Chemistry flashcards, diagrams and study guides
Discover popular Chemistry study sets on Quizlet. Study Chemistry topics like Periodic Table of Elements, Physical Chemistry and Polyatomic Ions. Learn what you need to get good grades in Chemistry classes. Memorize important Chemistry terms, definitions, diagrams and concepts. Prepare for Chemistry homework and exams with free online flashcards, diagrams, study guides and practice tests.
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Popular Acids and Bases setsView all
A substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, turns blue litmus red, and produces hydrogen ions in water, pH < 7
A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue, increases the number of hydroxide ions in water, pH > 7
A solution with a pH of 7, it contains equal concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in water, Ex. water
o Sour taste o Change color of vegetable dyes o Corrosive o React with "active" metals o React with carbonates, producing CO2 o React with bases to form ionic salts
o Also known as alkali o Taste is bitter o Feels slippery o Change color of vegetable dyes o React with acids to form ionic salts (neutralization)
1. Hydrochlorid acid 2. Aydrobromic acid 3. Hydroiodic acid 4. Nitric acid 5. Sulfuric acid 6. Chloric acid 7. Perchloric acid
Popular Amino Acids setsView all
Popular Analytical Chemistry setsView all
Primary standard because the solid compound is stable in air and can be massed accurately
A. It is also known as potassium hydrogen phthalate B. It is also known as potassium biphthalate C. It is also known as potassium acid phthalate
the ability of NaOH to rapidly absorb water from the atmosphere
Popular Atmospheric Chemistry setsView all
Popular Biological Chemistry setsView all
Popular Environmental Chemistry setsView all
pollution that comes from a specific site
pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site
Excessive amounts of soil particles that enter the water as a result of erosion
Popular Food Chemistry setsView all
Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is a grain product. Bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits are examples of grain products
the sweet and fleshy product of a tree or other plant that contains seed and can be eaten as food.
parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food.
In order to see accurate results for everything tested, there had to be a control group. The distilled water showed something to compare the tests to.
Diabetics need to pay attention to what they eat to maintain a steady blood sugar. When you have problems with your insulin, there is no regulation with blood sugar so you have to keep in healthy and be aware at all times with what you're putting in your body or it could be dangerous.
Nutrition labels should be on food because people need to know what they're eating. People with diabetes need to know the amount of sugar and carbs they're putting into their bodies. If you are starting a diet for whatever reason whether it being, because you want to lose weight or because it's good for your health, you need to know what you're eating and what's inside the food. If you are allergic to something and want to buy a type of food but don't know if it has it in it, it's in the nutrition label and ingredients. If you can't take a large amount of something in your body for any given reason the label can tell you if it has it. Without a nutrition label you have no clue what's being put into your body, they are mandatory for people who need to know what they're eating. They can help you follow a healthy diet and make it easier to choose nutritious foods which is very important.
Popular Green Chemistry setsView all
uses materials and processes that are intended to prevent or reduce pollution at its source
1) 1990, National 2) Focused industry, gov, and public attention to reducing the amount of pollution through cost-effective changes in production 3) EPA
Popular Histochemistry setsView all
1. Obtaining a fresh specimen 2. Fixation 3. Dehydration 4. Clearing 5. Wax infiltration 6. Embedding or blocking out
- The specimen is placed in a liquid fixing agent (fixative) such as formaldehyde solution (formalin). -This will slowly penetrate the tissue causing chemical and physical changes that will harden and preserve the tissue and protect it against subsequent processing steps.
- Most of the water in a specimen must be removed before it can be infiltrated with wax. -This process is commonly carried out by immersing specimens in a series of ethanol (alcohol) solutions of increasing concentration until pure, water-free alcohol is reached.
Popular Inorganic Chemistry setsView all
Popular Marine Chemistry setsView all
A molecule with unbalanced charge. One end has a slight negative charge, and the other end has a slight positive charge.
The attachment, or sticking together, of water molecules to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The attachment, or sticking, of water molecules to other substances by hydrogen bonds.
Popular Medicinal Chemistry setsView all
a molecule that binds to a receptor and influences the response of the receptor to an agonist
competitive antagonist allosteric antagonist (pure noncompetitive antagonist and mixed antagonist) irreversible competitive antagonist
binds to the agonist site but does not elicit biological response decreases potency (EC50) does not affect efficacy higher conc. of agonist can be added to offset effects of antagonist and achieve maximal effects
Viruses depend on the host cell's machinery, so it is hard to find a viral target that would leave the host cell unaffected.
Chemotherapeutic agents should act against the pathogen and not the host.
Humans and other animal hosts lack peptidoglycan cell walls
Popular Neurochemistry setsView all
Inhibitory and excitatory post-synaptic potential, graded response (additive) - not all or none like AP
Diffusion, neurotransmitter reuptake, enzymatic destruction of neurotransmitter
Electrical transmission is extremely fast and can be bidirectional, thus it allows the synchronization of large populations of neurons
Popular Nuclear Chemistry setsView all
part of atom most a part of chemical reactions
part of atom most a part of nuclear reactions
a powerful force of attraction that acts on the neutrons and protons in the nucleus, holding them together
Popular Oenology setsView all
Popular Organic Chemistry setsView all
A saturated hydrocarbon in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are single
An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond
An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon triple bond
Popular Organometallic Chemistry setsView all
reduction, coupling, dehydrohalogenation (elimination). metalation (substitution)
Mg→ H₂O Li, CuI→ something similar to CH₂CHCl NaOH→ alcohol and heat NaNH₂ → addition group
an sp² carbon; has to have an sp³
fast and slow motion involving organic ligands within complexes
M-C < M-O/M-X Average M-C decreases down the group (due to poorer overlap between C valence orbitals and M)
- many have ionic bonding, some have covalent - unstable with respect to oxygen and susceptible to hydrolysis. some are pyrophoric
Popular Periodic Table of Elements setsView all
Popular Photochemistry setsView all
Light scattering is of the same wavelength as the incident light - Elastic. No change or transfer if energy, relaxes to the same state.
Excitation of the molecule (lowering energy of the photon). Relaxes to a higher energy state. Transfer of energy to the molecule. Inelastic.
De-excitation of the molecule (emission of higher energy photon). Relaxes to a ground state. Energy transfer from the molecule. Inelastic.
Popular Physical Chemistry setsView all
arrow drawn to show the uneven distribution of electrons in a bond or molecule, a molecule that has a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge.
wavelength of an object is inversely proportional to its mass, or in other words, equation used to determine mass or wavelength when either of those and speed is given
Popular Polyatomic Ions setsView all
Popular Polymer Chemistry setsView all
Breaking down of long chain alkanes into shorter chain alkanes and alkenes
A compound comprising Hydrogen and Carbon only
To produce shorter chain hydrocarbons which are more useful
Popular Radiochemistry setsView all
Popular Surface Chemistry setsView all
Popular Theoretical Chemistry setsView all
A change which alters the appearance, but does not create a new substance
change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter
Smallest unit of an element that still maintains its properties; building blocks of matter
the relationship between the mass of a material and its volume; D=m/v
a change in this indicates a chemical change; by itself this is not a significant identifier of a substance
how a substance affects the olfactory (smell) receptors; a change in this indicates a chemical change
Popular Chemistry setsView all
A tool used to organize the elements by atomic number.
The amount of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
An average sum of the number of the protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.