Health Geography flashcards, diagrams and study guides
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an organism that causes a disease, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or flukes
in the triangle of human ecology, the effects of cultural norms or societal organizations on human health.
factors, such as drugs, dangerous gases, and harmful liquids, that negatively affect human health
Social determinants of health are economic and social conditions that influence the health of people and communities . These conditions are shaped by the amount of money, power, and resources that people have, all of which are influenced by policy choices. Social determinants of health affect factors that are related to health outcomes. Factors related to health outcomes include: How a person develops during the first few years of life (early childhood development) How much education a persons obtains Being able to get and keep a job What kind of work a person does Having food or being able to get food (food security) Having access to health services and the quality of those services Housing status How much money a person earns Discrimination and social support
Determinants of health are factors that contribute to a person's current state of health. These factors may be biological, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, or social in nature. Scientists generally recognize five determinants of health of a population [2, 3]: Genes and biology: for example, sex and age Health behaviors: for example, alcohol use, injection drug use (needles), unprotected sex, and smoking Social environment or social characteristics: for example, discrimination, income, and gender Physical environment or total ecology: for example, where a person lives and crowding conditions Health services or medical care: for example, access to quality health care and having or not having insurance Five major determinants of population health Other factors that could be included are culture, social status, and healthy child development. Figure 1 represents rough estimates of how much each of the five determinants contributes to the health of a population. Scientists do not know the precise contributions of each determinant at this time. As the figure shows, in theory, genes, biology, and health behaviors together account for about 25% of population health. Social determinants of health represent the remaining three categories of social environment, physical environment/total ecology, and health services/medical care. These social determinants of health also interact with and influence individual behaviors as well. More specifically, social determinants of health refer to the set of factors that contribute to the social patterning of health, disease, and illness.
Addressing social determinants of health is a primary approach to achieving health equity. Health equity is "when everyone has the opportunity to 'attain their full health potential' and no one is 'disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstance'" . Health equity has also been defined as "the absence of systematic disparities in health between and within social groups that have different levels of underlying social advantages or disadvantages—that is, different positions in a social hierarchy" . Social determinants of health such as poverty, unequal access to health care, lack of education, stigma, and racism are underlying, contributing factors of health inequities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is committed to achieving improvements in people's lives by reducing health inequities. Health organizations, institutions, and education programs are encouraged to look beyond behavioral factors and address underlying factors related to social determinants of health.
The World Health Organisation in 1948 defined health as "A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". In general health is determined by the context in which people are born, grow up, work and grow old. Genetics are important on the individual level but population health is largely driven by social, economic and cultural factors.
The most commonly used measure of population health and is calculated based on mortality rates. The most frequently used approach is Period Life Expectancy which is the mean length that this cohort is expected to live assuming the mortality rates of a given year (the year of birth, or any other year in the life of a particular cohort). Healthy Life Expectancy (HLE) combines health and mortality in a single indicator (HLE: average number of years that a person can expect to live in good health).
"Compression of morbidity" in its original form assumes life expectancy will reach its biological limits and the average onset of morbidity will be postponed so years of poor health are "compressed". Life expectancy is still increasing, but compression of morbidity can still occur if healthy life expectancy increases faster than life expectancy, however this implicitly assumes that interventions outside the medical system will be effective (removal or major risk factors) for example, fewer people are smoking.
In regard to access to health care, the presence or absence of health care resources.
In regard to access to health care, how close or accessible facilities are to users.
The natural characteristics and cultural aspects of an environment.
- acheivement of highest attainable standard of health, well-being and equity worldwide through judicious attention to the human systems- political, economic, and social
the health of human civilization and the state of the natural system on which it depends
state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and mental health and efficiency through organized community efforts toward a sanitary environment; the control of community infections; the education of the individuals in principles of personal hygiene; the organization of medical and nursing service for the early diagnosis and treatment of disease; and the development of the social machinery to ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health
an area are for study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equality in health for all people worldwide. Global health emphasizes transnational health issues, determinants and solution, involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and promotes interdisciplinary collaboration; and is a synthesis of population based prevention with individual level clinical care
Health is the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not just the absence of disease
positive: -"health and wealth" better economic power means better access to health -better access to knowledge and technology negative: -cross border infectious diseases -risk of security -marketing of harmful products -environmental degradation
Global Health: -Helps with problems that directly or indirectly affect one -global cooperation -Seeks global health equity International Health -helps with other countries problems other then their own -binational cooperation -seeks to help other nations
A state of complete physical, social and mental wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Life expectancy, under 5 mortality, mortality, and morbidity rates, infant mortality
"An indication of how long a person can expect to live, it is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change" (AIHW, 2008)
- Relates to all people being able to obtain health services they need regardless of their ability to pay - provides integrated care focused on meeting the priority health needs of the community (obesity, malaria) - a system for financing health services so people do not suffer financial hardship when using them. Focuses of services Examples: - afford to train and employ staff - increasing access to technology - increasing access to essential medicines (HIV, vaccinations)
- countries must work together to reduce the spread of disease including influenza, cholera and emerging diseases such as Ebola - Factors such as globalisation, environmental degradation, natural disasters and the way food is produced, traded and transported contribute to changing patterns in the spread of disease. - International Health Regulations (2005). Is a document that outlines the measures that countries should take to reduce the spread of diseases that have the potential to cross borders and threaten people worldwide (airport control, quarantine, and ensuring resources to treat disease outbreaks are readily available Examples: - Leadership role in coordinating response to diseases outbreak - Includes: sending health workers, developing health systems and providing medications
- Relates to all people accessing safe, quality, affordable and effective medicines. (focuses on medication) - New technologies have the potential to make health professionals more effective, health care facilities more efficient, and people more aware of the risks and resources that can influence their health. Examples: - Provides grants for developing ways to increase access - Developing 'criteria for selection of essential medicines' - standardise health terminology; This enables different groups to share resources and data from across the world with regard to diagnosis, treatment and the prevention of disease. Ensure that countries use the same names for the same medications so individuals can access the correct medication regardless of the country they are in.
Using geographic ideas, information, and theories to study disease, health, and health care. How disease diffuses is critical to global health issues.
Relationship of organisms and the environment.
Refers to the connection between human population and the physical world.
'A complete state of physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the abscence of disease or infirmity.' (WHO, 1946)
'An individual's or population's overall health, taking into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors.' (AIHW, 2008)
Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and it's systems, and includes the physical capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness.
Was on the verge of being eradicated by 2005, but then a rumor got around in Northern Nigeria that this disease was causing sterility. This caused the disease to spread to Yemen, Sudan, and Indonesia.
760,000 people in __________ have HIV.
35 million people living with HIV worldwide. Countries Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, in which about one quarter of the adults are HIV positive.
tropical medicine --> public health --> international health --> global health
-Emerged during the 19th century as a result of colonialism when European explorers experienced diseases they had never seen before in their home countries. As a result, they tasked their scientific community to study those diseases -A branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases often found in tropical regions of the world -Focuses on infectious and parasitic diseases including yellow fever, dysentery, malaria etc.
-Emerged in the mid 19th century in Great Britain as a result of the living, health, and unsanitary conditions created by the Industrial Revolution -Focuses on health issues that affect the population of a particular country/community -Seeks to prevent disease, prolong life, and promote health through organized social efforts
A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries, specifically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. Burden of disease is measured in a unit called the DALY.
Relating to the state of a person's physical, social, emotional, mental and spiritual existence and how they feel about their lives in relation to the various dimensions
'An individual's or a population's overall health, taking into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors.' (AIHW, 2008)