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This is a mixture of weathered rock, organic matter, water, and air.
This is not visible without a microscopic, is sticky, and holds lots of water.
This is not visible without a microscope, is powdery and holds more water than sand.
Day 2 (lecture notes) for moist surface soil Major components: 1. Mineral matter 2. Organic matter 3. Soil water 4. Soil air -About 50% pore space and about 50% solids -Of the solids, 45% of the soil will be minerals, the other 5% will be organic matter -Of the pore space, 25% of the pore space will be air and the other 25% will be water
Composed of particles ranging in size from submicroscopic to those too big for a man to lift, accounts for the bulk of the dry mass of the soil and occupies some 40 to 60 perent of the soil volume, usually 45 to 49 percent.
-It is dark brown to black in color, is derived from the remains of dead plants and animals that have been decomposed or are being decomposed. -It occurs in largest amounts in the surface of soil, but even there seldom accounts for more than 10 percent of the dry mass of the soil, usually 1 to 5 percent.
contains leaf litter and partially decomposed material
topsoil, contains humus, rich in nutrients, dark in color, decomposed organic matter
leaching occurs here; light in color, lacking nutrients
a homogeneous substance consisting of large molecules or ultramicroscopic particles of one substance dispersed through a second substance - the particles do not settle and cannot be separated out by ordinary filtering or centrifuging like those in a suspension
gels, soils, and emulsions
- "where all the action takes place" - small clay and humus particles provide huge amount of surface area
the uppermost horizon of soil. It is mainly made up of organic material, including waste organisms; the bodies of decomposing organisms; and live organisms. It is has a multitude of hummus
The dark crumbly material that results from the decomposition of organic material
The layer of soil below the O horizon. It is made up of weathered rock and some organic material that has traveled down from the O layer. It is often referred to as topsoil and plays an important role in plant growth. This is the zone of leaching
Soil structure is the arrangement of soil peds. This arrangement determines the space between soil peds, which determines the porosity of soil.
d. all of the above
d. increased porosity
The loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter (humus) overlying the bedrock of Earth's surface.
The study of soils.
The soil-forming process begins when weathering breaks solid bedrock into smaller and smaller pieces. Bacteria, fungi, and insects begin to live in the weathered materials. More nutrients are added to the weathered materials by the death and decay of organisms .
-weathering of rock -deposit of sediments by erosion -decomposition of organic matter in dead organisms
200-1000 years depends on biome
45% minerals, 25% water, 25% air, and 5% organic matter
Soil layers with a high percentage of organic matter. Typically, you can find three distinct organic layers in woodland areas -- one of leaves, one of pine needles and twigs and another of decomposed humus
Topmost mineral horizon; often referred to as the topsoil. Generally contains enough partially decomposed (humified) organic matter to give the soil a color darker than the lower horizons
Contains deposits of leached material; characterized by an accumulation of soluble or suspended organic material, clay, iron or aluminum