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subdivision: diencephalon 1/2 of the optic nerves cross here
subdivision: diencephalon homeostatic systems + hormone production; controls pituitary gland
subdivision: diencephalon "master gland"; growth, prolactin and sex hormone production
A common analogy to illustrate wholeness can be depicted by cake. While the individual ingredients (e.g., flour, sugar, milk, butter, baking soda, eggs) are the component parts, what is removed from the oven (e.g., the cake) is of a very different quality; it is more than each of its individual elements. An insignificant member (e.g., a small amount of baking soda) has the potential to impact the whole by influencing whether the cake rises or is flat.
The natural tendency of a system to move from order to disorder. Without attention, a marriage or family system will move toward disorganization or disrepair. Energy-new information or input-is the lifeblood of systems. A family must be able and willing to incorporate energy into its system in order to thrive. Open and permeable boundaries make the flow of energy into a system more likely. Interchange with the environment is critical for the viability of a system.
A family is much more than a collection of individuals who live together and are related to each other; it has a holistic quality. As a natural social system, it possesses its own characteristics, rules, roles, communication patterns and power structure. It represents an integration of parts such that individual members can be understood only within the context of the whole.
This theory allows one to understand the organizational complexity of families, as well as the interactive patterns that guide family interactions. In order to understand a family system we must look at the family as a whole and observe how they interact with each other to maintain homeostasis.
It permits many different facet of a system to be studied. Allows for a variety of interactions between varying levels of subsystems, so can give a variety of explanations instead of just one. It can be used for analysis at the macro or the micro level.
Systems (families included) tend to be resistant to change and tend toward homeostasis. Change can be very difficult for systems to do or to accept. Systems are embedded within other systems (neighborhood, community, national).
relay station for motor and sensory information
transmits fine touch, vibration, and conscious proprioceptive information
important in localization of pain and thermal stimuli
reflex arc: a pattern of defined segments which describe the components of the reflex 1.receptor: converts stimulus to electrical signal --> AP in afferent neuron 2. afferent nerve fibers: propogates AP to integrator 3. integrator: CNS areas that determine how a response to afferent should be made 4. efferent nerve fibers: propagates AP from integrator to effector 5. effector: carries out response
h-reflex: electrically induced monosynaptic reflex. the m-wave is caused by directly activatig the alpha mtoor neurons h-wave: caused by primary afferent activation, much like normal route of spindle reflex
an inhibitory interneuron utilizing glycine.
9. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory of Development: Definition & Examples
Developed the ecological systems theory which explores the five levels of the environment that can influence human development.
a person's development was affected by everything in their surrounding environment. It divided the person's environment into five different levels: the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macro system, and the chronosystem.
The microsystem is the system closest to the person and the one in which they have direct contact. Relationships in a microsystem are bi-directional. In other words, your reactions to the people in your microsystem will affect how they treat you in return. This is the most influential level of the ecological systems theory.
He looks at children's development within the context of the system of relationships that form his/her environment. --Complex layers of environment. --Each Layer has an effect on the child's development.
--The closest Layer to the child. --Child has direct contact with these structures. --Involves the relationships and interactions the child has with his/her environment.
--This layer provides the connections between the structure of the child's microsystem. Example: the connections between the child's teacher and parents.
any organism, relationship or entity made up of interdependent parts
one of the four aspects of a system. the parts or elements of the system
one of the four aspects of a system. Characteristics of the objects and the whole system
the section of the frontal lobe responsible for voluntary movement
brain region that regulates personality and goal-directed behavior
leads from optic chiasma to terminate in lateral geniculate body
Theories are the sets of ideas that scientists "think with" to help them understand and give them a basis for interventions. A set of ideas which guide our thinking. "A set of concepts and propositions that allow us to describe and explain some aspect of experience" "Theorizing is the process of systematically formulating and organizing ideas to understand a particular phenomenon. A theory is the set of interconnected ideas that emerge from this process. Scientific theories can be defined as groups of ideas that give us explanations that can be used as the basis for intervening. "A set of systematically related propositions that are empirically testable" (Rudner, 1966). Theory links ideas to data and is intended to explain something. Theory is a systematic collection of concepts and how they relate. It is a set of assumptions, propositions or explanations of a causal relationship. A set of interrelated propositions plus assumptions and definitions.
Theories give us explanations and help us know how to intervene. Theories help break down behaviors or relationships to understand their function in relation to the whole. Understanding theories help to explain social patterns and see how such patterns can be generalized to the society as a whole. It is general enough to apply to many situations. Theories about family processes help us understand what is going on in various aspects of the family realm. "Theories have immense value to scientists and practitioners. They help us understand the world around us. We can use them to predict events, and we can use them to help train children, send rockets to the moon, develop new technologies, and help criminals reform in family science they help us understand why people get married and divorced, and they help us understand what we need to do to adjust effectively when we get married or divorced. They help us know why children respond the way they do to praise and punishment, and this type of knowledge is power. It is power because it helps family scientists help others attain their goals." (Burr, Using Theories in Family Science)
- answer questions about what is going on - give us ideas that we can use to better attain our goals - give us perspectives - have explanations - true statements (generalizations, postulates, propositions, or laws) that satisfy our intellectual curiosity Theories guide our thinking Allow us to describe and explain some aspect of experience To systematically formulate and organize ideas to understand a particular phenomenon Increase and generate knowledge Predict/help solve problems - Helps us know where/how to intervene Theories meet the goals of science Theories generate knowledge and focus our thinking. It's a lens that allows new perspectives of what we view. Accumulation/organization of research Precision - articulate ideas precisely Guidance - guide research Connectedness - show how ideas are connected Interpretation - help interpret/describe what is happening Prediction and explain - predict what will happen in future
- Regulate voluntary movement (Regulates posture, balance, motor coordination and speech)
have balance defects, often confined to a wheelchair 10-20 years after symptoms start appearing.
- Regulates muscle tone + posture - associated with globose +emboliform nuclei - then project to Red nucleus + rubrospinal tract
1. The core of each system has a small set of neurons (several thousand) 2. Neurons these systems arise from the central core of the brain, most of them from the brain stem. 3. Each neuron can affect many others, becuase each one has an axon that may contact more than 100,000 postsynaptic neurons spread widely across the brain 4. The Synapses of many of these systems release transmitter molecules into the extracellular fluid
a G-protein-coupled receptor whose primary action is to stimulate an intracellular biochemical response
a membrane-enclosed protein that binds GTP [guanosine triphosphate] when activated by a membrane receptor. Active G-proteins can inhibit or stimulate other membrane-enclosed proteins.
These systems/structures interact to exchange exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide, and release waste products in cells.
These systems interact when you raise your hand and nerve tissue carries a message from your brain, and muscle tissue contracts to move the bones.
These systems interact to allow the inhalation and exhalation of gases.
(adj.) superiority in importance or quantity (Britain's preponderance of naval might secured the nation's role as a military power.)
-decussate and terminate solely on contralateral Lateral Lemniscus
the part of the thalamus that relays auditory signals to the temporal cortex and receives input from the auditory cortex
part of METENcephalon in HINDbrain - standing - walking - balance - coordinated movement
part of METENcephalon in HINDbrain - Relay nuclei of sensory systems to cerebellum
part of MYELENcephalon in HINDbrain - part of reticular formation - cardiovascular - respiration - skeletal muscle tone: how rigid different ones are
the separation between the system and its surroundings
parts and pieces that combine together to make the whole
matter or energy contained within, or coming from outside of, the system