Applied Psychology flashcards, diagrams and study guides
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The study of abnormal behaviour. This specialisation researches and treats unusual mental disorders.
Focuses on the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. For example, clinical psychologists might study people with a mental disorder such as schizophrenia.
The study of human thinking (cognition). Cognitive psychologists study topics such as attention, memory, perception, decision making, problem solving and language acquisition.
A general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
An assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research
A set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
is a branch of psychology that focuses on observation. Conditioning, reinforcement and punishment are key concepts in this branch of psychology that also focuses on classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
Anotehr strngth was having multiple training types - SPC and PDL. Reported long term and short term effects. Control group was used. Limitations: Did not control for licence duration and driving exposure . Another study found that the fewer crashes by training effect was offsetby getting licence early. - training 'made worse than control for SPC (but not PDL)' Also driving curriculum was not known. SPC was not poperly piloted - no follow up evaluation. - on road use was v low in this training type NZdrivers - reduced time if do driver training- EBP? No, they had higher crash rates. 3. Procedural training - Skid training No, omg. this is ****ing hilarious - instead of trying to avoid skids - they focused on manouvering their cars properly through them - thus higher crashes - overconfidence. Was useful when emphasis on risk avoidance. Hazard perception training - yep was useful - identified hazards more. - promotes mirror checking etc. BUT may not apply appropriately
1. People don't make optimal decisiosn, but follow heuristic and biases paradigm - research didn't improve decision making ability as not relevant 2. People were using experience to rapidly categorise situations Normal person would use Kleins model - so naturalistic decision making heuristics. Finding the first workable action/option 3. Critical finding - experienced leaders first option they consider is usually satisfactory
1. Locus of control - internal vs external - Judgement heuristics - Prospect Theory - decision making under risk Attribution theory self-efficacy theory conceptions of ability and goal orientation identitiy theory fashionable/fad status - excape rigorous evlauations research may catch up and contnue use or it may fall out of fashion with practitioners due to problems in applications. However enduring theories exist eg. goal setting, organisational citizenship, escalation theory, five factor model of personality. - valid. able to use without being 100% on them. 2. Context - nominal, structural, psychological - predictor or independent, or outcome/dependent? - context is likely to be an IV Personal factors - IV (cog ability etc.) Well-being - DV - an outcome of context and personal factors 3. Criterion related validity - predictor and criterion correlation. Either calculated via concurrent design (test 100 employees, collect work performance of 2 months later - calc validity coefficient) or predictive (hire then follow up - some people will leave) MOST IMPT AS SELECTION SELECTS PEOPLE WHO WILL PERFORM WELL IN THE ROLE Incremental validity - concept of using multiple validity techniques Faith validity - selection method is valid as reputable company sells it Face validity - looks right Content validity - includes ALL things relevant to selection Construct validity - compare with another measure that assesses the construct of interest internal differential external 4. Reliability - consistent under varying conditions. external relaibility- compared with an external reference point (test retest and parallel forms) test-retest - same two tests on two separate occasions - time delay parallel forms - two equivalent test are made - test a and b. internal reliability - split half - (make sure not too high or just asking same qs again) 5. selection ration - number of jobs/no of candidates financial benefit of improved job performance. eg. if people are satisfactory and are hired - if too few people available to hire and too many jobs - more selection - more likely to get unsatisfactory candidates. Notes just from reading :Selection and assessment procedures imply: 1 - some people more suited for a job than othersn- aptitude, skill other qualities (KSAOs) 2. future job performance is predictable from selection/assessment procedures initially in selection and assessment selection, a competency model is developed from job analysis, then advertised , person specification is created, them selection criteria made. Selection methods are decided on (interview etc) attracted applicants are selected out, then selected in. - shortlisted and selections are finalised. Job analysis is either job - tools, tasks, purpose of job) or worker -psyc/behavioural qualities for job (traditional) - orientated a competency so a cluster of characteristics a job holder is required to demonstrate - behavioour patterns eg. actively listens to customers and attempts to understand their needs
Based in the belief that psychologists need empirical evidence in order to understand and change human behaviour. Behavioural psychologists use experimentation to obtain empirical evidence. It emphasizes the importance of observable behaviours and phenomena as well as using scientifically proven intervention procedures. Behavioural psychology can be applied to individuals with a wide variety of mental disorders, as well as to groups such as those in the workplace.
(Pavlov) a type of learning where a once neutral stimulus comes to produce a particular response after pairings with a conditioned stimulus
The truck was stopped because they believed that Coca-Cola was actually a drug that had negative effects on people. The agents busting the truck claimed that Coca-Cola was poisonous and habit forming. The ingredient in the Cola that they thought was causing these issues was caffeine. The coca-cola company knew they would be in serious trouble if the drink was proved to be a drug, so they decided to hire a psychologist to do research. They first asked James McKeen Cattle, but he wasn't interested. That is when they brought in Harry Hollingworth, a man who was desperate for money and was happy with the services provided.
-A psychologist (and husband of Leta Setter Hollingworth) who was hired by the Coca-Cola Company in 1911 to study the behavioral effects of caffeine on human beings -Ultimately, he demonstrated that sound experimental research could be funded by a major corporate entity without dictating or otherwise prejudicing the results.
-Their structuralism did not survive, so they evolved to functionalism, because their psychology was not practical in everyday life -Their structuralism could not long survive in their original form in the American intellectual climate, the American Zeitgeist, and so they evolved into functionalism. -A structuralist is interested in mental contents, the "what?" of consciousness experience, while the functional psychologist wants to study mental operations, the "how?" and "why?" of consciousness
discover basic info about behavior and mental processes
Use info discovered through basic research to help process
study how the brain and the body's biological processes affect, and are affected by, behavior and mental processes.
motivational theory of attitude change. (fritz heider)
a method through rewards and punishments for behaviour. B.F SKINNER. promise of possibility of rewards cause and increase in behaviour or decrease behaviour.
Other factors that influence whether or not a person is willing to start a healthy behaviour or stop an unhealthy behaviour
Individual's perception of the impact an illness will have on their life
Patients belief of how likely they are to contract a particular illness - best predictor of behaviour
A:Description is the level of investigation in science that involves the collection of information to suggest hypotheses or questions for additional research.
A:Control is the only level of investigation in science that provides an understanding of functional relations. Control is considered the highest level of scientific understanding for this reason.
Scientific study of the mind and human behaviour.
The study and treatment of mental illness, emotional disturbance, and abnormal behaviour.
The study of abnormal behaviour. This specialisation researches and treats unusual mental disorders. Abnormal psychologists focus on fascinating experiences of the mind such as hallucinations, where patients see things that are not there.
The "behavioral" dimension of applied behavior analysis means focusing on behavior as the basis of intervention and target for change.
of social importance
The "effective" dimension of applied behavior analysis involves treatment effects that are clinically significant.
"Father of psychology" First person to study humans in a laboratory setting
Scientific study of human thought and human/animal behavior
Credited with coming up with the idea that experience influences perception of reality
> Respectfully speaks up when they disagree > Open to others' challenges > Respectful of others' viewpoints > Understand the importance of compliance
> Respectfully speaks up when they disagree > Open to others' challenges > Respectful of others' viewpoints > Understand the importance of compliance > Generally, accepts challenge, but can get defensive at times > When challenging the ideas of others, not completely respectful in tone or word choice > Struggles to challenge friends
> Generally, accepts challenge, but can get defensive at times > When challenging the ideas of others, not completely respectful in tone or word choice > Struggles to challenge friends
Using anthropology to solve contemporary problems.
Reduction in absolute poverty, with a more even distribution of wealth.
Field that examines the sociocultural dimensions of economic development.