Computer Science flashcards, diagrams and study guides
Discover popular Computer Science study sets on Quizlet. Study Computer Science topics like Computer Networks, Operating Systems and Databases. Learn what you need to get good grades in Computer Science classes. Memorize important Computer Science terms, definitions and concepts. Prepare for Computer Science homework and exams with free online flashcards, diagrams, study guides and practice tests.
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Popular Algorithms setsView all
Sorts a list by placing each element in the position it should be in and gradually adding more elements one by one., A sort in which each item in a set is inserted into its proper position in the sorted set according to a specified criterion.
Sorts a list by searching for the 1st element, then the 2nd, and so on until all the elements are in place., A sort in which the items in a set are examined to find an item that fits specified criteria. This item is appended to the sorted set and removed from further consideration, and the process is repeated until all items are in the sorted set.
A sort in which the first two items to be sorted are examined and exchanged if necessary to place them in the specified order; the second item is then compared with the third (exchanging them if required), the third is compared with the fourth, and the process is repeated until all pairs have been examined and all items are in the proper sequence.
Popular Artificial Intelligence setsView all
is a branch of computer science that focuses on creating computer systems or computer-controlled machines (including robots) that have an ability to perform tasks that are usually associated with human intelligence and are (or were) generally performed by humans. By this definition, any computer program (or computer-controlled device) that accomplishes something normally thought of as intelligence by humans would be considered AI.
NLP works to develop software that understands written and spoken words and can interact with us using human language.
AI systems have senses just as we do. Instead of just five senses, AI systems use sonar, accelerometers, infrared, magnetic, and many other electronic sensors to gather data. Being able to combine all the data pouring in from sensors and then construct information from it is a difficult challenge.
Popular Computational Theory setsView all
A set of steps used to define a problem, determine its cause, propose a solution, and verify a fix.
Attempt to resolve the issue by either confirming the theory and learning what needs to be done to fix the problem, or by not confirming the theory and forming a new one or escalating. (Step 3 of 6 in the CompTIA troubleshooting theory).
The first step in the troubleshooting method that identifies the affected problem area.
Popular Computer Architecture setsView all
a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data; are available in a variety of shapes and sizes; made of metal or plastic and protects the internal electronic components from damage
sometimes called a system board; the main circuit board of the system unit
also called CPU or central processing unit; electronic component on a computer's motherboard that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer; can contain a control unit and an ALU; impacts overall computing power and manages most of a computer's operations; the leading manufacturers of personal computer chips are Intel and AMD
Popular Computer Graphics setsView all
When an exact solution in an algorithm is difficult to attain in a reasonable time, so an acceptable solution is used
How do you create a lossless transformation of an image?
What comes first in the thousands of bytes?
Popular Computer Networks setsView all
is a managed Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) protection service that safeguards applications running on AWS
helps take the complexity out of coding by providing Java APIs for many AWS services including Amazon S3, Amazon EC2, DynamoDB, and more
is a secure, durable, and extremely low-cost cloud storage service for data archiving and long-term backup. ... Customers can store data for as little as $0.004 per gigabyte per month, a significant savings compared to on-premises solutions.
Popular Computer Security and Reliability setsView all
practice and study of hiding information
process of changing information using an algorithm into another form unreadable by others unless they possess the key
algorithm that can perform encryption or decryption
Popular Data Structures setsView all
The _ indicates the number of elements or values an array can hold.
The size declarator must be a _ with a value greater than _.
Each element of an array is accessed and indexed by a number known as a _.
Popular Databases setsView all
A collection of related data that is stored in a manner enabling information to be retrieved as needed; in a relational database, a collection of related tables.
A type of software program used to create, maintain, and access databases.
In a relational database, a collection of related records or rows.
Popular Distributed Computing setsView all
Where a series of computers are networked together and they each work on solving the same problem. Each computer shares data, processing, storage and bandwidth in order to solve a single problem.
Reduces costs because an expensive powerful computer such as a supercomputer is not needed It can pass work to computers anywhere in the world using the Internet Improved performance as each computer can work on part of the data
Issues with the security of data spread out on so many different computers
Shared Memory and Message Passing
to provide a mechanism that will allow user processes to synchronize their actions when they access the shared memory space
Message Passing does not require shared variables to communicate between processes
Popular History of Computer Science setsView all
Abacus>Egypt>Greece Pascaline>Blaise Pascal>Britain Weaving Loom>Joseph Jacquard>France Difference Engine>Charles Babbage>Britain Analytical Engine>Charles Babbage>Britain Punch Card Tabulating Machine>Herman Hollerith>America Electronic Computer>John Atanasoff>America ENIAC>Dr.John Mauchy>America UNIVAC>Eckert and Mauchly>America
over 4000 years
*300BC (Babylonians) or 500BC ( Chinese) *an oblong frame with rows of wires or grooves along which beads are slid, used for calculating. It did multiplication, division, subtraction and addition the same way modern computers and calculators do today. *Place of a bead or rock determined its place value ( ones, tens, ...) *No definite inventor however it was largely influenced by the Chinese and Romans.
Popular Information Architecture setsView all
___ the list of links and other descriptive information about webpages returned by a search engine in response to a search query.
words or phrases that describe the content on a webpage. Search engines use __ to match webpages with user search queries.
___ a collection of strategies and techniques designed to increase the number of visitors to a web-site as a result of the web-site's rank on search engine results pages.
Popular Operating Systems setsView all
The memory a computer uses to temporarily store instructions and data.
hardware for storing data; controlled by operating system
computer software controlled by operating system
Popular Parallel Computing setsView all
Multiple sections of a process or multiple processes executing at what appears to be simultaneously in a single core. The purpose of multi-threaded programming is to add functionality to your program Example: Chatting: you can receive messages while you type
Popular Programming Languages setsView all
Popular Software Engineering setsView all
1. Problem definition 2. Requirements analysis 3. Design 4. Code 5. Test 6. Implement
Same as waterfall Can feed into prior stage
Iterative work Going back and checking on updates after sprints At most 6 week process Continuous user involvement Requirements include test plans and cases
1) A design plan for the negotiation of system requirements. 2) Improved stakeholder communication.
1) Facilitating discussion on system design 2) Document an architecture
1) Is there a generic application architecture that can act as a template for the system. 2) How will the system be distributed across a number of processors? 3) What architectural patters might be used? 4) What will be the fundamental approach used to structure the system? 5) How will the structural components in the system be decomposed into sub-components. 6) How will the architectural design be evaluated? 7) How will the architecture of a system be documented?
Popular VLSI setsView all
A device having multiple electronic components and their interconnects manufactured on a single substrate.
Full Custom- Every gate is special. Basically not done anymore. ASIC- Gates all come from library, but connections all unique. SOC- Chip consists of blocks that were all created before. Silicon "printed circuit board". Real VLSI chips often use a little bit of all three styles in them. -Might be on custom analog block, ASIC gates, and a couple of larger "IP" blocks.
Gives the designer the most freedom. -Lots of rope -Can be clever -Can hang yourselves too For a specific function: -Can achieve best performance (speed, power, area, etc). -Most work/time per function. -Optimizations are at a low level. -Circuit better be important think assembler, only worse.
Static CMOS gates are very power efficient and they dissipate nearly zero power while idle. Power dissipation in CMOS is of 2 types namely 1.Static power dissipation 2.Dynamic power dissipation
1.Sub threshold condition through OFF transistors 2.Tunneling current through gate oxide 3.Leakage through reverse biased diodes 4.Contention current through ratioed circuits
1.Charging and discharging of load capacitance 2.Short circuit current while both pMOS and nMOS networks are partially ON
Popular Computer Science setsView all
Get data from the keyboard, a file, a sensor, or some other device.
Display data on the screen, or send data to a file or other device.
Check for certain conditions and execute the appropriate code.
anything you put online leaves a path
small computer files that record date and time you visited site, how long you stayed on the site, and any personal information you provided
another person or company (advertisers)