Clinical Neuropsychology flashcards, diagrams and study guides
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Why is it important to have an appropriate classification of the presenting problem? a. A formal diagnosis may be needed for insurance purposes. b. A determination of the range of presenting symptoms is needed to ensure proper placement in a treatment facility. c. A recognition of what type of disorder is present will aid in the development of an effective treatment plan. d. All of the above.
Which of the following is a true statement about assessment and professional orientation? a. Regardless of whether a therapist is behaviorally or psychodynamically oriented, the same basic assessment procedures are employed. b. The focus of the assessment will be largely determined by the professional orientation of the clinician. c. While some assessment procedures will vary, a biological screening and administration of a personality test are components of all assessments. d. The assessment techniques employed will serve to reveal the causal factors that are most consistent with the clinician's orientation.
A valid test a. measures what it is designed to measure. b. yields consistent results. c. is standardized. d. rarely is reliable.
aphasia completely eliminates the ability to speak, understand, read, write, and use sophisticated gestures for communication
impaires and interrupts the ability to communicate normally and naturally.
can create new ways of communicating and strengthen existing ones. It can also help the patient, and his or her family cope and adjust to major life-challenges during this difficult time.
in base of brain where many arteries come together if one artery is damaged others pick up slack
when blood stops flowing to any part of the brain
depend on where it occurred and how much damage was done
is a neurologically based language disorder, distinct from neurologically based speech disorders such as apraxia of speech and dysarthria.
various kinds of neuropathologies. The third leading cause of death in the US are CVAs. This is almost always the most common cause of aphasia.
ischemic or hemorrhagic
begins in medial temporal lobe (entorhinal cortex and hippocampi. then parietal and frontal cortices. consumes most of neocortex. cortical atrophy more prominent in temporal and parietal lobes hippocampus hit early on
memory, confrontation naming, semantic fluency
An acquired syndrome consisting of a decline in memory and other cognitive functions. Dementia is used as an umbrella term to group all diseases in which there is some form of memory loss. DEMENTIA IS NOT A DISEASE.
worsen over time and restrict ability to function. Because depression can sometimes affect memory and cognition, it is often difficult to clearly differentiate it from dementia.
a specific disease or part of normal againg
functions: judgement, reasoning, foresight, decision making, attention, affect, general intellect, philosophies, religion, politics, basic personality & character. lesions can cause impaired judgment, reasoning, foresight, decision making, and decrease in general intellectual capacitiesTx: help the patient with skills of expression, comprehension, and communication.
Location: junction of the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes Function Word retrieval/word finding. Reading and writing (Writing and reading are language activities lesions: Anomia: difficulty word finding/retrieval reading and writing problems Tx applications: 1.) Tx for word retrieval (Finding) 2.) Tx for reading & writing
difficulty recognizing familiar faces (family, famous people, even self) Tx- use pictures of family members & close friends Counseling:• Explain problems to the pt & family; teach them to speak as they enter room; maybe wear familiar clothing; show pt pictures of family
Study of brain-behavior relationships involving aspects of psychology, neurology and cognitive neuroscience
1) Differential Diagnosis, 2) Static or progressive, 3) Acute or longstanding, 4) Characterize pattern of deficits: localization, lateralization, multifocal, diffuse, 5) Assist with management issues, 6) Impact of psychiatric factors, 7) Strengths and Weaknesses, 8) Pre/post intervention, 9) Need for rehabilitation services, 10) Assist with return to work/school, 11) Disability
1) Assessment, 2) Intervention, 3) Research, 4) Collaboration, 5) Multi-disciplinary program development
an alteration in brain functin, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force
an injury to the brain, which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma.
DSM V: 1. Significant decline in (one or more domains of) cognitive functions from a previous level of functioning. Eg. of domains of cognitive functions include- a. complex attention b. executive function c. learning and memory d. language (speech and comprehension) e. social cognition f. perceptual-motor 2. Cognitive decline affecting activities of daily living (ie. at minimum requiring assistance with iADLs like managing finances and medications). 3. Not stemming from delirium 4. Not explained by other mental disorders (depression, schizophrenia)
1. Alzheimer disease AD ( 64%) 2. Vascular (17 %) 3. Mixed (AD and vascular dementia mixed) 4. DLB (dementia with Lewy body) 5. FTD (Fronto-temporal) 6. NPH (normal pressure hydrocephalus)
1. Cortical dementia: AD, vascular, DLB, FTD 2. Subcortical dementia: Subcortical vascular dementia; Parkinsonian syndromes (eg. progressive supraneuclear palsy/PSP, Huntington disease/HD) 3. Mixed location.
allows areas of the brain associated with specific functions to be identified and level of activity in these areas to be monitored
emerging field; research has shown associations between brain structures and variety of social cognitive tasks such as person perception, stereotypes and theory of mind
greater part of neuroscience and aging research has focused on _______ functioning alone
Actions/movement. Series of movements often associated with the use of a tool
disorder of voluntary movement that cannot be explained by weakness, spasticity, rigidity, akinesia, sensory loss, or cognitive impairment ○ Most movement disorders affect ability to perform voluntary movement
Impaired performance of skilled motor acts despite intact sensory, motor, and language function - Typically demonstrated when a patient is asked verbally to perform a gesture with a limb
has shown associations between brain structures and a variety of social cognitive tasks such as person perception, stereotypes, and theory of mind.
(a) Interventions in enhancing the quality of life of older adults can be evaluated not only by observing behavioral change, but at the neurological level. (b) New level of analysis to understanding cognitive and social emotional functioning (i) For example, areas of brain related to visual processing decline with age.
Age-related: such as biological changes, differing opportunity structures in society (b) Changes in motivational orientations and emotional functioning
. Which of the following statements about the brain is true? a. The skull is designed to support as much as 3 tons of weight. b. The brain is protected only by the skull. c. The human brain typically weights about 5 pounds. d. Brain damage rarely results in cognitive changes.
It is important that mental health professionals have an understanding of the effects of brain damage because a. most of their patients will have brain damage. b. brain damage can result in symptoms that look like psychological conditions. c. many of the medications used to treat psychopathology cause brain damage. d. the effects of most forms of brain damage are reversible.
All of the following are reasons why cognitive disorders are addressed in an abnormal text EXCEPT a. these disorders are considered to be psychopathological conditions. b. some brain disorders cause symptoms that look like mood and anxiety disorders. c. psychological conditions can signal the onset of brain damage. d. brain damage can lead to psychological symptoms.