production?
1%
Less than ____% of the incident electron beam creates x-rays
58 terms
X Ray Physics Final
Ionization
X Ray
Radiographic Density
Anatomical Density
the ability to totally remove an electron from its orbit arou…
heterogenous beam of electromagnetic radiation
The concentration of black metallic silver deposited on the f…
the density of the tissue that an x ray is passing through... Mo…
Ionization
the ability to totally remove an electron from its orbit arou…
X Ray
heterogenous beam of electromagnetic radiation
X-ray physics
Discovery of X-ray
Thomas Edison invented the fluoroscope
First fatality from radiation
Introduction of both Coolidge tube and…
Nov. 8th 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen.
1898
1904 Clarence Dally
reduce low energy radiation and exposure times in 1910
Discovery of X-ray
Nov. 8th 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen.
Thomas Edison invented the fluoroscope
1898
84 terms
X-ray Physics midterm material
x-rays
KVP
Transmitted photons
scattered photons
heterogeneous... invisible beam... passed via body tissue... different…
peak kilo voltage photon beam ... Quality of contrast... Penetratin…
black
gray
x-rays
heterogeneous... invisible beam... passed via body tissue... different…
KVP
peak kilo voltage photon beam ... Quality of contrast... Penetratin…
68 terms
X-ray Physics-172
Non-Ionizing Radiation
Ionizing Radiation
Who discovered X-Ray
Most Natural Radiation
VIRUM-Lacks energy to knock Electron out of orbit
PBEAN GX-Has energy to knock Electron out of orbit
Wilhelm Roentgen, 1895
Radon 222, 198mREm/yr+55% of all radiation 67% background rad…
Non-Ionizing Radiation
VIRUM-Lacks energy to knock Electron out of orbit
Ionizing Radiation
PBEAN GX-Has energy to knock Electron out of orbit
26 terms
Physics: X-ray Tube
As an x-ray tube ages, the inside can…
The filament is made of _____.
Thermionic emission at the filament cr…
The rotating anode is turned by a _____.
arcing
tungsten
space charge
magnetic field
As an x-ray tube ages, the inside can…
arcing
The filament is made of _____.
tungsten
34 terms
Physics x-ray system
The unit that quantifies electrical po…
The number of electrons in motion is
A half- wave rectified voltage wavefor…
The unit that quantifies the force of…
Watt
Amperage
60
Volt
The unit that quantifies electrical po…
Watt
The number of electrons in motion is
Amperage
196 terms
X ray physics first test
what activates the layer of pre-sensit…
what happens to the crystals in the ch…
what is the differences in energy?
what does blackness on a radiograph me…
energy of the photons that have passed through tissue
converted to black
frequency/wavelength
radiographic density
what activates the layer of pre-sensit…
energy of the photons that have passed through tissue
what happens to the crystals in the ch…
converted to black
51 terms
X-Ray Physics Week 9
Law of Bergonie & Tribondeau
Cell types that are highly radiosensit…
Cell types that are intermediately rad…
Cell types that have a low radiosensit…
The younger and the more metabolically active the cell is the…
Lymphocytes, spermatogonia, erythroblasts, Intestinal crypt c…
Endothelial cells, osteoblasts, spermatids, fibroblasts
Muscle cells, nerve cells
Law of Bergonie & Tribondeau
The younger and the more metabolically active the cell is the…
Cell types that are highly radiosensit…
Lymphocytes, spermatogonia, erythroblasts, Intestinal crypt c…
19 terms
x ray physics
tungsten
electron
proton
nutron
a type of metal that can withstand intense heat
e- (negative)
p (neutral)
N- (negative)
tungsten
a type of metal that can withstand intense heat
electron
e- (negative)
45 terms
X-Ray Physics Final
Film is UNDEREXPOSED...do what to mAs
Film is OVEREXPOSED...do what to mAs
SID is DOUBLED, ex. 40"->80", then mAs…
SID is HALVED, ex. 40"->20", then mAs…
original mAs is 2x ... ex. 30mAs -> 60mAs
original mAs is 1/2... ex. 30mAs -> 15mAs
original mAs is 4x... ex. 30mAs -> 120mAs
original mAs is 1/4x... ex. 30mAs x 1/4 = 7.5mAs
Film is UNDEREXPOSED...do what to mAs
original mAs is 2x ... ex. 30mAs -> 60mAs
Film is OVEREXPOSED...do what to mAs
original mAs is 1/2... ex. 30mAs -> 15mAs
133 terms
x-ray physics MT
imaging quality factors are important…
what is contrast sensitivity?
what determines contrast sensitivity o…
what determines contrast sensitivity o…
1) they determine the limitations of the modality... 2) they eva…
characteristic that determines the lowest physical contrast t…
film type... exposure factors... processing/developing methods
image processing and adjustment of the display
imaging quality factors are important…
1) they determine the limitations of the modality... 2) they eva…
what is contrast sensitivity?
characteristic that determines the lowest physical contrast t…
11 terms
Physics X-ray Tube
Large Focal Spot used for
Small focal Spot used for
The Focusing cup is made of
Smaller angle filament the tighter the…
Large body part but has less recorded detail
Small body part and has more recorded detail
Nickle
Better recorded detail at lower technique
Large Focal Spot used for
Large body part but has less recorded detail
Small focal Spot used for
Small body part and has more recorded detail
79 terms
x-ray physics final
what color should dark room be painted
3 things associated with ALARA
state the relationship between grid ra…
upper cervical practitioners, what gri…
white
time, distance, shielding (cardinal principals)
direct
8:1
what color should dark room be painted
white
3 things associated with ALARA
time, distance, shielding (cardinal principals)
50 terms
physics rays
If you stand in front of a convex mirr…
If a object is placed between a convex…
If the index of refraction of a materi…
A convex lens has focal length f. If a…
you will see your image and you will appear smaller than you
virtual and upright
2 times as fast in vacuum as it does in the material.
of 2f
If you stand in front of a convex mirr…
you will see your image and you will appear smaller than you
If a object is placed between a convex…
virtual and upright
50 terms
physics rays
If you stand in front of a convex mirr…
If a object is placed between a convex…
If the index of refraction of a materi…
A convex lens has focal length f. If a…
you will see your image and you will appear smaller than you
virtual and upright
2 times as fast in vacuum as it does in the material.
of 2f
If you stand in front of a convex mirr…
you will see your image and you will appear smaller than you
If a object is placed between a convex…
virtual and upright
34 terms
X-ray production (physics)
X-rays
Gamma ray radiation
crest and trough
Frequency
electromagnetic waves similar to visible light; however they…
produced from spontaneous decay of radioactive element.
positive and negative phases of wave.
cycles per second.
X-rays
electromagnetic waves similar to visible light; however they…
Gamma ray radiation
produced from spontaneous decay of radioactive element.
13 terms
x ray physics final
What requires no threshold of radiatio…
What requires a threshold of radiation…
How often must film badges be sent in…
What does an "m" mean on a dosimeter r…
a stochastic effect
a non-stochastic effect
every month
that the exposure received was so minimal that it did not rec…
What requires no threshold of radiatio…
a stochastic effect
What requires a threshold of radiation…
a non-stochastic effect
85 terms
X-Ray Physics
Matter
Mass
5.01888 x 10^25 atoms of 12^C
1000
Anything that occupies space and has form/shape. Also compose…
The quantity of matter that refers to the numer os atoms pres…
1 Kg=mass of __x__ atoms of 12C
Kilo means?
Matter
Anything that occupies space and has form/shape. Also compose…
Mass
The quantity of matter that refers to the numer os atoms pres…
50 terms
Physics X-ray Production
Projectile electrons travel from ____.
During an exposure, most of the _____…
At the target, the projectile electron…
The efficiency of x-ray production is…
Cathode to Anode
Kinetic, Hear
Outer-shell and Inner-shell electrons
Not affected by
Projectile electrons travel from ____.
Cathode to Anode
During an exposure, most of the _____…
Kinetic, Hear
198 terms
X Ray Physics Final
1. In what year were x-rays discovered…
2. In what year were some of the biolo…
3. X-rays were discovered in experimen…
4. X-rays were discovered when they ca…
b. 1895 (Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen)
c. 1898
d. Vacuum tubes (Crooke's Tubes)
a. Fluoresce
1. In what year were x-rays discovered…
b. 1895 (Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen)
2. In what year were some of the biolo…
c. 1898
33 terms
Fundamentals of X-ray Physics
Wavelength (λ)
Frequency (f)
Velocity (v)
- Visible light photons tend to act mo…
• The distance over which the wave's shape repeats. (usually…
• The number of waves per unit of time... - Measured in cycles p…
The product of wavelength and frequency [ v = λf ] - Measured…
waves
Wavelength (λ)
• The distance over which the wave's shape repeats. (usually…
Frequency (f)
• The number of waves per unit of time... - Measured in cycles p…
29 terms
X-ray Physics: Rectification
What current do you need to produce -x…
Is DC a uni or bidirectional circuit?
What is an alternating current called?
Are tesla currents bidirectional?
DC current
Unidirectional circuit
Tesla
yes
What current do you need to produce -x…
DC current
Is DC a uni or bidirectional circuit?
Unidirectional circuit
61 terms
X-ray physics: X-ray Production
Direct effects of x-ray production
Do direct effects cause a single-stran…
T/F: Direct effect of x-ray production…
Indirect effect:
ionization of an atom that makes up a molecule of DNA
Single-stranded break
True
ionization of water molecules
Direct effects of x-ray production
ionization of an atom that makes up a molecule of DNA
Do direct effects cause a single-stran…
Single-stranded break
140 terms
X Ray Physics
What is an Xray?
What is another name for a single x-ra…
What determines the energy of an x-ray?
Do all xrays in the beam have the same…
-Electromagnetic Energy... -Heterogenous invisible beam that pas…
Photon
Amount of energy of each electron (short wavelength=high ener…
No, the different energy determines how to interact with matter
What is an Xray?
-Electromagnetic Energy... -Heterogenous invisible beam that pas…
What is another name for a single x-ra…
Photon
97 terms
X-ray Interactions Flashcards- Physics
In which process is matter converted b…
Which of the following interactions ha…
Which of the following interactions wi…
As the angle of deflection is increase…
b.annihilation reaction
a.Compton scattering
a.Compton scattering
d.greater energy is imparted to the recoil electron
In which process is matter converted b…
b.annihilation reaction
Which of the following interactions ha…
a.Compton scattering
66 terms
X-Ray Physics Final
Cassette with imaging plate instead of…
Imaging plate of CR made of
Information sent directly to the compu…
Benefits of DR
CR
PSP photostimulable phosphor
DR
More patients per unit of time... Long term savings... Offsite back…
Cassette with imaging plate instead of…
CR
Imaging plate of CR made of
PSP photostimulable phosphor
10 terms
Physics - X-Ray Production
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
What percentage of target interaction…
The transfer of the incident electrons…
The energy of a Bremsstrahlung photon…
Heat
1%
Infrared radiation
The difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energ…
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
Heat
What percentage of target interaction…
1%
217 terms
Physics - X-Ray Circuit
Generators work on the principle of:
Generators change __________ energy to…
What two parts are needed for a genera…
60 HZ = _____ impulses or ______ cycles
electromagnetic induction
mechanical to electrical
coil or wire and a magnetic field
120 impulses or 60 cycles
Generators work on the principle of:
electromagnetic induction
Generators change __________ energy to…
mechanical to electrical
69 terms
Physics X-ray production
Occurs when an incident electron inter…
An incident electron ionizes the targe…
Only characteristic X-ray useful for i…
Occurs when an incident/projectile ele…
Characteristic Radiation
Characteristic Radiation
K-characteristic
Bremsstrahlung Radiation
Occurs when an incident electron inter…
Characteristic Radiation
An incident electron ionizes the targe…
Characteristic Radiation
50 terms
Physics X-ray Production
Projectile electrons travel from ____.
During an exposure, most of the _____…
At the target, the projectile electron…
The efficiency of x-ray production is…
Cathode to Anode
Kinetic, Hear
Outer-shell and Inner-shell electrons
Not affected by
Projectile electrons travel from ____.
Cathode to Anode
During an exposure, most of the _____…
Kinetic, Hear
47 terms
Physics X-Ray Emissions
When energy increases what happens to…
When filtration increases what happens…
Image contrast is affected by
X-ray beam that can Pass through dense…
Increases
Increases
KV P, beam quality
Penetrability, quality
When energy increases what happens to…
Increases
When filtration increases what happens…
Increases
35 terms
PHYSICS- X-Ray emission
X-ray quantity
MilliGray in air mGy
mGy
mAs
AKA xray intensity and radiation exposure... Number of xrays in…
What quantity is measured in
A measure of the number of ion pairs produced in air by a qua…
Directly proportional to quanity... When doubled, electrons are…
X-ray quantity
AKA xray intensity and radiation exposure... Number of xrays in…
MilliGray in air mGy
What quantity is measured in
76 terms
Physics: X-Ray Production 4
What is the focal spot
What determines the focal spot size
What happens if the focal spot size is…
What happens if the focal spot size is…
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
loses image sharpness ... Note that the effective focal spot is…
the anode will get too hot
What is the focal spot
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
What determines the focal spot size
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
20 terms
Physics - The X-Ray Tube
What conditions are needed to produce…
The function of the cathode is to prod…
What does the cathode assembly consist…
Filament materials are chosen for their:
1. A source of electrons... 2. A vacuum... 3. A large potential dif…
A thermionic cloud
1. Filament... 2. Focusing Cup... 3. Associated Wiring
High melting points
What conditions are needed to produce…
1. A source of electrons... 2. A vacuum... 3. A large potential dif…
The function of the cathode is to prod…
A thermionic cloud
82 terms
physics x ray tube
Which of the x-rays support systems gi…
X-ray support system that can only tra…
X-ray support system that runs on floo…
Mobile and fixed x-ray support system…
Ceiling Support
Floor to Ceiling Suport
Floor Support
C-Arm
Which of the x-rays support systems gi…
Ceiling Support
X-ray support system that can only tra…
Floor to Ceiling Suport
56 terms
Physics X-ray tube
Two perpendicular sets of ceiling moun…
Telescoping column to adjust ______.
Is what?
Detent is
Ceiling support system
SID
Preferred detent position and floating
A magnet
Two perpendicular sets of ceiling moun…
Ceiling support system
Telescoping column to adjust ______.
SID
35 terms
Radiation Physics CH7: X Ray Production
Kiloelectron Volt (keV)
Increasing Electron Beam Velocity
Tube Current
Kinetic energy is affected by
- Describes the rate of travel of an electron, or its kinetic…
- Increases the resulting XR beam energy... - Beam quality or pe…
- The electron beam, or electron cloud, travels from the cath…
- The velocity, or speed, of motion... - If velocity is increase…
Kiloelectron Volt (keV)
- Describes the rate of travel of an electron, or its kinetic…
Increasing Electron Beam Velocity
- Increases the resulting XR beam energy... - Beam quality or pe…
76 terms
study-Physics: X-Ray production
What is the focal spot
What determines the focal spot size
What happens if the focal spot size is…
What happens if the focal spot size is…
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
loses image sharpness ... Note that the effective focal spot is…
the anode will get too hot
What is the focal spot
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
What determines the focal spot size
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
106 terms
X Ray Physics
The characteristic that determines wha…
What determines contrast sensitivity f…
What determines contrast sensitivity f…
kVp plays a major role in
Contrast Sensitivity
Film Type... Exposure Factors... Film Processing
The image processing... Adjustment of the display
contrast sensitivity
The characteristic that determines wha…
Contrast Sensitivity
What determines contrast sensitivity f…
Film Type... Exposure Factors... Film Processing
55 terms
X-Ray Physics
Mitchell Markers
Male VS Female Gonadal Shield
Compensating Filter
Discovery of X-Ray
Tells if the patient is Supine or Standing
Male = Lead... Female = Copper
Prevents over exposure of smaller areas.
Wilhelm Roentgen on November 8, 1895... Wurzburg Germany.... Crooks…
Mitchell Markers
Tells if the patient is Supine or Standing
Male VS Female Gonadal Shield
Male = Lead... Female = Copper
51 terms
physics x-ray tube
source of electrons, appropriate targe…
1 mGya/hr at 1 meter
external components
isotropically
production of x-rays requires these four things
leakage radiation for the protective housing must not exceed…
x-ray tube support, protective housing and glass or metal env…
how are x-rays emitted from the protective housing?
source of electrons, appropriate targe…
production of x-rays requires these four things
1 mGya/hr at 1 meter
leakage radiation for the protective housing must not exceed…
38 terms
1 - X-ray Physics I - X-ray Production
which electron shells have lower bindi…
equation for speed of electromagnetic…
how does an X-ray tube work?
Explain Excitation, Ionization and Rad…
Outer shell. These are in less table positions relative to in…
c = f x λ
1) Thermionic transmission = Current (mA) is run through tung…
1) Excitation - heat - energetic electron hits an orbital ele…
which electron shells have lower bindi…
Outer shell. These are in less table positions relative to in…
equation for speed of electromagnetic…
c = f x λ
97 terms
X-ray Interactions Flashcards- Physics
In which process is matter converted b…
Which of the following interactions ha…
Which of the following interactions wi…
As the angle of deflection is increase…
b.annihilation reaction
a.Compton scattering
a.Compton scattering
d.greater energy is imparted to the recoil electron
In which process is matter converted b…
b.annihilation reaction
Which of the following interactions ha…
a.Compton scattering
97 terms
X-ray Interactions Flashcards- Physics
In which process is matter converted b…
Which of the following interactions ha…
Which of the following interactions wi…
As the angle of deflection is increase…
b.annihilation reaction
a.Compton scattering
a.Compton scattering
d.greater energy is imparted to the recoil electron
In which process is matter converted b…
b.annihilation reaction
Which of the following interactions ha…
a.Compton scattering
78 terms
Physics CH 6 X-ray tube
actual focal spot
anode
anode assembly
anode cooling chart
the physical area of the focal track that is impacted
The positive side of the x-ray tube; serves as a target surfa…
consists of the anode, stator and rotor
permits the calculation of the time necessary for the anode t…
actual focal spot
the physical area of the focal track that is impacted
anode
The positive side of the x-ray tube; serves as a target surfa…
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