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Study sets matching "x ray production physics"

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Study sets matching "x ray production physics"

50 terms
Physics X-ray Production
Projectile electrons travel from ____.
During an exposure, most of the _____…
At the target, the projectile electron…
The efficiency of x-ray production is…
Cathode to Anode
Kinetic, Hear
Outer-shell and Inner-shell electrons
Not affected by
Projectile electrons travel from ____.
Cathode to Anode
During an exposure, most of the _____…
Kinetic, Hear
34 terms
X-ray production (physics)
X-rays
Gamma ray radiation
crest and trough
Frequency
electromagnetic waves similar to visible light; however they…
produced from spontaneous decay of radioactive element.
positive and negative phases of wave.
cycles per second.
X-rays
electromagnetic waves similar to visible light; however they…
Gamma ray radiation
produced from spontaneous decay of radioactive element.
10 terms
Physics - X-Ray Production
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
What percentage of target interaction…
The transfer of the incident electrons…
The energy of a Bremsstrahlung photon…
Heat
1%
Infrared radiation
The difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energ…
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
Heat
What percentage of target interaction…
1%
69 terms
Physics X-ray production
Occurs when an incident electron inter…
An incident electron ionizes the targe…
Only characteristic X-ray useful for i…
Occurs when an incident/projectile ele…
Characteristic Radiation
Characteristic Radiation
K-characteristic
Bremsstrahlung Radiation
Occurs when an incident electron inter…
Characteristic Radiation
An incident electron ionizes the targe…
Characteristic Radiation
50 terms
Physics X-ray Production
Projectile electrons travel from ____.
During an exposure, most of the _____…
At the target, the projectile electron…
The efficiency of x-ray production is…
Cathode to Anode
Kinetic, Hear
Outer-shell and Inner-shell electrons
Not affected by
Projectile electrons travel from ____.
Cathode to Anode
During an exposure, most of the _____…
Kinetic, Hear
76 terms
Physics: X-Ray Production 4
What is the focal spot
What determines the focal spot size
What happens if the focal spot size is…
What happens if the focal spot size is…
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
loses image sharpness ... Note that the effective focal spot is…
the anode will get too hot
What is the focal spot
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
What determines the focal spot size
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
78 terms
Rad Physics Chapter 7 X- Ray Production & Chpt 10 Filtration
1 - Source of electrons... 2 - Accelerati…
1%
99% or more
Bremsstrahlung x rays aka Braking xray…
What three things do you need for x-ray production?
Less than ____% of the incident electron beam creates x-rays
What % of the incident electron beam creates heat?
What types of x rays can incident electrons become?
1 - Source of electrons... 2 - Accelerati…
What three things do you need for x-ray production?
1%
Less than ____% of the incident electron beam creates x-rays
23 terms
physics x-ray production
kinetic energy
incident (projectile) electrons
directly
independent
energy of motion
electrons that travel from the cathode to the anode making up…
heat production in the anode is ____ proportional to an incre…
efficiency of x-ray production is ____ of the tube current
kinetic energy
energy of motion
incident (projectile) electrons
electrons that travel from the cathode to the anode making up…
76 terms
study-Physics: X-Ray production
What is the focal spot
What determines the focal spot size
What happens if the focal spot size is…
What happens if the focal spot size is…
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
loses image sharpness ... Note that the effective focal spot is…
the anode will get too hot
What is the focal spot
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
What determines the focal spot size
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
61 terms
X-ray physics: X-ray Production
Direct effects of x-ray production
Do direct effects cause a single-stran…
T/F: Direct effect of x-ray production…
Indirect effect:
ionization of an atom that makes up a molecule of DNA
Single-stranded break
True
ionization of water molecules
Direct effects of x-ray production
ionization of an atom that makes up a molecule of DNA
Do direct effects cause a single-stran…
Single-stranded break
22 terms
Physics- Blackboard X-ray Production
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
The transfer of the incident electrons…
The energy of a bremsstrahlung photon is
Characteristic interactions may occur…
heat
infrared radiation
the difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energ…
an inner-shell electron
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
heat
The transfer of the incident electrons…
infrared radiation
35 terms
Radiation Physics CH7: X Ray Production
Kiloelectron Volt (keV)
Increasing Electron Beam Velocity
Tube Current
Kinetic energy is affected by
- Describes the rate of travel of an electron, or its kinetic…
- Increases the resulting XR beam energy... - Beam quality or pe…
- The electron beam, or electron cloud, travels from the cath…
- The velocity, or speed, of motion... - If velocity is increase…
Kiloelectron Volt (keV)
- Describes the rate of travel of an electron, or its kinetic…
Increasing Electron Beam Velocity
- Increases the resulting XR beam energy... - Beam quality or pe…
76 terms
Physics: X-Ray Production 4
What is the focal spot
What determines the focal spot size
What happens if the focal spot size is…
What happens if the focal spot size is…
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
loses image sharpness ... Note that the effective focal spot is…
the anode will get too hot
What is the focal spot
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
What determines the focal spot size
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
76 terms
Physics: X-Ray Production 4
What is the focal spot
What determines the focal spot size
What happens if the focal spot size is…
What happens if the focal spot size is…
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
loses image sharpness ... Note that the effective focal spot is…
the anode will get too hot
What is the focal spot
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
What determines the focal spot size
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
Physics: X-Ray Production 4
What is the focal spot
What determines the focal spot size
What happens if the focal spot size is…
What happens if the focal spot size is…
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
loses image sharpness ... Note that the effective focal spot is…
the anode will get too hot
What is the focal spot
it is the apparent source of X-rays from the tube
What determines the focal spot size
Focal spot size is a result of the filament shape, focusing c…
60 terms
Physics : X-Ray Production and Emission
How is the energy of a Bremsstrahlung…
Increasing the Z of the target materia…
As the distance between the incident e…
Increasing the potential difference be…
The difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energ…
Increase their average energy.
It decreases
Higher kVp will cause higher average energy
How is the energy of a Bremsstrahlung…
The difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energ…
Increasing the Z of the target materia…
Increase their average energy.
11 terms
Physics: X-ray Production Characteristic
1. Electrons from filament... 2. Focusing…
Space charge
Incandescence
Focal spot
What are the four steps of xray production?
Cloud of electrons surrounding filaments
Filament is heated and glows
Area on anode where electrons hit
1. Electrons from filament... 2. Focusing…
What are the four steps of xray production?
Space charge
Cloud of electrons surrounding filaments
8 terms
Radiology Physics: Production of X-ray
What are the 3 functions of an x-ray g…
What does a rectification system do?
What is the timing circuit attached to?
What are the 3 circuits involved in x-…
Supply electrons ... accelerate electrons... Control exposure time
changes from AC to DC current in the high voltage circuit
secondary circuit... BUT... completely independent from primary an…
1. Primary or tube filament regulating circuit... 2. Secondary o…
What are the 3 functions of an x-ray g…
Supply electrons ... accelerate electrons... Control exposure time
What does a rectification system do?
changes from AC to DC current in the high voltage circuit
23 terms
Radiology Physics: Production of X-ray
What 3 things are essential in produci…
Do inner or outer electrons have more…
What is the cathode in a stationary an…
What does the anode in a stationary an…
source of electrons... means of accelerating and controling the…
inner... need more energy to stay close to nucleus
small spiral filament of tungsten wire in a focusing cup
solid rod of copper and molybdenum with a tungsten target
What 3 things are essential in produci…
source of electrons... means of accelerating and controling the…
Do inner or outer electrons have more…
inner... need more energy to stay close to nucleus
38 terms
1 - X-ray Physics I - X-ray Production
which electron shells have lower bindi…
equation for speed of electromagnetic…
how does an X-ray tube work?
Explain Excitation, Ionization and Rad…
Outer shell. These are in less table positions relative to in…
c = f x λ
1) Thermionic transmission = Current (mA) is run through tung…
1) Excitation - heat - energetic electron hits an orbital ele…
which electron shells have lower bindi…
Outer shell. These are in less table positions relative to in…
equation for speed of electromagnetic…
c = f x λ
87 terms
Physics X-ray production & interaction
Kinetic energy _______ as kVp increases
The electrons that travel from the cat…
How many interactions can an incident…
Vibration of the outer-shell electrons…
increases
projectile or incident
1000 or more
infrared
Kinetic energy _______ as kVp increases
increases
The electrons that travel from the cat…
projectile or incident
29 terms
Physics: X-ray Production- Bremsstrahlung
Bremsstrahlung
Slowing down or braking
80-100 kVp
Under 70 kVp
Which is the most common xray photon?
Bremsstrahlung is a German word for what?
Brem's constitutes about 80-90% of emitted xrays when tube po…
There is 100% Brem production when the kVp is set to what?
Bremsstrahlung
Which is the most common xray photon?
Slowing down or braking
Bremsstrahlung is a German word for what?
101 terms
Physics Unit 5: X-ray Production
For conditions necessary to produce x-…
Filament electrons
e- with outer shell
e- with inner shell (k)
Separation of (electrons thermionic emmission)... electron ener…
Energy from cathode to anode kVp... KE = 1/2mv^2... F = ma... Proje…
Heat... Outer shell e- to higher energy fall back down = heat e…
Target is ionized ... Characteristic X-ray production
For conditions necessary to produce x-…
Separation of (electrons thermionic emmission)... electron ener…
Filament electrons
Energy from cathode to anode kVp... KE = 1/2mv^2... F = ma... Proje…
49 terms
Physics Ch. 7 X-ray production
What are the 3 principle parts of the…
You want a large number of e- focused on
KE=
In x-ray tube, all e- have the same
1. operating console 2. high voltage generator 3. x-ray tube
a small spot on anode w/ high K.E.
1/2 mv^2
mass
What are the 3 principle parts of the…
1. operating console 2. high voltage generator 3. x-ray tube
You want a large number of e- focused on
a small spot on anode w/ high K.E.
22 terms
Physics: Review Questions X-ray Production
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
The transfer of the incident electrons…
The energy of a bremsstrahlung photon is
Characteristic interactions may occur…
heat
infrared radiation
the difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energ…
an inner-shell electron
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
heat
The transfer of the incident electrons…
infrared radiation
67 terms
physics chapter 7: x-ray production
kinetic energy
what percentage of kinetic energy of p…
characteristic x-rays
what characteristic x-rays are useful…
energy of motion
99%
emitted when an outer-shell electron fills an inner-shell void
k-characteristics x-rays of tungsten
kinetic energy
energy of motion
what percentage of kinetic energy of p…
99%
34 terms
Physics Ch. 8 - X-ray Production (Bushong)
Projectile electrons
kinetic energy
orbital electrons; nuclear field
kinetic; thermal; electromagnetic; inf…
The electrons raveling from cathode to anode. These constitut…
When projectile electrons hit the heavy metal atoms of the x-…
The projectile electron interacts with either the _______ ___…
When projectile atoms interract with the anode, this results…
Projectile electrons
The electrons raveling from cathode to anode. These constitut…
kinetic energy
When projectile electrons hit the heavy metal atoms of the x-…
44 terms
Physics Ch. 7 X-ray production
Inside the nucleus
Outside the nucleus
1000+
Incident electrons
Gamma rays originate from
X-rays originate from
Electrons undergo _______ interactions to dissipate excess en…
Incoming electrons (projectile electrons traveling from catho…
Inside the nucleus
Gamma rays originate from
Outside the nucleus
X-rays originate from
9 terms
Physics Ch. 7 - X-ray Production
2 Types of X-rays Produced in tube
Projectile electrons
Anode Heat
Effciency of X-ray Production
1. Characteristic... 2. Bremsstrahlung
Electrons traveling from cathode to anode and constitute the…
- 99% or projectile electrons kinetic energy is converted to…
- independant of mA (tube current), regardless of mA selected…
2 Types of X-rays Produced in tube
1. Characteristic... 2. Bremsstrahlung
Projectile electrons
Electrons traveling from cathode to anode and constitute the…
37 terms
Radiographic Physics. CH 6 - X-ray Production
Target Interactions
Characteristic interactions
Environment established by
Filament electron
- filament electrons penetrate the face of the target ... - to d…
- involves the filament electron and an orbital electron of a…
the removal of the orbital electron
- enters a target atom... - strikes an orbital electron... - if ene…
Target Interactions
- filament electrons penetrate the face of the target ... - to d…
Characteristic interactions
- involves the filament electron and an orbital electron of a…
90 terms
Physics / X-Ray Production / Bushong Chapter 7
This chapter explains the interactions…
The energy of motion
__________ objects have no kinetic ene…
Objects in motion have ___________ ene…
Characteristic ; Bremsstrahlung
Kinetic energy
Stationary
Kinetic ; Mass ; Square
This chapter explains the interactions…
Characteristic ; Bremsstrahlung
The energy of motion
Kinetic energy
39 terms
Radiology Physics: X-Ray Production/Generation
Space charge limited
Saturation voltage
Emission limited
K shell binding energy of Tungsten
At low peak voltage, potental not enough to cause all electro…
All electrons are immediately pulled away from the filament,…
Above 40 kVp, the filament cure is proportional to and determ…
-69.5 keV
Space charge limited
At low peak voltage, potental not enough to cause all electro…
Saturation voltage
All electrons are immediately pulled away from the filament,…
77 terms
Chapter 10: X-Ray Production
by definition, x-rays are electromagne…
in order to generate such high energie…
in the KE formula, we see that __ is m…
in the KE formula, energy changes __ t…
tens
KE=(1/2)mv^2
velocity
proportionally
by definition, x-rays are electromagne…
tens
in order to generate such high energie…
KE=(1/2)mv^2
90 terms
Physics / X-Ray Production / Bushong Chapter 7
This chapter explains the interactions…
The energy of motion
__________ objects have no kinetic ene…
Objects in motion have ___________ ene…
Characteristic ; Bremsstrahlung
Kinetic energy
Stationary
Kinetic ; Mass ; Square
This chapter explains the interactions…
Characteristic ; Bremsstrahlung
The energy of motion
Kinetic energy
72 terms
Physics Unit 5: X-ray Production
For conditions necessary to produce x-…
Filament electrons
e- with outer shell
e- with inner shell (k)
Separation of (electrons thermionic emmission)... electron ener…
Energy from cathode to anode kVp... KE = 1/2mv^2... F=ma... Project…
Heat... Outer shell e- to higher energy fall back down = heat e…
Target is ionized ... Characteristic X-ray production
For conditions necessary to produce x-…
Separation of (electrons thermionic emmission)... electron ener…
Filament electrons
Energy from cathode to anode kVp... KE = 1/2mv^2... F=ma... Project…
134 terms
Radiation Physics X-ray production, emission, and interactions.
What happens to filament electrons aft…
True or False, Only L shell electrons…
If filling a K shell vacancy, which sh…
True or False, Characteristic photons…
1 and 2
false
O shell
true
What happens to filament electrons aft…
1 and 2
True or False, Only L shell electrons…
false
34 terms
Physics Ch. 8 - X-ray Production (Bushong)
Projectile electrons
kinetic energy
orbital electrons; nuclear field
kinetic; thermal; electromagnetic; inf…
The electrons raveling from cathode to anode. These constitut…
When projectile electrons hit the heavy metal atoms of the x-…
The projectile electron interacts with either the _______ ___…
When projectile atoms interract with the anode, this results…
Projectile electrons
The electrons raveling from cathode to anode. These constitut…
kinetic energy
When projectile electrons hit the heavy metal atoms of the x-…
Physics: X-ray Production, Fluoroscopy, X-ray Interactions
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
The transfer of the incident electrons…
The energy of a bremsstrahlung photon is
Characteristic interactions may occur…
heat
infrared radiation
the difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energ…
an inner-shell electron
Almost all of the kinetic energy of th…
heat
The transfer of the incident electrons…
infrared radiation
134 terms
Radiation Physics X-ray production, emission, and interactions.
What happens to filament electrons aft…
True or False, Only L shell electrons…
If filling a K shell vacancy, which sh…
True or False, Characteristic photons…
1 and 2
false
O shell
true
What happens to filament electrons aft…
1 and 2
True or False, Only L shell electrons…
false
44 terms
3 - X-ray Physics III - General Concepts of Image Production
What are the three image quality metri…
Define Contrast... What influences contr…
Hows does kVp influence contrast?
How does kVp influence dose?
1) Contrast... 2) Resolution... 3) Noise
Contrast: the degree to which light and dark areas of an imag…
High kVp decreases contrast. ... As kVp increases, penetration…
Increasing kVp decreases dose (absorption) because the photon…
What are the three image quality metri…
1) Contrast... 2) Resolution... 3) Noise
Define Contrast... What influences contr…
Contrast: the degree to which light and dark areas of an imag…
46 terms
Physics 101-3 X-Ray Production
Incandescent
Thermionic Emissions
Filament Current
Thermions
white, glowing, intense heat
Emission of Electrons from heated surface
low voltage current supplied to cathode causing thermionic em…
Electrically charged particles
Incandescent
white, glowing, intense heat
Thermionic Emissions
Emission of Electrons from heated surface
22 terms
Week 4: Ch 10 - X-ray Productions
tube rating chart
anode cooling chart
X-ray production
heat units (HU)
>Determines if a given set of exposure factors are *safe…
>Used to determine how long the anode will take to cool w…
-Vacuum - glass envelope... -Source of electrons - cathode;…
Calculation of the total heat produced during an x ray *e…
tube rating chart
>Determines if a given set of exposure factors are *safe…
anode cooling chart
>Used to determine how long the anode will take to cool w…
93 terms
RT Physics Module 5: X-ray Production and Interaction
Who discovered x-rays and when?
What are the (6) basic properties ox-r…
What are the 2 classes of electron int…
Collision interactions can be either...
- Wilhelm K. Roentgen... - November 8, 1985
- Unaffected by gravity (no mass)... - Unaffected by electric fi…
- Collision interactions... - Radiative interactions
...elastic or inelastic interactions.
Who discovered x-rays and when?
- Wilhelm K. Roentgen... - November 8, 1985
What are the (6) basic properties ox-r…
- Unaffected by gravity (no mass)... - Unaffected by electric fi…
90 terms
X-ray Physics Fordree Final (xray production and on)
projectile electron interacts with an…
radiation resulting from the braking o…
Give the diagnostic range for Bremsstr…
chart that measures relative number of…
Characteristic radiation
Bremsstrahlung Radiation
50-150 kVp
Emission spectrum
projectile electron interacts with an…
Characteristic radiation
radiation resulting from the braking o…
Bremsstrahlung Radiation
34 terms
Physics 2 unit 3 Ch. 7 X-Ray Production
What is ionization
What are orbital electron shells
What electron shell has the highest bi…
What formula is used to determine the…
Adding or removing an electron from or to an atom
The outer shells of an atom (K then L then M........)
K shell
2n^2
What is ionization
Adding or removing an electron from or to an atom
What are orbital electron shells
The outer shells of an atom (K then L then M........)
20 terms
Physics Final; Exam 3 Review; X-ray Production & Emission
Projectile e-
Efficiency of x-ray production not aff…
Production of heat is directly proport…
Efficiency increases
cathode to anode become incident e-; creates mostly heat 99%…
tube current
tube current
Efficiency is independent of mAs/tube current but increases w…
Projectile e-
cathode to anode become incident e-; creates mostly heat 99%…
Efficiency of x-ray production not aff…
tube current
30 terms
Chapter 4 and 5: Basic Physics and x-ray Production
Matter
Mass
Atoms
Ionization
anything that has shape or form and occupies space. Three for…
quantity of matter that makes up a physical object, unchangea…
building blocks of matter
Process of removing or adding an orbital electron from an atom
Matter
anything that has shape or form and occupies space. Three for…
Mass
quantity of matter that makes up a physical object, unchangea…
20 terms
Dr. Korvatko's Radiation Physics: X-ray Production & Emission
___________ emission results with the…
As the E-cloud approaches the anode, w…
The x-photon production increases with…
At 60 kVp-only __% are-x-photons. 100…
Thermionic
1) The cathode's-E-lose their kinetic energy... 2) 99% interacti…
kVp
0.5, 1
___________ emission results with the…
Thermionic
As the E-cloud approaches the anode, w…
1) The cathode's-E-lose their kinetic energy... 2) 99% interacti…
53 terms
Chapter 6: X-ray tube, 7: x-ray production, 10: filtration
x-ray components
cathode
components of cathode
filament
cathode, anode, glass envelope, protective housing
produces thermionic cloud, conducts high voltage to the gap b…
filament, focusing cup, wiring devices
small coil of tungsten wire located in the focusing tube
x-ray components
cathode, anode, glass envelope, protective housing
cathode
produces thermionic cloud, conducts high voltage to the gap b…
Chapter 6: X-ray tube, 7: x-ray production, 10: filtration
cathode, anode, glass envelope, protec…
produces thermionic cloud, conducts hi…
filament, focusing cup, wiring devices
small coil of tungsten wire located in…
x-ray components
cathode
components of cathode
filament
cathode, anode, glass envelope, protec…
x-ray components
produces thermionic cloud, conducts hi…
cathode
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